[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims:
Little is known about diabetes in hospitalized Native Hawaiians and Asian Americans. We determined the burden of diabetes (both diagnosed and undiagnosed) among hospitalized Native Hawaiian, Asian (Filipino, Chinese, Japanese), and White patients.
Diagnosed diabetes was determined from discharge data from a major medical center in Hawai'i during 2007-2008. Potentially undiagnosed diabetes was determined by Hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5% or glucose ≥200 mg/dl values for those without diagnosed diabetes. Multivariable log-binomial models predicted diabetes (potentially undiagnosed and diagnosed, separately) controlling for socio-demographic factors.
Of 17,828 hospitalized patients, 3.4% had potentially undiagnosed diabetes and 30.5% had diagnosed diabetes. In multivariable models compared to Whites, Native Hawaiian and all Asian subgroups had significantly higher percentages of diagnosed diabetes, but not of potentially undiagnosed diabetes. Potentially undiagnosed diabetes was associated with significantly more hospitalizations during the study period compared to both those without diabetes and those with diagnosed diabetes. In all racial/ethnic groups, those with potentially undiagnosed diabetes also had the longest length of stay and were more likely to die during the hospitalization.
Hospitalized Native Hawaiians (41%) and Asian subgroups had significantly higher overall diabetes burdens compared to Whites (23%). Potentially undiagnosed diabetes was associated with poor outcomes. Hospitalized patients, irrespective of race/ethnicity, may require more effective inpatient identification and management of previously undiagnosed diabetes to improve clinical outcomes.
Journal of Clinical and Translational Endocrinology 09/2015; 2(4):115-124. DOI:10.1016/j.jcte.2015.08.002
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine perspectives on e-cigarette use and regulations in Hawaii through key informant interviews with state legislators.
E-cigarette use is rapidly increasing, with sales in 2013 topping $1 billion in the United States, but e-cigarettes are still a largely unregulated industry. Although e-cigarettes are thought by most to be a healthier alternative to traditional cigarettes, long-term health effects are not yet known.
Semistructured key informant interviews were conducted with Hawaii state legislators (n = 15).
We found a lack of consensus among legislators, which suggests that substantial legislative action is unlikely in the upcoming session. However, most legislators believe that some type of incremental legislation will pass, such as enactment of a small tax, limitations on advertising to protect adolescents, or regulations concerning where people can use e-cigarettes.
Legislators eagerly await further research to clarify the overall benefits and harms of e-cigarettes at both the individual and population levels.
Journal of the American Pharmacists Association 09/2015; DOI:10.1331/JAPhA.2015.15003 · 1.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background C-reactive protein (CRP) and many fatty acids (FAs) have been linked to cardiovascular disease. Associations of serum CRP with FAs in different populations have not been established. Methods Participants were 926 men aged 40-49 (2002-2006) from a population-based sample; 310 Whites from Pennsylvania, U.S., 313 Japanese from Shiga, Japan, and 303 Japanese Americans from Hawaii, U.S. Serum CRP (mg/L) was measured using immunosorbent assay while serum FAs (%) were measured using capillary-gas-liquid chromatography. Results Whites had CRP (mg/L) levels higher than Japanese with Japanese Americans in-between (age-adjusted geometric mean “GM” 0.96, 0.38, 0.66, respectively). Whites had also higher levels of total n-6 FAs (%) and trans fatty acids (TFAs) but lower levels of marine-derived n-3 FAs compared to Japanese (41.78 vs. 35.05, 1.04 vs. 0.58, & 3.85 vs. 9.29, respectively). Japanese Americans had FAs levels in-between the other two populations. Whites had significant inverse trends between CRP and tertiles of total n-6 FAs (GM 1.20, 0.91 & 0.80; p=0.002) and marine-derived n-3 FAs (GM 1.22, 1.00 & 0.72; p Conclusions With the exception of consistent inverse association of CRP with total n-6 FAs, there are considerable variations across the three populations in the associations of CRP with different FAs.
