Makiya Nishikawa

Kyoto University, Kioto, Kyōto, Japan

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Publications (238)1061.84 Total impact

  • Jin Hisazumi · Naoki Kobayashi · Makiya Nishikawa · Yoshinobu Takakura ·
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    ABSTRACT: Uptake and degradation of naked plasmid DNA (pDNA) by liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) were investigated. Tissue distribution and intrahepatic localization were determined after an intravenous injection of 111In- or 32P-labeled pDNA into rats. Cellular uptake and degradation of fluorescein- or 32P-labeled pDNA were evaluated using primary cultures of rat LSECs. Following intravenous injection, pDNA was rapidly eliminated from the circulation and taken up by the liver. Fractionation of liver-constituting cells by centrifugal elutriation revealed a major contribution of LSECs to the overall hepatic uptake of pDNA. Confocal microscopic study confirmed intracellular uptake of pDNA in cultured LSECs. Apparent cellular association of pDNA was similar at 37 degrees C and 4 degrees C. However, trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitation experiments showed the TCA-soluble radioactivity in the culture medium increased in an accumulative manner at 37 degrees C. Involvement of a specific mechanism was demonstrated, as the uptake of pDNA was significantly inhibited by excess unlabeled pDNA and some polyanions (polyinosinic acid, dextran sulfate, heparin) but not by others (polycytidylic acid, dextran). These inhibitors also reduced the amount of TCA-soluble radioactivity in the culture medium. CONCLUSION. These results suggest that LSECs efficiently ingested and rapidly degraded naked pDNA in vivo and in vitro and released the degradation products into the extracellular space.
    Pharmaceutical Research 08/2004; 21(7):1223-8. DOI:10.1023/B:PHAM.0000033009.17594.e5 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antigen presentation on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and subsequent priming of antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are essential steps for vaccination but exogenous soluble proteins are conventionally taken up by endosomes and presented on MHC class II rather than class I. In this study, we demonstrated, for the first time, that ovalbumin (OVA) chemically cationized with hexamethylenediamine (HMD) can induce OVA-specific CTLs without any adjuvants. Cationization of OVA greatly enhances cellular uptake by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) through adsorptive endocytosis. Two kinds of Cat-OVAs with different cationic charges were evaluated to elicit a CTL response through enhanced uptake by APCs and concomitant participation in the class I pathway. Cat(20)-OVA, a cationized OVA derivative with more cationic charges, showed pronounced induction of the OVA-specific CTL response after subcutaneous immunization. The CTL response was comparable with that induced by OVA with CFA. In contrast to the CFA formulation that actually produced local tissue damage in this study, local damage at the injection sites was not observed with Cat-OVAs. Cat(20)-OVA also showed a significant protective effect on the growth of OVA-expressing E.G7 tumor cells. In conclusion, cationization of soluble antigen is a useful and safe vaccination strategy.
    Vaccine 07/2004; 22(20):2609-16. DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2003.12.023 · 3.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exogenous antigens endocytosed in large amounts by antigen-presenting cells (APC) are presented on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules as well as on class II molecules, a process called cross-presentation. Among APC, dendritic cells (DC) play a key role in cross-presentation by transporting internalized antigen to the cytosol. The present study shows that ovalbumin (OVA) introduced with negative charges by succinylation (Suc-OVA), maleylation (Mal-OVA) or cis-aconitylation (Aco-OVA) was efficiently taken up by DC via scavenger receptors (SR). Mal-OVA and Aco-OVA were efficiently cross-presented by DC, while cross-presentation of Suc-OVA was hardly observed. MHC class I presentation of acylated OVA introduced directly into the cytosol was inefficient and presentation of exogenous native OVA but not of Aco-OVA was markedly augmented by chloroquine, an inhibitor of endosomal acidification, suggesting that deacylation in endosomes or lysosomes is necessary for cross-presentation of acylated OVA. MHC class I presentation of exogenous native OVA and Aco-OVA by DC was blocked by lactacystin and brefeldin A, demonstrating that exogenous antigens taken up by DC are cross-presented through the conventional cytosolic pathway. Therefore, SR-mediated delivery of antigen to DC leads to efficient cross-presentation, although the pathway of chemical modification should be considered.
