Kara L Cushing-Haugen

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States

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Publications (38)273.92 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To better understand the combined effects of pre-transplant, transplant, and post-transplant factors in determining risks of serious cardiovascular disease following hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Hospitalizations and deaths associated with serious cardiovascular outcomes were identified among 1,379 Washington State residents who received HCT (57% allogeneic; 43% autologous) at a single center from 1985-2005, survived ≥2 years, and followed through 2008. Using a nested-case-cohort design, relationships (hazard ratios, HR) between potential risk factors and outcomes were examined among affected survivors and a randomly selected sub-cohort (n=509). After 7.0 years median follow-up (range 2.0-23.7), the 10-year cumulative incidence of ischemic heart disease, cardiomyopathy, stroke, and all-cause cardiovascular death was 3.8%, 6.0%, 3.5%, and 3.7%, respectively. In multivariable analysis, increased pre-transplant anthracyclines was associated with cardiomyopathy. Active chronic graft vs. host disease was associated with cardiovascular death (HR 4.0, 95% CI 1.1-14.7); risk was otherwise similar between autologous vs. allogeneic HCT recipients. Independent of therapeutic exposures, pre-transplant smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and obesity conferred additional risk of all outcomes except stroke (HR ≥1.5 for each additional risk factor, p<0.03). Hypertension and dyslipidemia at one year with persistence of these conditions two or more years following HCT also were associated with independent risks of multiple outcomes. Hematopoietic cell transplant survivors with pre-existing or newly developed and persistent cardiovascular risk factors remain at greater risk of subsequent serious cardiovascular disease compared with other survivors, independent of chemo- and radiotherapy exposures. These survivors should receive appropriate follow-up and be considered for primary intervention.
    Biology of blood and marrow transplantation: journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation 02/2014; · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the influence of modifiable lifestyle factors on the risk of cardiovascular disease after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). HCT survivors of ≥ 1 year treated from 1970 to 2010 (n = 3,833) were surveyed from 2010 to 2011 on current cardiovascular health and related lifestyle factors (smoking, diet, recreational physical activity). Responses (n = 2,362) were compared with those from a matched general population sample (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey [NHANES]; n = 1,192). Compared with NHANES participants, HCT survivors (median age, 55.9 years; median 10.8 years since HCT; 71.3% allogeneic) had higher rates of cardiomyopathy (4.0% v 2.6%), stroke (4.8% v 3.3%), dyslipidemia (33.9% v 22.3%), and diabetes (14.3% v 11.7%; P < .05 for all comparisons). Prevalence of hypertension was similar (27.9% v 30.0%), and survivors were less likely to have ischemic heart disease (6.1% v 8.9%; P < .01). Among HCT survivors, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes were independent risk factors for ischemic heart disease and cardiomyopathy, and smoking was associated with ischemic heart disease and diabetes (odds ratios [ORs], 1.8 to 2.1; P = .02). Obesity was a risk factor for post-transplantation hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes (ORs ≥ 2.0; P < .001). In contrast, lower fruit/vegetable intake was associated with greater risk of dyslipidemia and diabetes (ORs, 1.4 to 1.8; P ≤ .01), and lower physical activity level was associated with greater risk of hypertension and diabetes (ORs, 1.4 to 1.5; P < .05). Healthier lifestyle characteristics among HCT survivors attenuated risk of all cardiovascular conditions assessed. Attention of clinicians to conventional cardiovascular risk factors and modifiable lifestyle characteristics offers hope of reducing serious cardiovascular morbidity after HCT.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 12/2013; · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Mechanistic studies largely support the chemopreventive potential of statins. However, results of epidemiologic studies investigating statin use and breast cancer risk have been inconsistent and lacked the ability to evaluate long-term statin use. Methods: We utilized data from a population-based case-control study of breast cancer conducted in the Seattle-Puget Sound region to investigate the relationship between long-term statin use and breast cancer risk. 916 invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and 1,068 invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) cases 55-74 years of age diagnosed between 2000 and 2008 were compared to 902 control women. All participants were interviewed in-person and data on hypercholesterolemia and all episodes of lipid lowering medication use were collected through a structured questionnaire. We assessed the relationship between statin use and IDC and ILC risk using polytomous logistic regression. Results: Current users of statins for 10 years or longer had a 1.83-fold increased risk of IDC [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14-2.93] and a 1.97-fold increased risk of ILC (95% CI: 1.25-3.12) compared to never users of statins. Among women diagnosed with hypercholesterolemia, current users of statins for 10 years or longer had more than double the risk of both IDC [odds ratio (OR): 2.04, 95% CI: 1.17-3.57] and ILC (OR: 2.43, 95% CI: 1.40-4.21) compared to never users. Conclusion: In this contemporary population-based case-control study long-term use of statins was associated with increased risks of both IDC and ILC. Impact: Additional studies with similarly high frequencies of statin use for various durations are needed to confirm this novel finding.
    Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers &amp Prevention 07/2013; · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genital powder use has been associated with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in some, but not all, epidemiologic investigations, possibly reflecting the carcinogenic effects of talc particles found in most of these products. Whether risk increases with number of genital-powder applications and for all histologic types of ovarian cancer also remains uncertain. Therefore, we estimated the association between self-reported genital powder use and epithelial ovarian cancer risk in eight population-based case-control studies. Individual data from each study was collected and harmonized. Lifetime number of genital-powder applications was estimated from duration and frequency of use. Pooled odds ratios were calculated using conditional logistic regression matched on study and age and adjusted for potential confounders. Subtype-specific risks were estimated according to tumor behavior and histology. 8,525 cases and 9,859 controls were included in the analyses. Genital powder use was associated with a modest increased risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (odds ratio 1.24, 95% confidence interval 1.15-1.33) relative to women who never used powder. Risk was elevated for invasive serous (1.20, 1.09-1.32), endometrioid (1.22, 1.04-1.43), and clear cell (1.24, 1.01-1.52) tumors, and for borderline serous tumors (1.46, 1.24-1.72). Among genital powder users, we observed no significant trend (p=0.17) in risk with increasing number of lifetime applications (assessed in quartiles). We noted no increase in risk among women who only reported non-genital powder use. In summary, genital powder use is a modifiable exposure associated with small-to-moderate increases in risk of most histologic subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancer.
    Cancer Prevention Research 06/2013; · 4.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Animal evidence suggests that circadian disruption may be associated with ovarian cancer, though very little epidemiological work has been done to assess this potential association. We evaluated the association between self-reported nightshift work, a known circadian disruptor, and ovarian cancer in a population-based case-control study. METHODS: The study included 1101 women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer, 389 women with borderline epithelial ovarian tumours and 1832 controls and was conducted in western Washington state. Shift work data were collected as part of inperson interviews. RESULTS: Working the nightshift was associated with an increased risk of invasive (OR=1.24, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.49) and borderline (OR=1.48, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.90) tumours; however, we observed little evidence that risks increased with increasing cumulative duration of nightshift work, and risks were not elevated in the highest duration category (>7 nightshift work-years). Increased risks were restricted to women who were 50 years of age and older and to serous and mucinous histologies of invasive and borderline tumours. There was suggestive evidence of a decreased risk of ovarian cancer among women reporting a preference for activity during evenings rather than mornings. CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence suggesting an association between shift work and ovarian cancer. This observation should be followed up in future studies incorporating detailed assessments of diurnal preference (ie, chronotype) in addition to detailed data on shift schedules.
    Occupational and environmental medicine 01/2013; · 3.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Associations between sun exposure (a primary source of vitamin D) and risk of ovarian cancer have been inconsistent. Furthermore, studies have not investigated whether sun exposure at different periods in the lifetime of a person results in differences in risk associations, and little is known about differences according to histological subtype. METHODS: Using a population-based case-control study of 1,334 non-Hispanic white women diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer in western Washington State between 2002 and 2009 and 1,679 non-Hispanic white controls, we assessed the relation of epithelial ovarian cancer with constitutional pigmentation characteristics, sun exposure behaviors, and an index of ultraviolet (UV) exposure based on residential history. Information was collected through in-person interviews. Logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios, 95 % confidence intervals, and trend p values (P(trend)). RESULTS: We noted no association with residence-based measures of UV exposure or self-reported sun exposure, either over the lifetime or within specific age intervals. Also, we observed little evidence of association between constitutional pigmentation characteristics and risk, save for a suggestion of increased risk among women who reported increased ability to suntan upon prolonged sun exposure (P(trend) = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Results from this study suggest that sun exposure has little influence on the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. Additional studies in populations with a wider gradient of sun exposure may yet be warranted.