The Journal of Nutrition Health and Aging 06/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12603-015-0551-7 · 3.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this needs assessment was to identify the translational research education and training needs of researchers and administrators working in Hawai'i's communities and to use the finding to develop an education and training plan. The assessment was led by a community advisory board with members from community health centers, social agencies, hospitals, and academia on O'ahu. The survey, developed with input of the community advisory board, was sent to 94 administrators and researchers involved or affiliated with research being conducted in Hawai'i. Forty-one respondents (43%) completed the survey. Respondents wanted education and training in research processes, specific research-related skills, and facilitating interactions between community and academic researchers. Sixty-one percent were interested in training related to community-engaged research and yearly seminars on "collaborative mentoring." Popular topics of interest were related to data monitoring, networking with different cultural groups, statistics, and human subjects review. A majority of respondents wanted to attend workshops, seminars, and presentations rather than take a class. Approximately 50% of the respondents wanted to gain information through on-line training. Findings guided the development of a translational research education and training plan for the University of Hawai'i National Institute of Health (NIH) Research Centers in Minority Institutions Multidisciplinary and Translational Research Infrastructure Expansion (RMATRIX) grant.
Hawai'i journal of medicine & public health : a journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health 05/2015; 74(5):164-8.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To prepare for research studies that would evaluate the impact of hula as part of a clinical intervention, including cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and management programs, kumu hula defined as "culturally recognized hula educators and experts," were interviewed. Investigators sought to elicit their views regarding hula's traditional and contemporary connections to health and well-being, assess the cultural appropriateness of such projects, and suggest ways to maintain hula's cultural integrity throughout clinical intervention programs. Six prominent kumu hula from five different Hawaiian Islands participated in semi-structured key informant interviews lasting between 60 and 90 minutes. Each was asked open-ended questions regarding their attitudes, beliefs, and experiences regarding the connections of hula to health as well as their recommendations on maintaining the integrity of the dance's cultural traditions when developing and implementing a hula-based CVD program. All kumu hula endorsed the use of hula in a CVD intervention program and articulated the strong, significant, and enduring connections of hula to health and well-being. Each kumu hula also recognized that health is the full integration of physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual well-being. When care is taken to preserve its cultural integrity, hula may be an effective integrated modality for interventions designed to improve health and wellness.
Hawai'i journal of medicine & public health : a journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health 12/2014; 73(12):21-25.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Heart Failure (HF) disproportionately affects Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders (NHOPIs). This study examines risk factors associated with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) among 151 hospitalized NHOPI HF patients enrolled at a single tertiary care hospital between June 2006 and April 2010.
Methods: Enrollment criteria: (1) NHOPI by self-identification. (2) Age � 21 yrs. (3) Diagnosis of HF defined: (a) left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF)
: 40% or LVEF : 60% with abnormal diastolic function and (b) classic HF signs/symptoms. LVEF was measured by echocardiography within 6 weeks of hospitalization. Clinical measures, medical history, and questionnaires were assessed using standardized protocols. Linear regression modeling was used to examine the association of significant correlates of LVEF, which were then included en bloc into the final model. A P-value < .05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: Of 151 participants, 69% were men, mean age 54.3 ± 13.5 years, blood pressure 112 ± 20/69 ± 15 mmHg, and body mass index (BMI) 36.9 ± 9 kg/m2. Twenty-five percent of participants were smokers, 45% used alcohol and 23% reported a history of methamphetamine use. Clinically, 72% had hypertension, 49% were diabetic and 37% had a prior myocardial infarction. Nearly 60% had moderate to severe LVEF (< 35%). Higher LVEF was independently associated with female sex and greater BMI (P < .04) while pacemaker/deibrillator and methamphetamine use was independently a sociated with lower LVEF (P < .05).