    Immunology 07/2004; 112(2):211-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2567.2004.01871.x · 3.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Galactosylated emulsions containing cholesten-5-yloxy-N-(4-((1-imino-2-D-thiogalactosylethyl)amino)butyl)formamide (Gal-C4-Chol) as a "homing device" were developed for hepatocyte-selective drug targeting. The targeting efficiency of galactosylated emulsions was evaluated by a distribution study in mice. Soybean oil/EggPC/cholesterol (Chol) (weight ratio, 70:25: 5) (bare) emulsions and soybean oil/EggPC/Gal-C4-Chol (weight ratio, 70:25:5) (Gal) emulsions were prepared and labeled with [3H]cholesteryl hexadecyl ether (CHE). [14C]probucol as a model lipophilic drug was incorporated in the emulsions or EggPC/Chol/Gal-C4-Chol (Gal) liposomes. Their tissue and intrahepatic distribution were evaluated following intravenous injection in mice. After intravenous injection, Gal-emulsions were rapidly eliminated from the blood and accumulated in the liver, in contrast to the bare-emulsions. The liver uptake clearance of Gal-emulsions was 3.2- and 1.2-times greater than that of bare-emulsions and Gal-liposomes, respectively. The uptake ratio in liver parenchymal cells (PC) and nonparenchymal cells (NPC) of Gal-emulsions was higher than that of Gal-liposomes, being 7.4 and 3.0, suggesting that Gal-emulsions are an effective PC-selective carrier. The hepatic uptake of Gal-emulsions, but not that of bare-emulsions, was significantly inhibited by the pre-dosing of not only lactoferrin but also Gal-liposomes, suggesting asialoglycoprotein receptor-mediated endocytosis. Furthermore, [14C]probucol incorporated in Gal-emulsions was efficiently delivered to the liver compared with Gal-liposomes. Gal-emulsions have been proven to be an alternative carrier for hepatocyte-selective drug targeting.
    Pharmaceutical Research 07/2004; 21(6):932-9. DOI:10.1023/B:PHAM.0000029280.39882.ff · 3.42 Impact Factor
  • Naoki Kobayashi · Makiya Nishikawa · Kazuhiro Hirata · Yoshinobu Takakura ·
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanisms underlying the efficient gene transfer by a large-volume and high-speed intravenous injection of naked plasmid DNA (pDNA), a so-called hydrodynamics-based procedure, remain unclear and require further investigation. In this report, we have investigated possible mechanisms for the intracellular transport of naked pDNA by this procedure. Propidium iodide (PI), a fluorescent indicator for cell membrane integrity, and luciferase- or green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing pDNA were injected into mice by the hydrodynamics-based procedure. PI was efficiently taken up by hepatocytes which appeared to be viable following the hydrodynamics-based procedure. Pre-expressed GFP in the cytosol was rapidly eliminated from the hepatocytes by a large-volume injection of saline. The profiles of plasma ALT and AST showed a steady decline with the highest values observed immediately after the hydrodynamics-based procedure. These results suggest that the hydrodynamics-based procedure produces a transient increase in the permeability of the cell membrane. The cellular uptake process appeared nonspecific, since simultaneous injection of an excess of empty vector did not affect the transgene expression. Sequential injections of a large volume of pDNA-free saline followed by naked pDNA in a normal volume revealed that the increase in membrane permeability was transient, with a return to normal conditions within 30 min. Transgene expression was observed in hepatocyte cultures isolated 10 min after pDNA delivery and in the liver as early as 10 min after luciferase-expressing RNA delivery, indicating that pDNA delivered immediately by the hydrodynamics-based procedure has the potential to produce successful transgene expression. These findings suggest that the mechanism for the hydrodynamics-based gene transfer would involve in part the direct cytosolic delivery of pDNA through the cell membrane due to transiently increased permeability.
