[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To establish the frequency of U Tg (undetectable pre-ablation thyroglobulin) in TgAb-negative patients and to evaluate the outcome in the follow-up. Subjects and methods: We re-trospectively reviewed 335 patients' records. Twenty eight patients (9%) had U Tg. Mean follow--up was 42 ± 38 months. All subjects had undergone total thyroidectomy, and lymph nodes were positive in 13 (46%) patients. Tg and TgAb levels were measured 4 weeks after surgery by IMA technology in hypothyroid state. No evidence of disease (NED) status was defined as undetectable (< 1 ng/mL) stimulated Tg and negative Tg-Ab and/or negative WBS, together with normal imaging studies. Results: Seventeen patients (61%) were considered with NED. Four pa-tients (14%) had persistent disease (mediastinum, n = 1, lung n = 2, unknown n = 1), and 7 (25%) had detectable TgAb by other method during their follow-up. Conclusions: U Tg levels usually is associated to a complete surgery. However, in a low percentage of patients, this may be related to false negative Tg or TgAb measurement. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab. 2013;57(4):300-6
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To establish the frequency of U Tg (undetectable pre-ablation thyroglobulin) in TgAb- negative patients and to evaluate the outcome in the follow-up.
We retrospectively reviewed 335 patients' records. Twenty eight patients (9%) had U Tg. Mean follow-up was 42 ± 38 months. All subjects had undergone total thyroidectomy, and lymph nodes were positive in 13 (46%) patients. Tg and TgAb levels were measured 4 weeks after surgery by IMA technology in hypothyroid state. No evidence of disease (NED) status was defined as undetectable (< 1 ng/mL) stimulated Tg and negative Tg-Ab and/or negative WBS, together with normal imaging studies.
Seventeen patients (61%) were considered with NED. Four patients (14%) had persistent disease (mediastinum, n = 1, lung n = 2, unknown n = 1), and 7 (25%) had detectable TgAb by other method during their follow-up.
U Tg levels usually is associated to a complete surgery. However, in a low percentage of patients, this may be related to false negative Tg or TgAb measurement.
Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia 06/2013; 57(4):292-306. · 0.68 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To supplement limited relevant literature, we retrospectively compared ablation and disease outcomes in high-risk differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) patients undergoing radioiodine thyroid remnant ablation aided by recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) versus thyroid hormone withdrawal/withholding (THW). Our cohort was 45 consecutive antithyroglobulin antibody- (TgAb-) negative, T3-T4/N0-N1-Nx/M0 adults ablated with high activities at three referral centers. Ablation success comprised negative (<1 μg/L) stimulated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) and TgAb, with absent or <0.1% scintigraphic thyroid bed uptake. "No evidence of disease" (NED) comprised negative unstimulated/stimulated Tg and no suspicious neck ultrasonography or pathological imaging or biopsy. "Persistent disease" was failure to achieve NED, "recurrence," loss of NED status. rhTSH patients (n = 18) were oftener ≥45 years old and higher stage (P = 0.01), but otherwise not different than THW patients (n = 27) at baseline. rhTSH patients were significantly oftener successfully ablated compared to THW patients (83% versus 67%, P < 0.02). After respective 3.3 yr and 4.5 yr mean follow-ups (P = 0.02), NED was achieved oftener (72% versus 59%) and persistent disease was less frequent in rhTSH patients (22% versus 33%) (both comparisons P = 0.03). rhTSH stimulation is associated with at least as good outcomes as is THW in ablation of high-risk DTC patients.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although overt thyrotoxicosis is associated with reduced insulin sensitivity (IS), the effects of subclinical thyrotoxicosis (SCTox) (i.e., suppressed serum thyroid-stimulating hormone with free thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine within the reference range) on glucose metabolism are not clear. SCTox may be of endogenous origin or due to ingestion of supraphysiological amounts of thyroid hormone. Our hypotheses were that reduced IS is present in SCTox and that the degree of reduction differs between SCTox of endogenous and exogenous origin.