Conclusions: Methamphetamine use and BMI may be important modifiable risk factors associated with LVEF and may be important targets for improving HF morbidity and mortality.
Hawai'i journal of medicine & public health : a journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health 12/2014; 73(12):14-20.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim:
To examine whether the inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen are associated with biomarkers of atherosclerosis [carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and coronary artery calcification (CAC)] in the general male population, including Asians.
Population-based samples of 310 Japanese, 293 Japanese-American and 297 white men 40-49 years of age without clinical cardiovascular disease underwent measurement of IMT, CAC and the CRP and fibrinogen levels as well as other conventional risk factors using standardized methods. Statistical associations between the variables were evaluated using multiple linear or logistic regression models.
The Japanese group had significantly lower levels of inflammatory markers and subclinical atherosclerosis than the Japanese-American and white groups (P-values all ＜0.001). The mean level of CRP was 0.66 vs. 1.11 and 1.47 mg/L, while that of fibrinogen was 255.0 vs. 313.0 and 291.5 mg/dl, respectively. In addition, the mean carotid IMT was 0.61 vs. 0.73 and 0.68 mm, while the mean prevalence of CAC was 11.6% vs. 32.1% and 26.3%, respectively. Body mass index (BMI) showed significant positive associations with both the CRP and fibrinogen levels. Although CRP showed a significant positive association with IMT in the Japanese men, this association became non-significant following adjustment for traditional risk factors or BMI. In all three populations, CRP was not found to be significantly associated with the prevalence of CAC. Similarly, fibrinogen did not exhibit a significant association with either IMT or the prevalence of CAC.
The associations between inflammatory markers and subclinical atherosclerosis may merely reflect the strong associations between BMI and the levels of inflammatory markers and incidence of subclinical atherosclerosis in both Eastern and Western populations.
Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis 11/2014; 22(6). DOI:10.5551/jat.23580 · 2.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many congestive heart failure (CHF) hospitalizations are considered potentially preventable with access to high-quality primary care. Some Asian American and Pacific Islander groups have poor access to health care compared to Whites, yet CHF preventable hospitalizations are understudied in these groups. Hawai'i hospitalizations from December 2006 to December 2010 for Chinese, Japanese, Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and Whites aged 18+ years were considered (N = 245,435). CHF preventable hospitalizations were compared in multivariable models by age group (<65 vs. 65+) and gender. Native Hawaiians and Filipinos with CHF preventable hospitalizations were significantly (p < 0.001) younger than other racial/ethnic groups. In adjusted models, Native Hawaiians and Filipinos of all age and gender combinations had significantly higher CHF hospitalization rates than Whites as did Chinese women 65+. High preventable CHF hospitalization rates are seen in some Asian and Pacific Islander groups, especially Native Hawaiians and Filipinos, who have these hospitalizations at younger ages than other studied groups.
Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health 09/2014; 17(5). DOI:10.1007/s10903-014-0098-4 · 1.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The Hula Empowering Lifestyle Adaption Study, funded by the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, was a 5-year research trial evaluating the impact of the traditional Native Hawaiian dance form, hula, as an exercise modality for cardiac rehabilitation, compared with usual care, on individuals recently hospitalized for a cardiac event or who had recently undergone coronary artery bypass surgery.
Method and results:
Seeking to learn what physical, mental, spiritual, and social effects the intervention may have had for participants, we interviewed 20 of a total of 35 patients who were enrolled in the dance arm of the study. Classical thematic triangulation analysis was used. Participants recognized that hula's coordination of body, mind, and spirit as a group activity deepened their appreciation of and connections to Hawaiian culture. This was true for those who were Native Hawaiian, connecting to their own cultural heritage, as well as for non-Native Hawaiians, who found that it improved their appreciation of the surrounding cultural traditions of the host culture where they now live.