    The Journal of Gene Medicine 05/2004; 6(5):584-92. DOI:10.1002/jgm.541 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The production of inflammatory cytokines from macrophages (Mphi), upon stimulation with plasmid DNA (pDNA) containing CpG motifs, is a critical process for DNA-based therapies such as DNA vaccination and gene therapy. We compared Mphi activation, following stimulation with naked pDNA, based on the production of cytokines from cell lines (RAW264.7 and J774A1) and peritoneal Mphis in primary culture. The Mphi cell lines RAW264.7 and J774A1 produced a significant amount of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) upon stimulation with naked pDNA and this response required endosomal acidification. On the other hand, peritoneal Mphis (both resident and elicited) in primary culture did not secrete TNF-alpha or interleukin-6, although they contain the mRNA of toll-like receptor-9 (TLR-9) and are able to respond to CpG oligodeoxynucleotides. This unresponsiveness was not a result of impaired cellular uptake of pDNA because the primary cultured Mphis showed a higher uptake of pDNA than the RAW264.7 and J774A1 cell lines. These findings have important implications for Mphi activation by naked pDNA as it has been generally assumed that pDNA that contains CpG motifs is a potent agent for inducing inflammatory cytokines in vivo, based on evidence from in vitro studies using Mphi cell lines.
    Immunology 04/2004; 111(3):282-90. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2567.2004.01814.x · 3.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A large-volume intravenous (i.v.) injection of DNA, i.e. a hydrodynamics-based transfection procedure, is known to be an efficient and liver-specific method of in vivo gene delivery. However, little is available on an applicable particle size in the procedure. We examined the effect of particle size on the hepatic delivery by the hydrodynamics-based procedure, using fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled polystyrene microspheres (MS) of 50, 200 or 500 nm in diameter. MS were injected intravenously to mice by a conventional (normal) or the hydrodynamics-based procedure and their degree of hepatic uptake was determined fluorometrically. For all sizes tested, the two procedures were similar in terms of the apparent degree of hepatic uptake, whereas the intrahepatic localization of MS was apparently different between the procedures as shown by an examination of frozen tissue sections. In mice with gadolinium chloride induced Kupffer cell blockade, the hepatic uptake of MS following the normal procedure was decreased while that of the hydrodynamics-based procedure was less affected. This phenomenon of enhanced hepatic delivery seemed to be more effective for larger particles. Confocal microscopic observation of hepatocyte suspensions indicated that part of the injected MS-50 was delivered intracellularly following the hydrodynamics-based procedure, whereas almost all the observed MS-200 and MS-500 were detected in the extracellular compartment or on the surface of the cells. This was supported by the fact that most of the injected MS existed pericellularly around the transgene-expressing cells. The hydrodynamics-based procedure facilitated extravasation and hepatic delivery of MS. Larger MS were more efficiently extravasated and trapped by the liver, whereas intracellular delivery hardly occurred with them.
    The Journal of Gene Medicine 04/2004; 6(4):455-63. DOI:10.1002/jgm.531 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: RNA interference (RNAi) induced by delivery of a small-interfering RNA (siRNA)-expressing vector was characterized in mice. siRNA-expressing plasmid DNA (pDNA) was injected by a hydrodynamics-based procedure along with pDNA encoding an exogenous target luciferase gene. A comparative study showed that stem-loop-type siRNA-expressing pDNA was superior, in terms of the transgene suppressive efficacy, to the tandem-type in the liver following systemic delivery of these pDNAs. Transgene suppression occurred in the liver, kidney, and lung as well as muscle. The degree of suppression was dependent on the dose of siRNA-expressing pDNA and the time at which transgene expression was determined following simultaneous injection of siRNA-expressing and target pDNAs. A reduction in transgene expression became apparent at 1 day after injection, whereas a lower degree of inhibition was obtained before this, as early as 6 h even in mice treated with an excess of siRNA-expressing pDNA. These results suggest that delivery of siRNA-expressing pDNA requires a period of time for induction of RNAi. A study of sequential injections revealed that prior injection of siRNA-expressing pDNA produced a significant suppression for at least 1 day, which disappeared within 4 days. Confocal microscopic studies indicated that the localization of the cells with successful delivery of transgene was different between primary and secondary hydrodynamics-based injections, accounting for the less effective inhibition following the sequential injections. Taken together, these results demonstrate that vector-based in vivo RNAi is a dose- and time-dependent process and offers the possibility of suppressing endogenous targets in a variety of somatic cells.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 03/2004; 308(2):688-93. DOI:10.1124/jpet.103.059931 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bovine liver catalase derivatives possessing diverse tissue distribution properties were synthesized, and their effects on hepatic metastasis of colon carcinoma cells were examined in mice. An intraportal injection of 1 x 10(5) colon 26 cells resulted in the formation of more than 50 metastatic colonies on the surface of the liver at 14 days after injection. An intravenous injection of catalase (CAT; 35000 units/kg of body weight) significantly (P < 0.001) reduced the number of the colonies in the liver. Galactosylated (Gal-), mannosylated (Man-) and succinylated (Suc-) CAT were also tested in the same system. Of these derivatives, Gal-CAT showed the greatest inhibitory effect on hepatic metastasis, and the number of colonies was significantly (P < 0.001) smaller than following treatment with catalase. High activities of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), especially MMP-9, were detected in the liver of mice bearing metastatic tumor tissues, which was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced by Gal-CAT. These results, combined with our previous finding that Gal-CAT can be efficiently delivered to hepatocytes, indicate that the targeted delivery of catalase to the liver by galactosylation is a promising approach to suppress hepatic metastasis. Decreased MMP activity by catalase delivery seems to be involved in its anti-metastatic effect.