    Cancer Causes and Control 10/2012; · 3.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence suggests that breast-feeding may decrease the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer but it is not clear whether there is a relationship with duration of breast-feeding, patterns of breast-feeding, or particular histological subtypes of ovarian cancer. We sought to investigate these issues in detail. Data from participants in a population-based study of ovarian cancer in western Washington State, USA (2002-2007) who had had at least one birth (881 cases and 1,345 controls) were used to assess relations between patterns of breast-feeding and ovarian cancer. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Women who ever breast-fed had a 22 % reduction in risk of ovarian cancer compared with those who never breast-fed (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.64-0.96) and risk reduction appeared greater with longer durations of feeding per child breast-fed (OR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.32-0.98 for 18 months average duration breast-feeding versus none). Introduction of supplementary feeds did not substantially alter these effects. The overall risk reduction appeared greatest for the endometrioid and clear cell subtypes (OR per month of average breast-feeding per child breast-fed = 0.944, 95% CI 0.903-0.987). Among women who have had the opportunity to breast-feed, ever breast-feeding and increasing durations of episodes of breast-feeding for each breast-fed child are associated with a decrease in the risk of ovarian cancer independent of numbers of births, which may be strongest for the endometrioid subtype.
    Cancer Causes and Control 04/2012; 23(6):919-27. · 3.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endometriosis is a risk factor for epithelial ovarian cancer; however, whether this risk extends to all invasive histological subtypes or borderline tumours is not clear. We undertook an international collaborative study to assess the association between endometriosis and histological subtypes of ovarian cancer. Data from 13 ovarian cancer case-control studies, which were part of the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium, were pooled and logistic regression analyses were undertaken to assess the association between self-reported endometriosis and risk of ovarian cancer. Analyses of invasive cases were done with respect to histological subtypes, grade, and stage, and analyses of borderline tumours by histological subtype. Age, ethnic origin, study site, parity, and duration of oral contraceptive use were included in all analytical models. 13 226 controls and 7911 women with invasive ovarian cancer were included in this analysis. 818 and 738, respectively, reported a history of endometriosis. 1907 women with borderline ovarian cancer were also included in the analysis, and 168 of these reported a history of endometriosis. Self-reported endometriosis was associated with a significantly increased risk of clear-cell (136 [20·2%] of 674 cases vs 818 [6·2%] of 13 226 controls, odds ratio 3·05, 95% CI 2·43-3·84, p<0·0001), low-grade serous (31 [9·2%] of 336 cases, 2·11, 1·39-3·20, p<0·0001), and endometrioid invasive ovarian cancers (169 [13·9%] of 1220 cases, 2·04, 1·67-2·48, p<0·0001). No association was noted between endometriosis and risk of mucinous (31 [6·0%] of 516 cases, 1·02, 0·69-1·50, p=0·93) or high-grade serous invasive ovarian cancer (261 [7·1%] of 3659 cases, 1·13, 0·97-1·32, p=0·13), or borderline tumours of either subtype (serous 103 [9·0%] of 1140 cases, 1·20, 0·95-1·52, p=0·12, and mucinous 65 [8·5%] of 767 cases, 1·12, 0·84-1·48, p=0·45). Clinicians should be aware of the increased risk of specific subtypes of ovarian cancer in women with endometriosis. Future efforts should focus on understanding the mechanisms that might lead to malignant transformation of endometriosis so as to help identify subsets of women at increased risk of ovarian cancer. Ovarian Cancer Research Fund, National Institutes of Health, California Cancer Research Program, California Department of Health Services, Lon V Smith Foundation, European Community's Seventh Framework Programme, German Federal Ministry of Education and Research of Germany, Programme of Clinical Biomedical Research, German Cancer Research Centre, Eve Appeal, Oak Foundation, UK National Institute of Health Research, National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia, US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Cancer Council Tasmania, Cancer Foundation of Western Australia, Mermaid 1, Danish Cancer Society, and Roswell Park Alliance Foundation.