Not only was hula a safe activity that improved functional capacity, participants also regarded its significant sociocultural aspects-even for participants who are not Native Hawaiian -as enhancing its value and meaningfulness. Learning the words of well-known Hawaiian songs provided additional long-term cues that encouraged "ownership" of the therapy and acted as practical reminders of the importance of exercise and lifestyle moderation while also offering new spiritual connections to the surrounding social environment.
Health Promotion Practice 03/2014; 16(1). DOI:10.1177/1524839914527451 · 0.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rates of insulin resistance are increased in HIV-infected patients on stable antiretroviral therapy (ART). Such increase may partially be due to HIV-induced immune dysregulation involving monocytes (MO) and its subsets.
Cross-sectional analysis of 141 HIV-infected subjects age ≥ 40 years on stable ART. Homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and rates of metabolic syndrome were calculated. Subjects were classified by fasting glucose and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) into clinical diabetes categories. Multi-parametric flow cytometry was used to determine MO subset percentages: [classical (CD14(++)CD16(-)), intermediate (CD14(++)CD16(+)), non-classical (CD14(low/+)CD16(++)), and a recently identified fourth (CD14(low/+)CD16(-)) 'transitional' MO subset] and percentage of activated (CD38(+)HLA-DR(+)) CD8 T cells. Absolute levels of cells were calculated using clinical CBC and T cell subset data. Multiple plasma soluble biomarkers were assessed by Luminex technology.
Median age 50 years, CD4 count (percent) 505 cells/µL (29%), and 89% male. Total MO (r = -0.23, p = 0.006) and classical and non-classical MO subsets correlated negatively with CD4 percent. No correlations were seen with CD4 count as absolute values. Log-total MO and log-classical MO predicted HOMA-IR independently of HIV immuno-virologic and diabetes risk factors (β = 0.42, p = 0.02 and β = 0.35, p = 0.02, respectively) and were increased in subjects with metabolic syndrome (p = 0.03 and p = 0.05 respectively). Total and/or subset MO levels correlated with multiple soluble plasma biomarkers including CRP, IL-6, MMP-9, MPO, SAA, SAP and tPAI-1, with tPAI-1 independently predicting HOMA-IR (β = 0.74, p<0.001).
MO levels increase with worsening HIV immune dysregulation as assessed by CD4 percent. CD4 percent may provide additional information about MO and metabolic risk in this population beyond absolute values. MO, and specifically classical MO, may contribute to insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome during chronic HIV infection. Multiple soluble plasma biomarkers including tPAI-1 increase with increase in MO. Levels of tPAI-1 independently predict the development of insulin resistance.
PLoS ONE 02/2014; 9(2):e90330. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0090330 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIV infection causes systemic immune inflammation, and increases the risk for cardiovascular (CVD) disease even among those on virologically suppressive anti-retroviral treatment (ART). We performed a biostatistical analysis and screen of candidate cellular and plasma biomarkers for association with carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT), independent of traditional CVD risk factors such as age, gender, systolic blood pressure (SBP), lipid levels, smoking and diabetes. We conducted a multi-stage analysis based on a cross-sectional study of CVD risk in HIV-infected subjects age >45 years on ART for >6 months. The goal of this analysis was to identify candidate cellular and plasma biomarkers of CIMT in HIV-1 infected adults. We further sought to determine if these candidate biomarkers were independent of traditional CVD risk factors previously identified in HIV negative adults. High-resolution B-mode ultrasound images of the right common carotid common artery (CCA) were obtained. Plasma soluble inflammatory mediators, cytokines and chemokines were detected. Monocytes were defined by CD14/CD16 expression, and CD8+ T-cell activation by CD38/HLA-DR expression. Subjects were a median of 49.5 years old, 87% male, had a CIMT of 0.73 mm, FRS of 6%, a median viral load of 48 copies/mL, and CD4+ T cell count of 479 cells/μL. Soluble VCAM-1, and expansion of CD14dimCD16− monocytes each associated with higher CIMT independently of age and SBP. These factors are distinct components of a shared atherogenic process; 1) vascular endothelial molecular expression and 2) vascular monocytes that enter into the vascular endothelium and promote atherosclerotic plaque.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Both carotid-femoral (cf) pulse wave velocity (PWV) and brachial-ankle (ba) PWV employ arterial sites that are not consistent with the path of blood flow. Few previous studies have reported the differential characteristics between cfPWV and baPWV by simultaneously comparing these with measures of pure central (aorta) and peripheral (leg) arterial stiffness, i.e., heart-femoral (hf) PWV and femoral-ankle (fa) PWV in healthy populations. We aimed to identify the degree to which these commonly used measures of cfPWV and baPWV correlate with hfPWV and faPWV, respectively, and to evaluate whether both cfPWV and baPWV are consistent with either hfPWV or faPWV in their associations with cardiovascular (CV) risk factors.
