[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the personality correlates of mobile phone text message use in Japanese youth, university students (N = 232) were distributed a set questionnaires containing the Temperament and Character Inventory and items enquiring their text message use. Greater text messaging was associated with high Novelty Seeking (NS). The results of this study suggest that text message was based on NS.
Psychology and Behavioral Sciences. 11/2013; 2(5):192-195.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The coping style that individuals think they will use when encountering stressful situations may differ from actual coping response in real situations.
In a longitudinal study on some 500 university students, perceived coping style was identified using the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations on the first occasion. In the subsequent eight test occasions, which occurred on a weekly basis, the students were asked about a negative life event that occurred during the past week and the actual coping responses they used.
The perceived coping style and the actual coping response matched well for task-oriented and emotion-oriented coping. For avoidance-oriented coping, however, perceived coping style and actual coping response were weakly correlated.
Epidemiological studies on coping and mental health should discriminate coping style and coping response. Clinicians should be cautious about patients' own information about avoidance-oriented coping.
Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 09/2013; · 2.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To examine the factor structure of the 144-item Chinese version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and its association with age and gender in a large non-clinical population. METHOD: We recruited 1966 non-clinical participants in China who completed the TCI Chinese version. They were randomly divided into two independent samples. One sample (n=983) was used for exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and the other (n=983) for confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). RESULTS: An EFA suggested a four-factor structure for temperament domains and a three-factor structure for character domains. This was confirmed by a CFA. Women showed significantly higher scores on harm avoidance, reward dependence, co-operativeness, and self-transcendence than men. Age affected every subscale expect for reward dependence. CONCLUSION: The factor structure of the Chinese TCI was similar to the original factor structure, with some differences reflecting the culture of a Chinese population.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Zung-Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) was distributed to 28,588 first-year university students. Factor analysis using PROMAX rotation revealed three factors interpretable as affective, cognitive, and somatic symptoms. The confirmatory factor analysis showed a goodness-of-fit index of 0.976 and an adjusted goodness-of-fit index of 0.967. The two sexes exhibited virtually the same factor structure. The result suggests that studies with this scale should use these three subscales rather than a total score.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interpersonal touch has been little studied empirically as an indicator of parent- and peer-child intimacy. Undergraduate
students (n=390) were studied using a questionnaire survey regarding the frequencies of interpersonal touch by father, mother, same-sex
peers, and opposite-sex peers during preschool ages, grades 1–3, grades 4–6, and grades 7–9, as well as their current attachment
style to a romantic partner and current depression. A path model indicated that current depression was influenced significantly
by poorer self- and other-images as well as by fewer parental interpersonal touches throughout childhood. Other-image was
influenced by early (up to grade 3) parental interpersonal touch. Our findings suggest that a lower frequency of parental
touching during childhood influences the development of depression and contributes to a poorer image of an individual’s romantic
partner during later adolescence and early adulthood.
Journal of Child and Family Studies 04/2012; 19(1):109-117. · 1.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to examine the relationships between parenting styles and personality traits over generations, a cross-sectional
questionnaire study was conducted for fathers and mothers of school-age children of grades 5–9. The parenting styles measured
by the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) and the personality traits measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI)
were correlated within and between the consecutive generations (the grandparents and the parents for the PBI and the parents
and the children for the TCI). A series of structural equation modeling showed that (1) while the parenting styles were transmitted
directly from the grandparents to the parents, it was partly mediated by the fathers’ Co-operativeness (C) but not so for
the mothers, (2) while the personality traits were transmitted directly from the parents to the children, it was only the
fathers’ parenting styles that mediated C, and (3) the parents’ parenting styles had independent effects upon the children’s
Journal of Child and Family Studies 04/2012; 18(5):541-556. · 1.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study focused on the functional aspects of narcissism in regulating self-conscious emotions (guilt, shame, hubristic pride, and achievement-oriented pride) as well as two other attribution styles (externalization and detachment). The authors investigated Japanese university students (N = 452) with regard to their self-conscious emotions using the Test of Self-Conscious Affect-3 (TOSCA-3) and their narcissistic personality using the short version of Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI-S). Structural equation modeling was used for the analysis. The authors found that narcissism led individuals to feel achievement-oriented pride, hubristic pride, externalization, and detachment, but inhibited feelings of shame. It did not have a significant effect on guilt. Shame-proneness prompted hubristic pride and externalization. Guilt-proneness inclined an individual toward achievement-oriented pride, but deterred externalization. In this article, the authors present and interpret these results in detail and then discuss how they can be utilized in psychotherapy.
Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic 01/2012; 76(3):211-34. · 0.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective. To examine the effects of temperament and character profiles on state and trait depression and anxiety in a Japanese youth population. Method. Japanese university students were solicited for participation in a two-wave study, with assessments performed at Time 1 (T1) and Time 2 (T2), separated by a five-month interval. A total of 184 students completed the Japanese version of the temperament and character inventory (TCI) at T1 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) at T1 and T2. We posited two latent variables, trait depression and anxiety, composed of the T1 and T2 HADS depression and anxiety scores, respectively. We also posited that temperament domain traits would predict character domain traits, and that all the personality traits would be linked to trait depression and anxiety and also predict T2 depression and anxiety. Results. Structural regression modeling showed that (1) only high Novelty Seeking predicted T2 Anxiety score, (2) trait depression and anxiety were linked to high harm avoidance and low self-directedness, and (3) trait depression was linked to high self-transcendence whereas trait anxiety was linked to low reward dependence, persistence, and cooperativeness. Conclusion. The characteristic associations between TCI subscales and depression and anxiety were limited to the trait rather than state aspects of depression and anxiety.
Depression research and treatment 01/2012; 2012:604684.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined the reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM), a standardized, brief, but comprehensive outcome measurement. The target population consisted of 1684 Japanese company employees, hospital staff, and university students. A confirmatory factor analysis proved that our data fit the factor structure of the original CORE-OM. We also examined its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent validity, and sensitivity in discriminating between clinical and nonclinical samples. After demonstrating these results, we discuss how the Japanese version of the CORE-OM can be used both in clinical and research settings.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) is a widely used self-report measure of adult personality.
We studied 586 Japanese university and college students with the 125-item version of the Japanese TCI.
The factor structure of the TCI scales was similar to that reported in other languages. Depression was positively correlated with Novelty Seeking and Harm Avoidance but inversely correlated with Persistence, Self-Directedness, and Cooperativeness. Good Self-Image in the framework of adult attachment was correlated positively with Self-Directedness but inversely with Harm Avoidance and Reward Dependence. Good Other-Image in the framework of adult attachment was positively correlated with Reward Dependence and Cooperativeness. The scores of the TCI scales were stable over a time span of 1.5 to 2 months.
The Japanese version of the TCI may be a valid and reliable measure of temperament and character, at least among the adolescent and young adult population.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study used a structural equation model to examine the influence of resilience on the four self-conscious affects (guilt-proneness, shame-proneness, externalization, and detachment) assessed in the Test of Self-Conscious Affect-3 (TOSCA-3) and their impact on depressive mood. Our subject population consisted of 447 Japanese university students. The first analysis explored which TOSCA-3 affects help an individual adapt to stressful situations. The concept of "resilience" was used as an indicator to evaluate the adaptive functions. We based this on the assumption that an individual with higher resilience is able to use more adaptive affects. In the second analysis, taking the above relationship between resilience and the self-conscious affects into consideration, we examined how those variables as well as a negative life event are related to depressive mood. To assess the resilience level and depressive mood, we adopted the Resilience Scale (RS) and Self-rating Depressive Scale (SDS), respectively. The first analysis showed that the more resilient an individual was, the more prone they were to "detachment" and the less "shame" they experienced. The level of resilience did not have a significant effect on "guilt" or "externalization." In the second analysis we found that "resilience" had a direct inverse effect on depressive mood that was also mediated by "shame" and "detachment." We discuss how the particular self-conscious affects comprising each adaptive function are related to depressive mood.
American journal of psychotherapy 01/2011; 65(1):27-46.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unhealthy use of the Internet and mobile phones is a health issue in Japan. We solicited participation in this questionnaire-based study from the employees of a city office in Kumamoto. A total of 92 men and 54 women filled in the Internet Addiction Questionnaire (IAQ), the Self-perception of Text-message Dependency Scale (STDS), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The prevalence of “light Internet addiction” and “severe Internet addiction” were 33.7% and 6.1% for men whereas they were 24.6% and 1.8% for women. The prevalence of “light mobile phone text-message addiction” was 3.1% for men and 5.4% for women. There were no cases of “sever text-message addiction”. We found a two-factor structure for the IAQ and a three-factor structure for the STDS. We also performed an EFA of the IAQ and STDS subscales, and this revealed a two-factor structure – Internet Dependency and Text-message Dependency. An STDS subscale, Relationship Maintenance, showed a moderate factor loading of the factor that reflected unhealthy Internet use. In a path analysis, Depression was associated with both Internet Dependency and Text-message Dependency whereas Anxiety was associated negatively with Text-message Dependency. These results suggest applicability of the IAQ and STDS and that Internet and Text-message Dependences are factorially distinct.