    The Lancet Oncology 02/2012; 13(4):385-94. · 25.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is increasingly used to treat multiple malignant and nonmalignant conditions. The risk for cardiovascular disease after the procedure has not been well-described. To compare rates and hazards of cardiovascular-related hospitalization and death among persons who were still alive at least 2 years after HSCT with those in a population-based sample. Retrospective cohort study. Comprehensive cancer center. 1491 patients who had survived 2 years or longer after HSCT received between 1985 and 2006, and frequency-matched persons who were randomly selected from drivers' license files in the state of Washington. Cardiovascular hospitalizations and death, as determined from statewide hospital discharge records and death registries in Washington. Compared with the general population, transplant recipients experienced increased cardiovascular death (adjusted incidence rate difference, 3.6 per 1000 person-years [95% CI, 1.7 to 5.5]). Recipients also had an increased cumulative incidence of ischemic heart disease, cardiomyopathy or heart failure, stroke, vascular diseases, and rhythm disorders and an increased incidence of related conditions that predispose toward more serious cardiovascular disease (hypertension, renal disease, dyslipidemia, and diabetes). No consistent differences in hazards were observed after total-body irradiation or receipt of an allogeneic versus an autologous graft, aside from an increased rate of hypertension among recipients of allogeneic grafts. Disease relapse after transplantation was associated with an increased hazard of cardiovascular death (hazard ratio, 2.3 [CI, 1.1 to 4.8]). All patients received HSCT at a single institution, and no information was available on pretransplantation treatment and lifestyle factors that may influence risk for cardiovascular disease. Increased rates of cardiovascular disease should be taken into account when caring for patients who have received HSCT. Future efforts should be directed toward improved screening and controlling of factors that predispose toward cardiovascular disease. The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society, and the Seattle Children's Research Institute.
    Annals of internal medicine 07/2011; 155(1):21-32. · 13.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted a population-based, case-control study to examine the association between the use of genital powder and ovarian cancer risk, including measures of extent and timing of exposure. We also assessed the relationship of powder use with risk of disease subtypes according to histology and degree of malignancy. Information was collected during in-person interviews with 812 women with epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosed in western Washington State from 2002 to 2005 and 1,313 controls. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, the perineal use of powder after bathing was associated with a slightly increased ovarian cancer risk (OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 0.97-1.66), which was most evident among women with borderline tumors (OR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.02-2.37). We noted no clear pattern of risk increase on the basis of the extent of use, assessed as years in which powder was used, or as lifetime number of applications for invasive or borderline tumors, or their histologic subtypes. There was no alteration in the risk of ovarian cancer associated with other types of powder exposure (e.g., on sanitary napkins or diaphragms). The International Agency for Research on Cancer has designated perineal exposure to talc (via the application of genital powders) as a possible carcinogen in women. A modest association of ovarian cancer with this exposure was seen in our study and in some previous ones, but that association generally has not been consistent within or among studies. Therefore, no stronger adjective than "possible" appears warranted at this time.
    Cancer Causes and Control 05/2011; 22(5):737-42. · 3.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prior studies indicate that women with menopausal symptoms have lower estrogen levels because they go through menopause as compared with women who do not experience them. Given the central role of hormones in the etiology of breast cancer, a link between menopausal symptoms and breast cancer is plausible. However, no prior studies have evaluated the association between menopausal symptoms and breast cancer risk. Utilizing data from a population-based case-control study we examined associations between menopausal symptoms and risks of different histologic types of breast cancer among postmenopausal women. We calculated multivariate adjusted odds ratios (OR) using polytomous logistic regression and evaluated several potential effect modifiers. Women who ever experienced menopausal symptoms had lower risks of invasive ductal carcinoma [(IDC) OR = 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3-0.7], invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC, OR = 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3-0.8), and invasive ductal-lobular carcinoma (IDLC, OR = 0.7; 95% CI: 0.4-1.2), and these reductions in risk were independent of recency and timing of hormone therapy use, age at menopause, and body mass index. Increasing intensity of hot flushes among women who ever experienced hot flushes was also associated with decreasing risks of all three breast cancer subtypes (P values for trend all ≤ 0.017). This is the first study to report that women who ever experienced menopausal symptoms have a substantially reduced risk of breast cancer, and that severity of hot flushes is also inversely associated with risk. If confirmed, these findings could enhance our understanding of breast cancer etiology and factors potentially relevant to prevention.
    Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers &amp Prevention 03/2011; 20(2):379-88. · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling axis plays an important role in cancer biology. We hypothesized that genetic variation in this pathway may influence risk of ovarian cancer. A three-center study of non-Hispanic whites including 1880 control women, 1135 women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer and 321 women with borderline epithelial ovarian tumors was carried out to test the association between tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) (n=58) in this pathway and risk of ovarian cancer. We found no association between variation in IGF1, IGFBP1 or IGFBP3 and risk of invasive disease, whereas five tSNPs in IGF2 were associated with risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer at P<0.05 and followed-up one of the associated SNPs. We conducted genotyping in 3216 additional non-Hispanic white cases and 5382 additional controls and were able to independently replicate our initial findings. In the combined set of studies, rs4320932 was associated with a 13% decreased risk of ovarian cancer per copy of the minor allele carried (95% confidence interval 0.81-0.93, P-trend=7.4 × 10(-5)). No heterogeneity of effect across study centers was observed (p(het)=0.25). IGF2 is emerging as an important gene for ovarian cancer; additional genotyping is warranted to further confirm these associations with IGF2 and to narrow down the region harboring the causal SNP.
    Human Molecular Genetics 03/2011; 20(11):2263-72. · 7.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the leading cause of death from gynecological malignancy in the developed world, accounting for 4% of the deaths from cancer in women. We performed a three-phase genome-wide association study of EOC survival in 8,951 individuals with EOC (cases) with available survival time data and a parallel association analysis of EOC susceptibility. Two SNPs at 19p13.11, rs8170 and rs2363956, showed evidence of association with survival (overall P = 5 × 10⁻⁴ and P = 6 × 10⁻⁴, respectively), but they did not replicate in phase 3. However, the same two SNPs demonstrated genome-wide significance for risk of serous EOC (P = 3 × 10⁻⁹ and P = 4 × 10⁻¹¹, respectively). Expression analysis of candidate genes at this locus in ovarian tumors supported a role for the BRCA1-interacting gene C19orf62, also known as MERIT40, which contains rs8170, in EOC development.
    Nature Genetics 10/2010; 42(10):880-4. · 35.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A recent consensus statement encouraged use of certain symptoms to diagnose ovarian cancer earlier. We assessed the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of a proposed symptom index and of symptoms included in the consensus recommendation. In-person interviews were conducted with 812 case patients, aged 35-74 years, who had epithelial ovarian cancer that was diagnosed from January 1, 2002, through December 31, 2005, and with 1313 population-based control subjects. The symptom index was considered positive when pelvic or abdominal pain or bloating or feeling full was reported at least daily for at least 1 week, with an onset of less than 12 months before diagnosis or a reference date (for control subjects). The consensus criteria were considered fulfilled when any symptom above or urinary urgency or frequency was reported for at least 1 month, with an onset of less than 12 months before diagnosis or a reference date. Positive predictive value was calculated by use of external estimates of cancer prevalence. Most case patients who had a positive index or met consensus criteria did so only within 5 months before diagnosis. Symptoms (except nausea) were somewhat less likely to have occurred among women diagnosed with early-stage than late-stage ovarian cancer. The estimated positive predictive value of the symptom index or symptoms meeting the consensus criteria was 0.6%-1.1% overall and less than 0.5% for early-stage disease. Use of symptoms to trigger medical evaluation for ovarian cancer is likely to result in diagnosis of the disease in only one of 100 women in the general population with such symptoms.