    Clinical and Experimental Metastasis 02/2004; 21(3):213-21. DOI:10.1023/B:CLIN.0000037706.13747.5e · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To achieve a sustained and targeted delivery of liposomes to liver parenchymal cells (PC), we modified distearoyl-L-phosphatidylcholine (DSPC)/cholesterol (Chol) (60:40) (DSPC/Chol) liposomes with a galactosylated cholesterol derivative (Gal-C4-Chol), and polysorbate (Tween) 20 or 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-polyethylene glycol (PEG(x)-DSPE). After intravenous injection, DSPC/Chol/Gal-C4-Chol (60:35:5) (Gal) liposomes were rapidly eliminated from the blood circulation and mostly recovered in the liver. The blood elimination of DSPC/Chol/Gal-C4-Chol/Tween 20 (55:35:5:5) (Tween 20-Gal) liposomes was slightly reduced as compared to Gal-liposomes. In contrast, a significant reduction in the blood elimination was observed with DSPC/Chol/Gal-C4-Chol/PEG(2000)-DSPE (59:35:5:1) (PEG(2000)-Gal) liposomes. Hepatic uptake of DSPC/Chol/Gal-C4-Chol/PEG(350)-DSPE (59:35:5:1) (PEG(350)-Gal) liposomes was intermediate between PEG(2000)-Gal-liposomes and Tween 20-Gal-liposomes. The uptake of PEG(350)-Gal-liposomes by liver PC was 7.7-fold higher than that by non-parenchymal cells (NPC). These results suggest that PEG(350)-DSPE can control the delivery rate of Gal-liposomes to liver PC without losing its targeting capability.
    International Journal of Pharmaceutics 12/2003; 266(1-2):77-84. DOI:10.1016/S0378-5173(03)00383-1 · 3.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the intrahepatic disposition characteristics of galactosylated liposome/plasmid DNA (pDNA) complexes in perfused rat liver. Galactosylated liposomes containing N-[1-(2,3-dioleyloxy)propyl]-N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride (DOTMA), cholesterol (Chol), and cholesten-5-yloxy-N-14-[(1-imino-2-D-thiogalactosylethyl)amino]butyl] formamide (Gal-C4-Chol) were prepared. The liposome/[32P]-labeled pDNA complexes were administered to perfused liver, and the venous outflow patterns were analyzed based on a two-compartment dispersion model. The single-pass hepatic extraction of pDNA complexed with DOTMA/Chol/Gal-C4-Chol liposomes was greater than that with control DOTMA/Chol liposomes. A two-compartment dispersion model revealed that both the tissue binding and cellular internalization rate were higher for the DOTMA/Chol/Gal-C4-Chol liposome complexes compared with the control liposome complexes. The tissue binding was significantly reduced by the presence of 20 mM galactose. When their cellular localization in the perfused liver at 30 min postinjection was investigated, it was found that the parenchymal uptake of the DOTMA/Chol/Gal-C4-Chol liposome complexes was greater than that of the control liposome complexes. The parenchymal cell/ nonparenchymal cell uptake ratio was as high as unity. Galactosylation of the liposome/pDNA complexes increases the tissue binding and internalization rate via an asialoglycoprotein receptor-mediated process. Because of the large particle size of the complexes (approximately 150 nm), however, penetration across the fenestrated sinusoidal endothelium appears to be limited.
