[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess a new adenovirus-based immunotherapy as a novel treatment approach to chronic hepatitis B (CHB).
TG1050 is a non-replicative adenovirus serotype 5 encoding a unique large fusion protein composed of a truncated HBV Core, a modified HBV Polymerase and two HBV Envelope domains. We used a recently described HBV-persistent mouse model based on a recombinant adenovirus-associated virus encoding an over length genome of HBV that induces the chronic production of HBsAg, HBeAg and infectious HBV particles to assess the ability of TG1050 to induce functional T cells in face of a chronic status.
In in vitro studies, TG1050 was shown to express the expected large polyprotein together with a dominant, smaller by-product. Following a single administration in mice, TG1050 induced robust, multispecific and long-lasting HBV-specific T cells detectable up to 1 year post-injection. These cells target all three encoded immunogens and display bifunctionality (ie, capacity to produce both interferon γ and tumour necrosis factor α as well as cytolytic functions). In addition, control of circulating levels of HBV DNA and HBsAg was observed while alanine aminotransferase levels remain in the normal range.
Injection of TG1050 induced both splenic and intrahepatic functional T cells producing cytokines and displaying cytolytic activity in HBV-naïve and HBV-persistent mouse models together with significant reduction of circulating viral parameters. These results warrant clinical evaluation of TG1050 in the treatment of CHB.
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[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) are macromolecules composed of cytotoxic drugs covalently attached via a conditionally stable linker to monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). ADCs are among most promising next generation of empowered mAbs foreseen to treat cancers. Compared to naked mAbs, ADCs have increased level of complexity as the heterogeneity of conjugation cumulates with the inherent micro-variability of the biomolecule. An increasing need underlying ADC's development and optimization is to improve its analytical and bioanalytical characterization by assessing three main ADC quality attributes: drug distribution, amount of naked antibody and average drug to antibody ratio (DAR). Here, the analytical potential of native mass spectrometry (MS) and native ion mobility MS (IM-MS) is compared to hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC), the reference method for quality control of interchain cysteinyl-linked ADCs. Brentuximab vedotin, first in class and gold standard, was chosen for a proof of principle. High resolution native MS provided accurate mass measurement (<30 ppm) of intact ADCs together with average DAR and drug distribution, confirming the unique ability of native MS for simultaneous detection of mixtures of covalent and non-covalent products. Native IM-MS was next used for the first time to characterize an ADC. IM-MS evidenced ADC multiple drug loading, collisional cross sections measurement of each payload species attesting slight conformational changes. A semi-quantitative interpretation of IM-MS data was developed to directly extrapolate average DAR and DAR distribution. Additionnaly, HIC fractions were collected and analyzed by native MS and IM-MS, assessing the interpretation of each HIC peak. Altogether, our results illustrate how native MS and IM-MS can rapidly assess ADC structural heterogeneity and how easily these methods can be implemented into MS workflows for in-depth ADC analytical characterization.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biogenesis of eukaryotic box C/D small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein particles (C/D snoRNPs) involves conserved trans-acting factors, which are proposed to facilitate the assembly of the core proteins Snu13p/15.5K, Nop58p/NOP58, Nop56p/NOP56 and Nop1p/Fibrillarin on box C/D small nucleolar RNAs (C/D snoRNAs). In yeast, protein Rsa1 acts as a platform, interacting with both the RNA-binding core protein Snu13 and protein Pih1 of the Hsp82-R2TP chaperone complex. In this work, a proteomic approach coupled with functional and structural studies identifies protein Hit1 as a novel Rsa1p-interacting partner involved in C/D snoRNP assembly. Hit1p contributes to in vivo C/D snoRNA stability and pre-RNA maturation kinetics. It associates with U3 snoRNA precursors and influences its 3'-end processing. Remarkably, Hit1p is required to maintain steady-state levels of Rsa1p. This stabilizing activity is likely to be general across eukaryotic species, as the human protein ZNHIT3(TRIP3) showing sequence homology with Hit1p regulates the abundance of NUFIP1, the Rsa1p functional homolog. The nuclear magnetic resonance solution structure of the Rsa1p317-352-Hit1p70-164 complex reveals a novel mode of protein-protein association explaining the strong stability of the Rsa1p-Hit1p complex. Our biochemical data show that C/D snoRNAs and the core protein Nop58 can interact with the purified Snu13p-Rsa1p-Hit1p heterotrimer.