A population-based sample of healthy 784 men aged 40-49 (202 white Americans, 68 African Americans, 202 Japanese-Americans, and 282 Koreans) was examined in this cross-sectional study. Four regional PWVs were simultaneously measured by an automated tonometry/plethysmography system.
cfPWV correlated strongly with hfPWV (r = .81, P < .001), but weakly with faPWV (r = .12, P = .001). baPWV correlated moderately with both hfPWV (r = .47, P < .001) and faPWV (r = .62, P < .001). After stepwise regression analyses with adjustments for race, cfPWV shared common significant correlates with both hfPWV and faPWV: systolic blood pressure (BP) and body mass index (BMI). However, BMI was positively associated with hfPWV and cfPWV, and negatively associated with faPWV. baPWV shared common significant correlates with hfPWV: age and systolic BP. baPWV also shared the following correlates with faPWV: systolic BP, triglycerides, and current smoking.
Among healthy men aged 40 - 49, cfPWV correlated strongly with central PWV, and baPWV correlated with both central and peripheral PWVs. Of the CV risk factors, systolic BP was uniformly associated with all the regional PWVs. In the associations with factors other than systolic BP, cfPWV was consistent with central PWV, while baPWV was consistent with both central and peripheral PWVs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether serum concentrations of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn3PUFAs) contribute to the difference in the incidence rate of coronary artery calcification (CAC) between Japanese men in Japan and white men in the USA.
In a population based, prospective cohort study, 214 Japanese men and 152 white men aged 40-49 years at baseline (2002-2006) with coronary calcium score (CCS)=0 were re-examined for CAC in 2007-2010. Among these, 175 Japanese men and 113 white men participated in the follow-up exam. Incident cases were defined as participants with CCS≥10 at follow-up. A relative risk regression analysis was used to model the incidence rate ratio between the Japanese and white men. The incidence rate ratio was first adjusted for potential confounders at baseline and then further adjusted for serum LCn3PUFAs at baseline.
Mean (SD) serum percentage of LCn3PUFA was >100% higher in Japanese men than in white men (9.08 (2.49) vs 3.84 (1.79), respectively, p<0.01). Japanese men had a significantly lower incidence rate of CAC compared to white men (0.9 vs 2.9/100 person-years, respectively, p<0.01). The incidence rate ratio of CAC taking follow-up time into account between Japanese and white men was 0.321 (95% CI 0.150 to 0.690; p<0.01). After adjusting for age, systolic blood pressure, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, diabetes, and other potential confounders, the ratio remained significant (0.262, 95% CI 0.094 to 0.731; p=0.01). After further adjusting for LCn3PUFAs, however, the ratio was attenuated and became non-significant (0.376, 95% CI 0.090 to 1.572; p=0.18).