    CancerSpectrum Knowledge Environment 02/2010; 102(4):222-9. · 14.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We genotyped 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the estrogen receptor alpha gene (ESR1) region in three population-based case-control studies of epithelial ovarian cancer conducted in the United States, comprising a total of 1,128 and 1,866 non-Hispanic white invasive cases and controls, respectively. A SNP 19 kb downstream of ESR1 (rs2295190, G-to-T change) was associated with invasive ovarian cancer risk, with a per-T-allele odds ratio (OR) of 1.24 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06-1.44, P = 0.006]. rs2295190 is a nonsynonymous coding SNP in a neighboring gene called spectrin repeat containing, nuclear envelope 1 (SYNE1), which is involved in nuclear organization and structural integrity, function of the Golgi apparatus, and cytokinesis. An isoform encoded by SYNE1 has been reported to be downregulated in ovarian and other cancers. rs2295190 was genotyped in an additional 12 studies through the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium, with 5,279 invasive epithelial cases and 7,450 controls. The per-T-allele OR for this 12-study set was 1.09 (95% CI, 1.02-1.17; P = 0.017). Results for the serous subtype in the 15 combined studies were similar to those overall (n = 3,545; OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01-1.18; P = 0.025), and our findings were strongest for the mucinous subtype (n = 447; OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.11-1.58; P = 0.002). No association was observed for the endometrioid subtype. In an additional analysis of 1,459 borderline ovarian cancer cases and 7,370 controls, rs2295190 was not associated with risk. These data provide suggestive evidence that the rs2295190 T allele, or another allele in linkage disequilibrium with it, may be associated with increased risk of invasive ovarian cancer.
    Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers &amp Prevention 01/2010; 19(1):245-50. · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Physical activity may influence ovarian cancer risk through hormonal, inflammatory, or immune-mediated processes or by suppressing ovulation. In a population-based case-control study of epithelial ovarian cancer, we assessed risk associated with recreational physical activity with a focus on characterizing risk within histologic subtypes. Information was collected during in-person interviews with 812 women with ovarian cancer diagnosed in western Washington State from 2002-2005 and 1,313 controls. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Exercise was assessed according to the average hours and metabolic equivalent (MET)-hours per week and the number of years in which regular recreational activity occurred. Relative to women who reported no regular exercise throughout adulthood, the overall risk of invasive, but not borderline, ovarian cancer was reduced among more active women. Reductions in risk of invasive disease were most evident among women with the greatest frequency of high-intensity activity during adulthood. For serous invasive cancer, women in the uppermost category of MET-hours per week of recreational activity in adulthood had 60% the risk of inactive women (95% CI 0.4-0.9), whereas this level of activity was associated with more than a doubling in risk of endometrioid and clear cell invasive tumors. Our findings are compatible with an overall reduction in risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer associated with recreational activity but suggest that this association may differ in women with different histologic types of disease. Inconsistent findings across studies that have considered histologic type indicate that this issue is not yet resolved.
    Cancer Causes and Control 12/2009; 21(4):485-91. · 3.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Some forms of ovarian neoplasms may be preventable through the removal of precursor lesions. We assessed the risk associated with a prior diagnosis of, and ovarian surgery following, ovarian cysts and endometriosis, with a focus on characterizing risk among tumor subgroups. Information was collected during in-person interviews with 812 women with ovarian cancer diagnosed in western Washington State from 2002 to 2005 and 1,313 population-based controls. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The risk of a borderline mucinous ovarian tumor associated with a history of an ovarian cyst was increased (OR=1.7, 95% CI: 1.0-2.8), but did not vary notably according to receipt of subsequent ovarian surgery. While risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer was slightly increased among women with a cyst who had no subsequent ovarian surgery, it was reduced when a cyst diagnosis was followed by surgery (OR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4-0.9). This reduction in risk was most evident for serous invasive tumors. Women with a history of endometriosis had a threefold increased risk of endometrioid and clear cell invasive tumors, with a lesser risk increase among women who underwent subsequent ovarian surgery. Our results suggest differences in the relation of ovarian cysts and endometriosis with risk of specific subtypes of ovarian cancer as well as the possibility that ovarian surgery in women with these conditions may lower the risk of invasive disease.