Nucleic Acids Research 08/2014; · 8.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Complete starvation may prove lethal due to excessive loss of body proteins. However, it is still not completely understood whether responses to food deprivation are time-dependently induced or triggered in relation with the successive phases of protein sparing and wasting that characterize prolonged fasting. As the liver has a wide range of vital functions, we examined the hepatic regulatory mechanisms elicited during prolonged fasting. We showed that fasting-induced transcriptome/proteome changes occur in close relation with fuel partitioning, independently of ATP levels. Omics data suggesting a worsening of oxidative stress during the proteolytic stage of fasting, this was further validated using biochemical assays. Low levels of antioxidant factors were indeed paralleled by their decreased activity, which could be impaired by low NADPH levels. Oxidative damages on lipids and proteins were accordingly increased only during late fasting. At this stage, the gene/protein expression of several chaperones was also repressed. Together with the impairment of metabolic achievements, a vicious cycle involving protein misfolding and oxidative stress could jeopardize liver functions when the proteolytic stage of fasting is reached. Thus, monitoring of liver impairments should help to better manage or treat catabolic and/or oxidative stress conditions, such as ageing and degeneration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Botryosphaeria dieback is a fungal grapevine trunk disease that currently
represents a threat for viticulture worldwide because of the important economical losses
due to reduced yield of affected plants and their premature death. Neofusicoccum parvum
and Diplodia seriata are among the causal agents. Vine green stems were artificially
infected with N. parvum or D. seriata at the onset of three different phenological stages
(G stage (separated clusters), flowering and veraison). Highest mean lesion lengths were
recorded at flowering. Major proteome changes associated to artificial infections during
the three different phenological stages were also reported using two dimensional gel
electrophoresis (2D)-based analysis. Twenty (G stage), 15 (flowering) and 13 (veraison)
differentially expressed protein spots were subjected to nanoLC-MS/MS and a total of 247,
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15 9645
54 and 25 proteins were respectively identified. At flowering, a weaker response to
the infection was likely activated as compared to the other stages, and some
defense-related proteins were even down regulated (e.g., superoxide dismutase, major
latex-like protein, and pathogenesis related protein 10). Globally, the flowering period
seemed to represent the period of highest sensitivity of grapevine to Botryosphaeria dieback
agent infection, possibly being related to the high metabolic activity in the inflorescences.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 05/2014; 15:9644-9669. · 2.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Among fungal grapevine trunk diseases, esca proper poses a significant threat for viticulture. Apoplexy, mainly occurring on grapevines affected by esca proper, is also a threat. To verify if different responses are activated in the woody tissues of apoplectic (A) and esca proper-affected (E) vines, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry analysis was used to examine changes in the trunk wood of E and A field-grown plants. Asymptomatic and black streaked trunk (BST) wood from A and E plants were compared to asymptomatic and BST wood of control plants. Twenty-seven differentially expressed protein spots were identified. For eleven targeted proteins, expression of the relative transcripts was also monitored by qRT-PCR. Hierarchical tree clustering revealed differences in the distribution of spots containing carbohydrate metabolism proteins and heat shock proteins between asymptomatic- and BST-wood of grapevine, irrespective of the type of plant examined (control or diseased grapevines). Asymptomatic wood was mainly characterized by down-expression of proteins involved in cell growth and defense responses. The proteome of BST wood, characterized by extensive presence of grapevine trunk disease agents, revealed over-expression of proteins involved in defense. There was no evidence of strong different response in the trunk wood of apoplectic and esca proper affected plants. This could mean that, despite the different feature of these external crown symptoms, grapevine responses at trunk wood level is very similar in both cases. This plant response might therefore either simply be due to the fact that plants can react in the same way to different stresses, or that apoplexy represents a different effect provoked by the same cause or causal agent(s).