    Pharmaceutical Research 09/2003; 20(9):1452-9. DOI:10.1023/A:1025766429175 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To develop a suitable vector and an administration technique for in vivo gene transfer, the tissue distribution of plasmid DNA (pDNA) needs to be understood. In this study, a novel residualizing radiolabel for pDNA was developed. 4-[p-Azidosalicylamido]butylamine (ASBA) was coupled with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) anhydride, then the conjugate was reacted with pDNA by photoactivation, followed by labeling with [(111)In]InCl(3) to obtain (111)In-pDNA. The overall structure of pDNA was well preserved, and the retention of its transcriptional activity was 40-98%. After intravenous injection of (111)In-pDNA into mice, about 50% of the radioactivity was recovered in the liver within 3 min. The level remained stable for at least 2 h, followed by a very slow decrease to 45% at 24 h. This contrasted with the results obtained with (32)P-pDNA by nick translation, in which a rapid decrease in hepatic radioactivity was observed. The amount of radioactivity in the lung following the administration of polyethyleneimine/(111)In-pDNA complexes correlates well with the transgene expression. These results indicate that the novel residualizing radiolabel clearly demonstrates the cells that have taken up pDNA and, therefore, gives us useful information about how to design a better approach for nonviral in vivo gene delivery.
    Bioconjugate Chemistry 08/2003; 14(5):955-61. DOI:10.1021/bc034032y · 4.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To optimize a receptor-mediated and cell-selective gene transfer with polyethyleneimine (PEI)-based vector, we synthesized three galactosylated PEIs (Gal-PEI) with different molecular weights (PEI(1800), PEI(10,000), and PEI(70,000)) and investigated their potential as a targetable vector to asialoglycoprotein receptor-positive cells. All PEI derivatives formed complexes with plasmid DNA (pDNA), whereas the particle size of the complex became smaller on increasing the molecular weight of PEI. Transfection efficiency in HepG2 cells with PEI was highest with PEI(1800); efficiency was next highest with PEI(10,000), although the cellular association was similar. After galactosylation, Gal(19)-PEI(10,000)/pDNA and Gal(120)-PEI(70,000)/pDNA showed considerable agglutination with a galactose-recognizing lectin, but Gal(9)-PEI(1800) did not, suggesting that galactose units on the Gal(9)-PEI(1800)-pDNA complex are not sufficiently available for recognition. Gal(19)-PEI(10,000)-pDNA and Gal(120)-PEI(70,000)-pDNA complexes showed galactose-inhibitable transgene expression in HepG2 cells. Transfection efficiency was greatest with Gal(19)-PEI(10,000)/pDNA, a result that highlights the importance of obtaining a balance between the cytotoxicity and the transfection activity, both of which are found to be a function of the molecular weight of PEI. After intraportal injection, however, Gal(153)-PEI(70,000)/pDNA having a low N/P ratio was most effective, suggesting that additional variables, such as the size of the complex, are important for in vivo gene transfer to hepatocytes.
    Molecular Therapy 03/2003; 7(2):254-61. DOI:10.1016/S1525-0016(02)00053-9 · 6.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This chapter describes novel glycosylated cationic liposomes, consisting of a glycosylated cationic cholesterol derivative and several helper lipids, which increase the transfection efficiency to cells possessing the corresponding receptors, such as hepatocytes and macrophages. Glycosylated cationic liposomes are possible candidates for cell-specific nonviral vectors by means of a receptor-mediated mechanism, although their cell specificity and transfection efficiency need further improvement. The preparation of glycosylated liposomes is much easier than that of asialoglycoproteins as targeting ligands for liposomes may be less immunogenic. These glycosylated liposomes can be applied not only to gene delivery but also to targeted delivery of conventional drugs, such as prostaglandin E1 and probucol. Different criteria for the preparation of glycosylated liposomes are required to obtain efficient drug delivery.