The study population consisted of 125 premenopausal, normal-weight women, divided into four groups: exogenous SCTox due to L-T4 treatment for benign goiter or hypothyroidism (SCTox-ExogG) (n = 53), endogenous SCTox (SCTox-Endog) (n = 12), exogenous SCTox due to L-T4 treatment for differentiated thyroid cancer (SCTox-ExogDTC) (n = 20), and finally euthyroid women (C) (n = 40) as a control group. After a mixed meal challenge, glucose and insulin were determined at baseline and 120 minutes later. IS was assessed by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, quantitative IS check index (QUICKI), and 2 hours IS Avignon's index amended by Aloulou for mixed food. Secretion by pancreatic B-cells was calculated by HOMA-B index. Comparison among groups was done by analysis of variance followed by Tukey test. Linear regression analysis of T3 versus HOMA-IR was calculated.
IS was reduced in all types of SCTox when compared with C. All SCTox groups had significantly higher levels of insulin (baseline and postmeal) and HOMA-IR and lower values of QUICKI and Aloulou when compared with controls. SCTox-Endog, however, had higher baseline insulin levels and HOMA-IR and a lower QUICKI index than the rest of the SCTox groups. Although within the normal range, total T4, free T4, and T3 levels were also significantly higher in the SCTox groups than in euthyroids. In SCTox-Endog, T3/T4 ratio was increased above the rest of SCTox groups. A moderate linear relationship between T3 and HOMA-IR was found in the whole population.
IR is associated with SCTox of either endogenous or exogenous origin. However, based on our findings of lower IS compared with the rest of the SCTox groups, the endogenous subclinical form might have an even larger metabolic impact.
Thyroid: official journal of the American Thyroid Association 08/2011; 21(9):945-9. · 2.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine whether familial non-medullary thyroid cancer (FNMTC) is more aggressive than sporadic thyroid cancer.
We compared the clinical behavior and outcome of 16 subjects with FNMTC from 7 unrelated kindred with those observed in 160 subjects with sporadic PTC (SPTC) from our database.
The only different baseline characteristics observed between both groups were: bilateral malignancy, 38% vs. 24%, respectively (p = 0.03), and lymph node metastasis, 56.2% vs. 39%, respectively (p = 0.01). Considering the outcome, in the FNMTC, 9 (56.2%) patients were rendered free of disease, one patient died from thyroid cancer (6%), and 6/16 (37.5%) had persistent disease. In the SPTC Group, 87 (54%) patients were considered free of disease, 11 (7%) died due to PTC, and 62 (38%) had persistent disease (p = ns).
Despite the higher incidence of lymph node metastasis in FNMTC patients this situation seemed not to alter the compared outcome.
Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia 04/2011; 55(3):219-23. · 0.68 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been shown that patients with insulin resistance (IR) have a higher prevalence of thyroid nodules and bigger thyroid glands. We evaluated the ability of metformin (M) alone or combined with levothyroxine (L-T₄) to reduce the nodular size in benign thyroid hyperplastic nodules (<2 cm in diameter).
A total of 66 women with IR and nodular hyperplasia, diagnosed by fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB), who completed this prospective 6-month duration protocol, were assigned to one of four groups: Group I (GI) (n = 14), patients treated with M; GII (n = 18), patients treated with M plus L-T₄; GIII (n = 19), patients treated with L-T₄; and GIV (n = 15), patients without any treatment.
All groups of included patients had no statistically significant different mean baseline characteristics. Patients from GII and GIII showed drops in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and GI and GII normalized the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index after treatment, as expected. The median baseline size of all included nodules was 298 mm³ ≈0.84 cm in diameter (range, 32-3,616 mm³). After treatment, patients of Group I and II showed significant reductions in their nodule size [median reduction, 108.50 mm³ (30%) and 184.5 mm³ (55%), P < 0.008 and P < 0.0001, respectively]. Patients in GIII and GIV did not have a significant reduction of their nodules [P = not significant (N.S.)].