LCn3PUFAs significantly contributed to the difference in the incidence of CAC between Japanese and white men.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methamphetamine and related compounds are now the second most commonly used illicit substance worldwide, after cannabis. Reports of methamphetamine-associated cardiomyopathy (MAC) are increasing, but MAC has not been well reviewed. This analysis of MAC will provide an overview of the pharmacology of methamphetamine, historical perspective and epidemiology, a review of case and clinical studies, and a summary of the proposed mechanisms for MAC. Clinically, many questions remain, including the appropriate therapeutic interventions for MAC, the incidence and prevalence of cardiac pathology in methamphetamine users, risk factors for developing MAC, and prognosis of these patients. In conclusion, recognition of the significance of MAC among physicians and other medical caregivers is important given the growing use of methamphetamine and related stimulants worldwide.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ethnic minorities share an unequal burden of cardiometabolic syndrome. Physical activity (PA) has been shown to be an important factor for improving the outcomes of these diseases. While metabolic equivalents (METs) have been calculated for diverse activities, most cultural activities have not been evaluated. Hula, the traditional dance of Native Hawaiians, is practiced by men and women of all ages but its MET value is unknown. To our knowledge, this is the first scientific evaluation of energy expenditure of hula. 19 competitive hula dancers performed 2 dance sets of low- and high-intensity hula. METs were measured with a portable indirect calorimetry device. Mean and standard deviations were calculated for all the variables. A 2-way ANOVA was conducted to identify differences for gender and intensity. The mean MET were 5.7 (range 3.17-9.77) and 7.55 (range 4.43-12.0) for low-intensity and high-intensity, respectively. There was a significant difference between intensities and no significant difference between genders. This study demonstrates that the energy expenditure of both low- and high-intensity hula met the recommended guidelines for moderate and vigorous intensity exercise, respectively, and that hula can be utilized as a prescribed PA.
International Journal of Sports Medicine 11/2013; 35(5). DOI:10.1055/s-0033-1353213 · 2.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Research Objective: Hospitalizations for congestive heart failure (CHF) are considered to be generally avoidable with good outpatient management and are the most common type of preventable hospitalization as defined by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Little is known about preventable hospitalizations for CHF among Asian and Pacific Islanders, though many of these populations have high rates of heart disease.
Study Design: We used Hawaii Health Information Corporation data, which provides detailed discharge data from all hospitalizations in Hawaii, from December 2006-December 2010 for individuals aged 18+ who were Japanese, Native Hawaiian, Filipino, or White and who lived in Hawaii. Preventable hospitalizations for CHF were defined by AHRQ criteria. CHF preventable hospitalizations were compared in rates and rate ratios (RR [95% CI]) for Asian and Pacific Islander groups compared to Whites using population totals by race/ethnicity as denominators. Final multivariable negative binomial models adjusted for age, gender, co-morbidity, and insurer.
Population Studied: The total number of hospitalizations was 258,244 excluding transfers.
Principal Findings: The total number of CHF preventable hospitalizations was 9,824, or 3.8% of total hospitalizations. In unadjusted analyses, rates of CHF preventable hospitalizations were higher for Filipinos (RR: 1.39 [1.32-1.48]) and Native Hawaiians (RR: 1.14 [1.08-1.20]) compared to Whites, but were slightly lower for Japanese (RR: 0.93 [0.88-0.99]). In fully adjusted models, Native Hawaiians continued to have significantly higher rates of CHF preventable hospitalizations compared to Whites (adjusted RR: 1.90 [1.30, 2.77]). Significance was not seen for Filipino and Japanese CHF preventable hospitalization rates compared to Whites. Also of note, Native Hawaiians with preventable hospitalizations for CHF had the youngest average age (62.7 years), followed Filipinos (67.8), Whites (71.7), and Japanese (75.7) (p<0.0001).
Conclusions: This study identified almost 10,000 hospital visits in a four-year period in Hawaii that could have potentially been avoided with better primary care for heart disease. This study finds failures in the management of heart disease (i.e. potentially avoidable CHF hospitalizations) exists for some Asian and Pacific Islander subgroups, particularly Native Hawaiians. Native Hawaiians also had younger ages of hospitalizations for this condition.
141st APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2013; 11/2013