Computers in Human Behavior. 01/2011; 27:1702-1709.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the association between perceived parenting styles in childhood and temperament and character dimensions in adolescence and early adulthood, 836 college students in Japan were assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and the Parental Bonding Questionnaire (PBI). A path analysis revealed that Novelty Seeking and Harm Avoidance were associated with low Self-Directedness and low Cooperativeness; Novelty Seeking, Reward Dependence, and Persistence were associated with Self-Transcendence; and Reward Dependence was associated with Cooperativeness. It also showed that Perceived Parenting (parents' high Care and low Overprotection) was associated with low Harm Avoidance and high Persistence, and was directly associated with Self-Directedness, Cooperativeness, and low Self-Transcendence. These findings suggest that perceived parenting styles are more associated with character dimensions than temperament dimensions. This link was direct or indirect via temperament dimensions.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective. To examine the relations between personality traits and syndromes of depression in a nonclinical Chinese population. Method. We recruited 469 nonclinical participants in China. They completed the Chinese version temperament and character inventory (TCI) and self-rating depression scale (SDS). A structural equation model was used to rate the relation between seven TCI scales and the three SDS subscale scores (based on Shafer's meta-analysis of the SDS items factor analyses). This was based on the assumption that the three depression subscales would be predicted by the temperament and character subscales, whereas the character subscales would be predicted by the temperament subscales. Results. The positive symptoms scores were predicted by low self-directedness (SD), cooperativeness (C), reward dependence (RD), and persistence (P) as well as older age. The negative symptoms scores were predicted only by an older age. The somatic symptoms scores were predicted by high SD. Conclusion. Syndromes of depression are differentially associated with temperament and character patterns. It was mainly the positive symptoms scores that were predicted by the TCI scores. The effects of harm avoidance (HA) on the positive symptoms scores could be mediated by low SD and C.
Depression research and treatment 01/2011; 2011:198591.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To simultaneously examine the impact of childhood abuse history on borderline personality traits, negative life events, and depression, undergraduate students (N=243) were studied by questionnaire surveys with one week intervals. Neglect and emotional abuse as well as sexual maltreatment predicted borderline personality traits and baseline depression. Baseline depression as well as the impact of negative life events occurring the week prior predicted depression a week later. However, after considering the baseline depression level, child abuse history failed to predict the follow-up depression level. Borderline personality traits did not moderate these findings. Childhood emotional and sexual abuse history may influence depression and borderline personality traits.
Psychiatry Research 12/2010; 180(2-3):120-5. · 2.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to examine the intergenerational transmission of reported parenting styles (warmth and control) and their mediation by personality traits, a cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted of 396 fathers and 733 mothers of children from less tan 1 to 10 years of age. The participants used the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) to measure their own and their partner's current rearing styles as well as to assess their perception of the parenting they had received before age 16. Parents' personality traits were measured using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). in both fathers and mothers, the correlation of the grandparents' perceived parenting styles were correlated with the current parenting styles reported by parents themselves greater than with the current parenting styles reported by spouse. Thus, we speculated the shared observer bias and used the spouse-report for further analyses. In the fathers, (1) paternal Care was correlated with the grandmothers' Care and grandparents' low Overprotection; and paternal Overprotection was correlated with the grandfathers' Overprotection; (2) Novelty Seeking was correlated with the grandparents' Overprotection and low Care; Harm Avoidance was correlated with the grandparents' Overprotection; Reward Dependence, Self-directedness, and Co-operativeness were correlated with the grandparents' Care and low Overprotection; and Persistence was correlated with the grandparents' Care; (3) Overprotection was correlated with Harm Avoidance and low Self-directedness. In the mothers, (1) maternal Care was correlated with the grandmothers' Care; (2) Novelty Seeking was correlated with the grandmothers' low Care; Harm Avoidance was correlated with the grandfathers' low Care and the grandparents' Overprotection; Reward Dependence, Self-directedness, and Co-operativeness were correlated with the grandparents' Care and low Overprotection; and Self-transcendence was correlated with the grandfathers' Care; (3) maternal Care was correlated with Reward Dependence, Persistence, and Co-operativeness; and maternal Overprotection was correlated with low Self-directedness. The transmission of Overprotection of fathers and Care of mothers from the grandparent generations was found to be mediated by personality traits.
The Open Family Studies Journal 01/2010; 2(1):82-90.