We conclude that M produced a significant decrease in the nodular size in patients with IR and small thyroid nodules, whereas the combination of M with L-T₄ was the best treatment in these women.
Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders 02/2011; 9(1):69-75. · 1.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To report the management and outcome of three cases of papillary carcinoma (PC) in thyroglossal duct cysts (TGCs).
We present case reports of one female and two male patients between the ages of 22 and 46 years who had TGCs. In addition, we discuss the theories about the pathogenesis of TGC carcinoma (de novo versus metastatic lesions).
In all three patients, we found a TGC that contained a vegetating mass. Subsequent pathologic examination revealed the presence of a PC. All patients underwent total thyroidectomy, and two of them concurrently had PC in the thyroid gland. Besides the PC in the TGC, the first patient had a "cold" scintigraphic thyroid nodule that was also a PC, whereas the second patient had a thyroid microcarcinoma that had not been detected before surgical intervention. The third patient did not have carcinoma of the thyroid, but the histologic pattern of the gland resembled that observed in de Quervain's disease. We interpreted this finding as "palpation thyroiditis." The patients received postoperative 131I and suppressive therapy with levothyroxine. During a follow-up period of 2 to 12 years (mean, 5.8), we found no recurrence of the disease, and serum thyroglobulin remained undetectable in all cases.
Although use of total thyroidectomy followed by radioiodine therapy and suppressive treatment with levothyroxine is a matter of debate in patients with PC in TGCs, we conclude that this approach yields a favorable outcome in most cases, especially when the thyroid is also involved by the PC, and allows a better postoperative follow-up.
Endocrine Practice 01/2011; 7(6):463-6. · 2.49 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: the presence of palpable thyroid nodules in the general population is one of the most common clinical signs of thyroid disease in daily practice.
Objectives: 1) To assess the prevalence of pathologies, clinical and cytological findings of single palpable thyroid nodules (SPTN) in Argentina. 2) Analyze the regional differences in Argentina.
Methods: Prospective study of 739 patients with STPN were evaluated at centres in Buenos Aires, Bahía Blanca, Mendoza, and La Pampa between 1/1/00 and 12/31/01. Clinical examination, thyroid ultrasound scan (US), TSH, TPOAb and fine needle aspirations (FNA) were performed. Statistics: Pearson Correlation, X2 & Fisher Tests.
Results: Age (X ± SD) 46 ± 14ys: 93.1 % were women. Previous history of neck radiation & familial thyroid disease were found in 1.6 and 29.9 % respectively. Clinical findings: dysphagia: 7.9 %; dysphonia: 3.5%; nodule growth: 19.2 %; hard consistence: 24.7 %; fixation to adjacent structure: 1.5 % and lymphadenopathies (ADP): 3 %. Biochemical findings: TSH was normal in 81.2 % & TPOAb+ in 30.3 %. US features: solid: 53.1 %; hypoechoic: 63.8 %; microcalcifications: 10.3 %; incomplete halo: 15 %; more than 1 nodule: 30.5 %; thyroid heterogeneity: 60.2 % and ADP: 3.8 %. Cytology: Only 1 FNA was needed in 86.8%. Unsatisfactory (excluding cysts): 3.2 %; benign: 77.2%; suspicious: 12.6 % and cancer: 7 % (42 papillary, 2 medullary and 3 non specified). A significant correlation (p<0.02) was established between malignant nodules and rapid growth, hard, fixed, solid nodule, incomplete halo and ADP, though these parameters were more frequent (in absolute number) in benign nodules. Surgery was mainly indicated based on FNA results. Histological diagnosis of 96 patients who underwent surgery showed 51 carcinomas, of which only 2 were cytologically benign and 31 adenomas.