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fusarium graminearum was grown on four lignocellulosic substrates (corn cobs, wheat bran, hop cell walls, and birchwood) and glucose as the sole carbon source. Proteomic studies performed on the resulting enzymatic cocktails highlighted a great diversity in the number and type of proteins secreted. The cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDE) proportion varied greatly from 20% to 69%. Only 1 of the 57 CWDEs detected in this study was common to the five proteomes. In contrast, 35 CWDEs were specific to one proteome only. The polysaccharide-degradation activities were different depending on the cocktail and the polysaccharide used. F. graminearum strongly modifies the enzymatic cocktail it secretes as a function of the biomass used for growth. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two different zinc oxide nanoparticles, as well as zinc ions, are used to study the cellular responses of the RAW 264 macrophage cell line. A proteomic screen is used to provide a wide view of the molecular effects of zinc, and the most prominent results are cross-validated by targeted studies. Furthermore, the alteration of important macrophage functions (e.g. phagocytosis) by zinc is also investigated. The intracellular dissolution/uptake of zinc is also studied to further characterize zinc toxicity. Zinc oxide nanoparticles dissolve readily in the cells, leading to high intracellular zinc concentrations, mostly as protein-bound zinc. The proteomic screen reveals a rather weak response in the oxidative stress response pathway, but a strong response both in the central metabolism and in the proteasomal protein degradation pathway. Targeted experiments confirm that carbohydrate catabolism and proteasome are critical determinants of sensitivity to zinc, which also induces DNA damage. Conversely, glutathione levels and phagocytosis appear unaffected at moderately toxic zinc concentrations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Botryosphaeria dieback is a fungal grapevine trunk disease which represents a threat for viticulture worldwide due to the decreased production of affected plants and their premature death. This dieback is characterized by a typical wood discoloration called "brown stripe". Herein, a proteome comparison of the brown striped wood from Botryosphaeria dieback-affected standing vines cultivar 'Chardonnay', 'Gewurztraminer' and 'Mourvèdre' was performed. The transcript analysis for 15 targeted genes and the quantification of both total phenolics and specific stilbenes were also performed. Several pathogenesis-related proteins and members of the antioxidant system were more abundant in the brown striped wood of the three cultivars, whereas other defense-related proteins were less abundant. Additionally, total phenolics and some specific stilbenes were more accumulated in the brown striped wood. Strongest differences among the cultivars concerned especially proteins of the primary metabolism, which looked to be particularly impaired in the brown striped wood of 'Chardonnay'. Low abundance of some proteins involved in defense response probably contributes to make global response insufficient to avoid the symptom development. The differential susceptibility of the three grapevine cultivars could be linked to the diverse expression of various proteins involved in defense response, stress tolerance and metabolism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The nuclear bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is an important transcriptional regulator of bile acid, lipid, and glucose metabolism. FXR is highly expressed in the liver and intestine and controls the synthesis and enterohepatic circulation of bile acids. However, little is known about FXR-associated proteins that contribute to metabolic regulation. Here, we performed a mass spectrometry-based search for FXR-interacting proteins in human hepatoma cells and identified AMPK as a coregulator of FXR. FXR interacted with the nutrient-sensitive kinase AMPK in the cytoplasm of target cells and was phosphorylated in its hinge domain. In cultured human and murine hepatocytes and enterocytes, pharmacological activation of AMPK inhibited FXR transcriptional activity and prevented FXR coactivator recruitment to promoters of FXR-regulated genes. Furthermore, treatment with AMPK activators, including the antidiabetic biguanide metformin, inhibited FXR agonist induction of FXR target genes in mouse liver and intestine. In a mouse model of intrahepatic cholestasis, metformin treatment induced FXR phosphorylation, perturbed bile acid homeostasis, and worsened liver injury. Together, our data indicate that AMPK directly phosphorylates and regulates FXR transcriptional activity to precipitate liver injury under conditions favoring cholestasis.