    Methods in Enzymology 02/2003; 373:384-99. DOI:10.1016/S0076-6879(03)73025-0 · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We studied the intrahepatic disposition characteristics of galactosylated polyethylenimine (Gal-PEI)/plasmid DNA (pDNA) complexes using rat liver perfusion experiment. After intraportal administration, transfection activity in liver of Gal-PEI complexes was approximately 26-fold higher than that of native PEI complexes. To evaluate the relationship between hepatic gene expression and disposition profiles, hepatic disposition of Gal-PEI complexes were pharmacokinetically analyzed by use of perfused rat liver, which enables uptake characteristics intrinsic to the liver to be elucidated. Moment analysis revealed that both complexes exhibited very high single-pass extraction. To characterize each kinetic process in hepatic uptake of Gal-PEI complexes, their outflow profiles were analyzed based on a two-compartment dispersion model. Consequently, the tissue binding affinity of Gal-PEI complexes was 3.0-fold larger than that of native PEI complexes, suggesting the increasing of hepatic binding affinity much enhanced the hepatic gene transfection efficiency. In contrast, galactosylation of PEI did not affected internalization (and/or sequestration) rate.
    Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 02/2003; 18(4):230-7. DOI:10.2133/dmpk.18.230 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the pharmacokinetics and preventive effects of liver-targeted catalase (CAT) derivatives on hepatic injury caused by reactive oxygen species. The hepatic uptake of 111In-CAT, galactosylated (Gal-), mannosylated (Man-) and succinylated (Suc-) CAT was investigated in isolated perfused rat livers in a single-pass constant infusion mode. Then, pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained by fitting equations derived from a one-organ pharmacokinetic model to the outflow profile. Their effects in preventing hydrogen peroxide-induced injury were determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release from the perfused liver. The extraction of CAT derivatives by the liver was dose-dependent, and increased by the chemical modifications described. After being bound to the cell surface, chemically modified CAT derivatives were internalized by the liver faster than CAT. Preperfusion of a CAT derivative significantly reduced LDH release by hydrogen peroxide at least for 30 min, and Man-CAT and Suc-CAT effectively inhibited this release. Internalized CAT derivatives are also effective in degrading hydrogen peroxide and targeted delivery of CAT to liver nonparenchymal cells by mannosylation or succinylation is a useful method for the prevention of hepatic injury caused by reactive oxygen species.
    Pharmaceutical Research 01/2003; 19(12):1815-21. DOI:10.1023/A:1021485222920 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of the lipid composition of galactosylated liposomes on their targeted delivery to hepatocytes. Several types of liposomes with a particle size of about 90 nm were prepared using distearoyl-L-phosphatidylcholine (DSPC), cholesterol (Chol) and cholesten-5-yloxy-N-(4-((1-imino-2-D- thiogalactosylethyl)amino)butyl)formamide (Gal-C4-Chol), and labeled with [3H]cholesterol hexadecyl ether. Their tissue disposition was investigated in mice following intravenous injection. The binding and internalization characteristics were also studied in HepG2 cells. Compared with [H]DSPC/Chol (60:40) liposomes, [3H]DSPC/Chol/Gal-C4-Chol (60:35:5) liposomes exhibit extensive hepatic uptake. Separation of the liver cells showed that galactosylated liposomes are preferentially taken up by hepatocytes, whereas those lacking Gal-C4-Chol distribute equally to hepatocytes and nonparenchymal cells (NPC). Increasing the molar ratio of DSPC to 90% resulted in enhanced NPC uptake of both liposomes, suggesting their uptake via a mechanism other than asialoglycoprotein receptors. DSPC Chol/Gal-C4-Chol (60:35:5) and DSPC/Chol/Gal-C4-Chol (90:5:5) liposomes exhibited similar binding to the surface of HepG2 cells, but the former were taken up faster by the cells. The recognition of galactosylated liposomes by the asialoglycoprotein receptors is dependent on the lipid composition. Cholesterol-rich galactosylated liposomes, exhibiting less non-specific interaction and greater receptor-mediated uptake, are better for targeting drugs to hepatocytes in vivo.