Conclusion: Palpable single nodules were more frequent in middle aged euthyroid women. One third had familial thyroid pathology, similar to the presence of TPOAb. On US, nodules were predominantly solid, hypoechoic, single with heterogeneous thyroid gland. FNA was predominantly benign. Rapid growth, hard, fixed, solid nodule, incomplete halo and ADP were associated with malignancy, but benignity was more common. In most of the patients surgery was recommended based on cytological findings. Our results are similar to those reported in other geographic areas
Revista Argentina de Endocrinologia y Metabolismo 01/2011; 48(3):149.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the familial form of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), two or more members of the same family have to be affected with PTC. Prevalence is around 5% of all PTC. We performed a clinical analysis in 79 relatives of 16 patients of 7 unrelated kindred with the diagnosis of familial papillary thyroid carcinoma (FPTC). The results were compared with a control group. Thyroid palpation and TSH and TPO-Ab assessment was carried out in the relatives without a diagnosed PTC. Additionally, molecular analysis was performed in the sixteen affected patients. Clinical screening of the 79 family members showed the presence of goiter in 22/79 (29 %). This frequency was much higher than that observed in the control group (8.7%), p < 0.001. Hypothyroidism was found in 4 of the relatives (5%) vs. 2.5% observed in the control group, p < 0.01, and anti-thyroid antibodies (TPO-Ab) were positive in 14% of the relative's group vs. 10 % in the control group, (p = NS). In the molecular analysis, only a protooncogene TRK rearrangement was observed in family # 6. In conclusion, we found a higher incidence of goiter and hypothyroidism in the relatives of patients with FPTC. Nevertheless, TPO-Ab frequency was not different. No molecular abnormalities were indicative of a specific pattern in this subset of patients with FPTC.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Following radioiodine (RI) therapy for multinodular goiter (MNG), 4% to 5% of patients are reported to develop Graves' hyperthyroidism. To show a new protocol for the administration of RI in MNG and to illustrate an infrequent adverse event observed after the RI dose.
Methods: A 70-year-old euthyroid woman with a tracheal compression and displacement. Baseline serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was 1.1 mUI/mL, and RI uptake was 10% at 24 hours. The patient refused surgical treatment. We decided to employ a special protocol for increasing the thyroid uptake of 131I. Methyl mercaptoimidazol (MMI) was administered orally (30 mg/d) to increase TSH levels. Thyroid hormones were measured monthly. Three months after initiation of MMI treatment, TSH levels increased to 5.3 mUI/mL, and thyroid RI uptake increased to 57% at 24 hours with more uniform uptake. She received an RI dose of 30 mCI131I. Six weeks later, she was euthyroid. Six months later, a CT showed a decrease in the thyroid size, but she was overtly hyperthyroid (TSH <0.05 mUI/mL, T3 = 442 ng/dL, T4 = 4.8 μg/mL, and TSH receptor antibodies, TRAb >55% [NV <10%]).
Conclusion: We present this case to describe an infrequent adverse complication of RI administration in patients with MNG. We also illustrate an alternative protocol for the administration of RI dose in such patients.
The Endocrinologist 12/2009; 20(1):7-9. · 0.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of thyroid nodules and cancer have recently been published. However, recommended practices are not always appropriate to different settings or countries. The aim of this consensus was to develop Clinical Guidelines for evaluation and management of patients with thyroid nodules applicable to Latin American countries. The panel was composed by 13 members of the Latin American Thyroid Society involved with research and management of thyroid nodules and cancer from different medical centers in Latin America. The consensus was produced based on the expert opinion of the panel with use of principles of evidence-based medicine. Following a group meeting, a first draft based on the expert opinion of the panel was elaborated and later circulated among panel members for further revision. After revision, this document was submitted to all LATS members for commentaries and considerations and finally revised and refined by the authors. The final recommendations represent state of the art on management of thyroid nodules applied to all Latin American countries.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aims of these recommendations were to develop clinical guidelines for evaluation and management of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer applicable to Latin American countries. The panel was composed by 13 members of the Latin American Thyroid Society (LATS) involved with research and management of thyroid cancer from different medical centers in Latin America. The recommendations were produced on the basis of the expert opinion of the panel with use of principles of Evidence-Based Medicine. Following a group meeting, a first draft based on evidences and the expert opinions of the panel was elaborated and, later, circulated among panel members, for further revision. After, this document was submitted to the LATS members, for commentaries and considerations, and, finally, revised and refined by the authors. The final recommendations presented in this paper represent the state of the art on management of differentiated thyroid cancer applied to all Latin American countries.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with insulin resistance (IR) have a higher prevalence of thyroid nodules. In the present study, we present original data showing that patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) also have a higher frequency of IR.
Twenty women with DTC (group 1, G1) and 20 euthyroid individuals (control group, CG) were investigated for IR. G1 and CG subjects were matched in pairs by age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). The diagnosis of IR was made when the homeostasis model assesment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index was higher than 2.5. According to the BMI, 20 women (10 with DTC and 10 of the CG) had a BMI < 25, whereas the other 20 had higher BMI values (overweight and obese patients).
IR was present in the 50% of G1, but only in the 10% of the CG (P < 0.001). In the groups with lower BMI (<25), we found IR in 30% of G1 and no cases in the CG, whereas in those with BMI > 25 the IR was present in 70% of G1 and 20% of CG. There were no differences between the two subgroups regarding the time in which the IR tests were performed. IR was present in 56.3% of patient with papillary anol 25% of follicular thyroid carcinomas, respectively.
We conclude that such a high prevalence of IR would be an important risk factor for developing DTC, as it is well known with some other nonthyroid carcinomas.
Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders 04/2009; 7(4):375-80. · 1.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Due to the observation of a great number of patients having achrocordons, when they underwent fine needle biopsies for thyroid nodules, we decided to perform a prospective study to investigate the relationship between this finding and the presence of insulin resistance (IR), since achrocordons are commonly seen in hyperinsulinemic subjects. A total of 120 consecutive women, aged 18-35 yrs were studied. All subjects were also evaluated by thyroid ultrasound (US) for measuring thyroid volume and the presence of non-palpable nodules. Basal and post-prandial serum insulin was measured in all of them, as well as the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA). Subjects were divided in two groups: Group A, with achrocordons (n = 44) and Group B, without achrocordons (n = 76). Group A showed 24 patients (54.5%) with thyroid nodules, whereas Group B only 13 subjects (17.1%); p = 0.0087. When we considered, as having high normal thyroid volume, the glands weighting more than 16 grams by US, without nodules, it was found that 8/44 cases from Group A (18.6%) and 3/76 from Group B (3.9%) fitted in such category, p = 0.0076. In patients with nodules and/or bigger thyroids, IR was observed in 36/44 (81.8%) of Group A and 14/76 (18.4%) of Group B, p = 0.0069, while the overall prevalence of IR was 0.47 in Group A and 0.05 in Group B, p = 0.00094. It is concluded that patients with achrocordons have a higher prevalence of US-detected thyroid nodules and larger thyroid glands. Then, it may be beneficial to search for thyroid abnormalities in those subjects with skin tags.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In some countries, in order to perform rhTSH-aided thyroid remnant ablation (TRA) after surgery, it is generally necessary to confirm that thyroidectomy has been almost complete. Otherwise, the nuclear medicine specialist will not administer a high radioiodine dose because it might be hazardous due to the possibility of thyroid remnant actinic thyroiditis. Considering this, it would be necessary to use two rhTSH kits (one for diagnostic purposes and the other one to administer the 131I dose). In this study, we used an alternative protocol for TRA with the use of one kit of rhTSH in twenty patients diagnosed with low risk papillary thyroid carcinoma. All patients had negative titers of anti-thyroglobulin antibodies. Successful thyroid remnant ablation was confirmed with an undetectable rhTSH stimulated thyroglobulin level (< 1 ng/ml) in all 20 patients between 8 to 12 months after radioiodine administration. The use of this protocol combining scintigraphy with the subsequent administration of a therapeutic dose following the administration of one kit of rhTSH would avoid the need of using 2 kits to perform the ablation and would decrease the costs associated with its use while significantly enhancing the quality of life of patients with thyroid cancer.