The Journal of clinical investigation 02/2014; · 15.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One of the major bottlenecks in the proteomics field today resides in the computational interpretation of the massive data generated by the latest generation of high-throughput mass spectrometry instruments. MS/MS datasets are constantly increasing in size and complexity and it becomes challenging to comprehensively process such huge datasets and afterwards deduce most relevant biological information. The Mass Spectrometry Data Analysis (MSDA, https://msda.unistra.fr) online software suite provides a series of modules for in-depth MS/MS data analysis. It includes a custom databases generation toolbox, modules for filtering and extracting high-quality spectra, for running high performance database and de novo searches, and for extracting modified peptides spectra and functional annotations. Additionally, MSDA enables running the most computationally intensive steps, i.e. database and de novo searches, on a computer grid thus providing a net time gain of up to 99% for data processing. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Commitment to splicing occurs co-transcriptionally, but a major unanswered question is the extent to which various modifications of chromatin, the template for transcription in vivo, contribute to the regulation of splicing.
Here we perform genome-wide analyses showing that inhibition of specific marks - H2B ubiquitylation, H3K4 methylation, and H3K36 methylation - perturbs splicing in budding yeast, with each modification exerting gene-specific effects. Furthermore, semi-quantitative mass spectrometry on purified nuclear mRNPs and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis on intron-containing genes indicated that H2B ubiquitylation, but not Set1-, Set2- or Dot1-dependent H3 methylation, stimulates recruitment of the early splicing factors, namely U1 and U2 snRNPs, onto nascent RNAs.
These results suggest that histone modifications impact splicing of distinct subsets of genes using distinct pathways. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract We report a new slow-moving δ chain hemoglobin (Hb) variant, named Hb A2-Konz [δ50(D1)Ser → Thr; HBD: c.151T > A]. It was detected during simultaneous measurement of Hb A1C and Hb A2 by high resolution cation exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a PolyCATA column. Hb A2-Konz comprised 0.8% of total Hb. This new variant was identified by peptide mapping using nanoliquid chromatography electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-ESI-MS/MS) as a serine to threonine substitution at δ50(D1), indicating that the variant was due to a single base change at codon 51 (TCT > ACT) of the δ-globin gene. The new mutant is clinically silent but could lead to a misdiagnosis of β-thalassemia (β-thal) based on the level of Hb A2.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: No Crohn's disease (CD) molecular maker has advanced to clinical use, and independent lines of evidence support a central role of the gut microbial community in CD. Here we explore the feasibility of extracting bacterial protein signals relevant to CD, by interrogating myriads of intestinal bacterial proteomes from a small number of patients and healthy controls.
We first developed and validated a workflow-including extraction of microbial communities, two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), and LC-MS/MS-to discover protein signals from CD-associated gut microbial communities. Then we used selected reaction monitoring (SRM) to confirm a set of candidates. In parallel, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing for an integrated analysis of gut ecosystem structure and functions.
Our 2D-DIGE-based discovery approach revealed an imbalance of intestinal bacterial functions in CD. Many proteins, largely derived from Bacteroides species, were over-represented, while under-represented proteins were mostly from Firmicutes and some Prevotella members. Most overabundant proteins could be confirmed using SRM. They correspond to functions allowing opportunistic pathogens to colonise the mucus layers, breach the host barriers and invade the mucosae, which could still be aggravated by decreased host-derived pancreatic zymogen granule membrane protein GP2 in CD patients. Moreover, although the abundance of most protein groups reflected that of related bacterial populations, we found a specific independent regulation of bacteria-derived cell envelope proteins.
This study provides the first evidence that quantifiable bacterial protein signals are associated with CD, which can have a profound impact on future molecular diagnosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel class of chemospecific reagents, 3-arylpropiolonitriles (APN), for thiol labelling has been developed. Rapid kinetics and high selectivity of the reaction meet remarkable stability of educts and addition products in aqueous media, human plasma and living cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During sexual reproduction, pollen performance is greatly influenced by the female tissues. The stigma exudate, i.e., the extracellular secretion that covers the stigma outermost surface, has been usually regarded as a reservoir of water, secondary metabolites, cell wall precursors and compounds that serve as energy supply for rapid pollen tube growth. In an attempt to identify the proteins present in the stigma secretome, we performed a large-scale analysis in two species (Lilium longiflorum and Olea europaea) following a proteomic-based approach. The resulting data strongly suggest that the stigma exudate is not a mere storage site but also a biochemically active environment with a markedly catabolic nature. Thus, this secretion may modulate early pollen tube growth and contribute to the senescence of stigma after pollination. In addition, a putative cross-talk between genetic programs that regulate stress/defense and pollination responses in the stigma is also suggested. The stigma exudate might also functionally diverge between species on the basis on their ecology and the biochemical, morphological and anatomical features of their stigmas. Unexpectedly, we identified in both exudates some intracellular proteins, suggesting that a mechanism other than the canonical ER-Golgi exocytic pathway may exist in the stigma and contribute to exudate secretion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glioblastomas (GBMs) are highly aggressive, invasive brain tumors with bad prognosis and unmet medical need. These tumors are heterogeneous being constituted by a variety of cells in different states of differentiation. Among these, cells endowed with stem properties, tumor initiating/propagating properties and particularly resistant to chemo- and radiotherapies are designed as the real culprits for tumor maintenance and relapse after treatment. These cells, termed cancer stem-like cells, have been designed as prominent targets for new and more efficient cancer therapies. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), a family of membrane receptors, play a prominent role in cell signaling, cell communication and crosstalk with the microenvironment. Their role in cancer has been highlighted but remains largely unexplored. Here, we report a descriptive study of the differential expression of the endo-GPCR repertoire in human glioblastoma cancer stem-like cells (GSCs), U-87 MG cells, human astrocytes and fetal neural stem cells (f-NSCs). The endo-GPCR transcriptome has been studied using Taqman Low Density Arrays. Of the 356 GPCRs investigated, 138 were retained for comparative studies between the different cell types. At the transcriptomic level, eight GPCRs were specifically expressed/overexpressed in GSCs. Seventeen GPCRs appeared specifically expressed in cells with stem properties (GSCs and f-NSCs). Results of GPCR expression at the protein level using mass spectrometry and proteomic analysis are also presented. The comparative GPCR expression study presented here gives clues for new pathways specifically used by GSCs and unveils novel potential therapeutic targets.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(3):e91519. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Life history theories predict that investment in current reproduction comes at a cost for future reproduction and survival. Oxidative stress is one of the best documented mechanisms underlying costs of reproduction to date. However, other, yet to be described molecular mechanisms that play a short term role during reproduction may explain the negative relationships underlying the cost of reproduction. To identify such new mechanisms, we used a global proteomic determination of liver protein profiles in laboratory adult female mice whose litter size had been either reduced or enlarged after birth. This litter size manipulation was expected to affect females by either raising or decreasing their current reproductive effort. At the same time, global parameters and levels of oxidative stress were also measured in all females.
Based on plasma analyses, females with enlarged litters exhibited increased levels of oxidative stress at the date of weaning compared to females with reduced litters, while no significant difference was found between both the latter groups and control females. None of the liver proteins related to oxidative balance were significantly affected by the experimental treatment. In contrast, the liver protein profiles of females with enlarged and reduced litters suggested that calcium metabolism and cell growth regulation were negatively affected by changes in the number of pup reared.
Plasma oxidative stress levels in reproductive mice revealed that the degree of investment in reproduction can actually incur a cost in terms of plasmatic oxidative stress, their initial investment in reproduction being close to maximum and remaining at a same level when the energy demand of lactation is reduced. Liver proteomic profiles in reproductive females show that hepatic oxidative stress is unlikely to be involved in the cost of reproduction. Reproductive females rather exhibited liver protein profiles similar to those previously described in laboratory ageing mice, thus suggesting that hepatic cell pro-ageing processes may be involved in the cost of reproduction. Overall, our data illustrate how a proteomic approach can unravel new mechanisms sustaining life-history trade-offs, and reproduction costs in particular.
Frontiers in Zoology 01/2014; 11:41. · 3.87 Impact Factor