    Cancer Causes and Control 09/2008; 19(10):1357-64. · 3.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Analgesic use may reduce ovarian cancer risk, possibly through antiinflammatory or antigonadotropic effects. The authors conducted a population-based, case-control study in Washington State that included 812 women aged 35-74 years who were diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer between 2002 and 2005 and 1,313 controls. Use of analgesics, excluding use within the previous year, was assessed via in-person interviews. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Overall, acetaminophen and aspirin were associated with weakly increased risks of ovarian cancer. These associations were stronger after more than 10 years of use (acetaminophen: odds ratio (OR) = 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3, 2.6; aspirin: OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.2) and were present for indications of headache, menstrual pain, and other pain/injury. Reduced risk was observed among aspirin users who began regular use within the previous 5 years (OR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4, 1.0) or used this drug for prevention of heart disease (OR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.5, 1.0). These results, in the context of prior findings, do not provide compelling evidence of a true increase in risk of ovarian cancer among women who use these drugs. However, they add to the weight of evidence that, in the aggregate, provides little support for the use of analgesic drugs as chemoprevention for this disease.
    American journal of epidemiology 07/2008; 167(12):1430-7. · 5.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An increased risk of mucinous ovarian tumors among cigarette smokers has been observed in multiple studies. The association of smoking with other histologic types of ovarian cancer is less clear, but potentially holds greater importance for prevention of disease incidence and mortality. In a population-based study of 812 women with ovarian cancer diagnosed in western Washington State from 2002-2005 and 1,313 controls, we assessed the risk associated with cigarette smoking, with a particular focus on tumor subgroups jointly classified according to the degree of invasiveness and histology. Information was collected through in-person interviews, and logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The incidence of both borderline and invasive mucinous ovarian tumors was increased among women with a history of cigarette smoking (ORs and 95% CIs = 1.8, 1.2-2.9, and 1.8, 0.8-4.3, respectively). Increases in risk of these tumor types were most evident among women with greater smoking duration and pack-years of exposure, and among those who had smoked within the prior 15 years. We noted no clear patterns of risk of serous tumors with duration or pack-years of smoking; however, risk of these tumor types was somewhat elevated among women who had smoked within the previous 15 years (for borderline serous tumors, OR and 95% CI = 1.5, 0.9-2.3; for invasive serous tumors, OR and 95% CI = 1.4, 1.1-1.9). The risk of endometrioid, clear cell, and the remaining histologic types of invasive ovarian cancer was not increased among smokers. In the aggregate, evidence is insufficient to determine whether smoking is linked with risk of serous or other non-mucinous histologic types of ovarian cancer. Studies that employ additional histopathologic and molecular techniques to more accurately delineate subsets of tumors may improve our understanding of the impact of smoking on ovarian cancer risk.
    Cancer Causes and Control 06/2008; 19(4):413-20. · 3.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In contrast to other hormonally mediated cancers such as those of the breast, prostate, and testes, almost no data are available regarding the relation of prenatal characteristics and exposures to subsequent ovarian carcinogenesis. In a population-based study of 812 women ages 35-74 years with epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosed in Washington State from 2002 to 2005 and 1313 controls, we assessed the relation of such factors to disease risk. Information was collected through in-person interviews and logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Overall, we noted little evidence that prenatal or birth characteristics including birth weight, birth order, maternal age, or in utero exposure to cigarette smoking were associated with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in adulthood. Among women younger than 55 years of age, risk was reduced among those whose weight at birth was < 5.5 pounds (odds ratio and 95% confidence interval 0.54, 0.31-0.94) relative to those with birth weight 5.5-9 pounds. In this study, birth weight was associated with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer only among women younger than 55 years of age. Prenatal influences might be expected to more substantially influence cancer risk at younger ages. Other reports examining associations of ovarian cancer risk with birth weight or other prenatal characteristics are few and have not examined risk separately according to age at diagnosis, suggesting that additional studies may prove useful.
    Annals of epidemiology 05/2008; 18(5):411-5. · 2.95 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
273.92 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002–2014
    • Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
      • • Division of Clinical Research
      • • Epidemiology Program
      • • Division of Public Health Sciences
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 2011
    • University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
      • Department of Kinesiology and Community Health
      Urbana, IL, United States
  • 2002–2009
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Epidemiology
      Seattle, Washington, United States