    Pharmaceutical Research 01/2003; 19(12):1808-14. DOI:10.1023/A:1021433206081 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In vivo disposition characteristics of succinylated (Suc-) proteins were studied after intravenous injection in mice in relation to their molecular characteristics as negatively charged macromolecules. Recombinant superoxide dismutase (SOD; molecular mass, 32 kDa), bovine serum albumin (BSA; molecular mass, 67 kDa), and bovine IgG (molecular mass, 150 kDa) were used to produce succinylated derivatives with different degrees of modification. (111)In-labeled Suc-SODs were rapidly excreted into the urine with no significant hepatic uptake. In contrast, (111)In-Suc-BSA and Suc-IgG were significantly taken up by liver nonparenchymal cells via scavenger receptors (SRs) according to the degree of succinylation and the dose injected. Interestingly, highly succinylated BSAs exhibited significant accumulation in the kidney at higher doses when the hepatic uptake was saturated. Pharmacokinetic analysis demonstrated that the hepatic uptake of succinylated proteins depended on the molecular size and the estimated surface density of succinylated amino residues. Further analysis based on a physiological pharmacokinetic model, involving a saturable process with Michaelis-Menten kinetics, revealed that the surface density of negative charges was correlated with the affinity of larger succinylated proteins for the hepatic SRs. Thus, the present study has provided useful basic information for a therapeutic strategy and the molecular design of succinylated proteins for use as drug carriers and therapeutic agents per se for SR-mediated targeting in vivo.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 06/2002; 301(2):467-77. DOI:10.1124/jpet.301.2.467 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In a previous study, we showed that targeted delivery of bovine liver catalase to hepatocytes by direct galactosylation augmented the inhibitory effect of the enzyme on experimental hepatic metastasis of colon carcinoma cells (unpublished data). Here, we examined the ability of catalase to inhibit tumor metastasis to the lung by controlling its biodistribution. Four types of catalase derivative, Gal-CAT, Man-CAT, Suc-CAT and PEG-CAT, were synthesized. Experimental pulmonary metastasis was induced in mice by i.v. injection of 1 x 10(5) colon 26 tumor cells. An i.v. injection of catalase (35,000 units/kg) partially, but significantly, decreased the number of colonies in the lung 2 weeks after tumor injection, from 93 +/- 29 (saline injection) to 63 +/- 23 (p < 0.01). Suc-CAT, Man-CAT and Gal-CAT showed effects similar to those of catalase on the number of colonies. However, PEG-CAT greatly inhibited pulmonary metastasis to 22 +/- 11 (p < 0.001). Furthermore, s.c. injection of catalase also greatly inhibited metastasis (11 +/- 6, p < 0.001). Neither inactivated catalase nor BSA showed any effects on the number of metastatic colonies, indicating that the enzymatic activity of catalase to detoxify H(2)O(2) is the critical factor inhibiting metastasis. (111)In-PEG-CAT showed a sustained concentration in plasma, whereas s.c.-injected (111)In-catalase was slowly absorbed from the injection site. These results suggest that retention of catalase activity in the circulation is a promising approach to inhibit pulmonary metastasis.
    International Journal of Cancer 05/2002; 99(3):474-9. DOI:10.1002/ijc.10387 · 5.09 Impact Factor
  • P Opanasopit · K Hyoudou · M Nishikawa · F Yamashita · M Hashida ·
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of serum mannan binding proteins (MBP) in the transfection of plasmid DNA/Man-liposome complex via mannose receptor-mediated endocytosis was studied in vitro using cultured mouse peritoneal macrophages. Plasmid DNA encoding luciferase gene was complexed with cationic mannosylated liposomes (Man-liposomes), composed of cholesten-5-yloxy-N-(4-((1-imino-2-D-thiomannosylethyl)amino)alkyl)formamide (Man-C4-Chol) and dioleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE). The transfection efficiency, as well as the binding and uptake of the plasmid DNA/Man-liposome complex, was investigated with or without serum MBP. The in vitro transfection efficiency of the complex was significantly reduced on increasing the amount of serum MBP. In addition, the cellular association of the complex was also reduced. These results indicate that serum MBP specifically binds to the mannose moieties on the complex and suppresses its cellular uptake, resulting in inhibition of the gene transfection in macrophages. Such an interaction is an obstacle to mannose receptor-mediated in vivo gene transfer to mannose receptor-positive cells using mannosylated gene carriers.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 05/2002; 1570(3):203-9. DOI:10.1016/S0304-4165(02)00199-X · 4.66 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

6k Citations
1,061.84 Total Impact Points


  • 1992-2015
    • Kyoto University
      • • Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      • • Institute for Innovative NanoBio Drug Discovery and Development
      Kioto, Kyōto, Japan
  • 1994
    • Setsunan University
      • Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan