[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The phylogenetic relationships of the 3 Neodiplostomum spp. (Digenea: Neodiplostomidae) occurring in Korea (N. seoulense, N. leei, and N. boryongense) were analyzed using the partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene. The adult flukes were recovered from Sprague-Dawley rats (N. seoulense) and newborn chicks (N. leei and N. boryongense) experimentally infected with the neodiplostomula from the grass snake, Rhabdophis tigrinus tigrinus. The genomic DNA was amplified using specific primers, and the sequence of CO1 was obtained. According to the results, the pairwise similarity was 96.1% between N. boryongense and N. seoulense, but was 95.0% between N. boryongense and N. leei and 94.2% between N. leei and N. seoulense. The results demonstrated a closer phylogenetic relationship between N. seoulense and N. boryongense. This high relationship of N. seoulense and N. boryongense may be related to their similar morphologic features including the limited distribution of vitellaria and the presence of a genital cone. N. leei is distinct on the other hand with an extensive distribution of vitellaria and the absence of a genital cone.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology 06/2014; 52(3):325-9. · 0.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plasmodium vivax reemerged in the Republic of Korea (ROK) in 1993, and is likely to continue to affect public health. The purpose of this study was to measure levels of anti-P. vivax antibodies using indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) in border areas of ROK, to determine the seroprevalence of malaria (2003-2005) and to plan effective control strategies. Blood samples of the inhabitants in Gimpo-si, Paju-si, and Yeoncheon-gun (Gyeonggi-do), and Cheorwon-gun (Gangwon-do) were collected and kept in Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC). Out of a total of 1,774 serum samples tested, the overall seropositivity was 0.94% (n=17). The seropositivity was the highest in Paju-si (1.9%, 7/372), followed by Gimpo-si (1.4%, 6/425), Yeoncheon-gun (0.67%, 3/451), and Cheorwon-gun (0.19%, 1/526). The annual parasite incidence (API) in these areas gradually decreased from 2003 to 2005 (1.69, 1.09, and 0.80 in 2003, 2004, and 2005, respectively). The highest API was found in Yeoncheon-gun, followed by Cheorwon-gun, Paju-si, and Gimpo-si. The API ranking in these areas did not change over the 3 years. The seropositivity of Gimpo-si showed a strong linear relationship with the API of 2005 (r=0.9983, P=0.036). Seropositivity data obtained using IFAT may be useful for understanding malaria prevalence of relevant years, predicting future transmission of malaria, and for establishing and evaluating malaria control programs in affected areas.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology 02/2014; 52(1):1-7. · 0.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plasmodium vivax re-emerged in 1993. Although the number of infections has been steadily decreasing, it is likely to continue to affect public health until it is eradicated. The aim of this study is to measure anti-circumsporozoite protein (CSP) antibody and compare malaria prevalence. As to understand the prevalence, an epidemiology study has to be conducted in the Republic of Korea.
A total of 1,825 and 1,959 blood samples were collected in 2010 and 2011, respectively, from the inhabitants of Ganghwa and Cheorwon counties. The antibody titers of the inhabitants were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using recombinant protein purified from Escherichia coli transformed with a CSP gene-inserted pET-28a(+) expression vector. Microscopic examination was performed to identify malaria parasites.
The annual parasite incidence (API) in Ganghwa decreased from 4.28 in 2010 to 2.23 in 2011, and that in Cheorwon decreased from 1.88 in 2010 to 1.15 in 2011. The antibody-positive CSP rate in these areas also decreased from 18.14% (331/1825) in 2010 to 15.36% (301/1959) in 2011. Pearson analysis showed a strong correlation between the API and the antibody-positive CSP rate in these areas (r = 1.000, P < 0.01). The intensity of the immune responses of the inhabitants of Cheorwon, as measured by the mean optical density, decreased from 0.9186 +/- 0.0472 in 2010 to 0.7035 +/- 0.0457 in 2011 (P = 0.034), but increased in Ganghwa from 0.7649 +/- 0.0192 in 2010 to 0.8237 +/- 0.1970 in 2011 (P = 0.006). The immune response increased according to age (r = 0.686, P = 0.041).
The positive CSP-ELISA rate was closely related to the API in the study areas. This suggests that seroepidemiological studies based on CSP-ELISA may be helpful in estimating the malaria prevalence. Moreover, such studies can be used to establish and evaluate malaria control and eradication programmes in high-risk areas in Korea.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: After the re-emergence of Plasmodium vivax in 1993, a total of 31,254 cases of vivax malaria were reported between 1993--2012 in the Republic of Korea (ROK). The purpose of this study was to review Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention records to investigate the transmission of malaria from 2010--2012.
Reporting of microscopy-diagnosed cases of malaria is mandatory in the ROK. In this study, all available records of malaria cases and malaria vectors collected from 2010 -- 2012 in Cheorwon County, Gangwon Province and Ganghwa County, Incheon Metropolitan City, were reviewed.
Although the number of cases of malaria peaked a third time in 2010 (1,772 cases) since the re-emergence of P. vivax, the incidence decreased two-fold to 838 in 2011 and three-fold to 555 in 2012. The number of cases decreased 52.7% in 2011 compared with that in 2010 and 33.8% in 2012 compared with that in 2011. However, the number of cases increased in Incheon Metropolitan City (15.3%) and Gyeongnam Province (23.1%) in 2012 compared with 2011. Of the 3,165 cases of vivax malaria in 2010--2012, 798 (25.2%) were in ROK military personnel, 519 (16.4%) in veterans, and 1,848 (58.4%) in civilians. In total, there were 2,666 male patients and 499 female patients, and the ratio of female to male patients increased from 1:7.9 in 2011 to 1:4.1 in 2012.
A rapid decrease in the incidence of malaria was observed in most areas from 2010 to 2012, but the incidence increased again in the western part of the demilitarized zone. Therefore, more intensive surveillance is needed throughout high risk areas to identify factors responsible for increase/decrease in the incidence of malaria in the ROK.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microscopic examination of eggs of parasitic helminths in stool samples has been the most widely used classical diagnostic method for infections, but tiny and low numbers of eggs in stool samples often hamper diagnosis of helminthic infections with classical microscopic examination. Moreover, it is also difficult to differentiate parasite eggs by the classical method, if they have similar morphological characteristics. In this study, we developed a rapid and sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular diagnostic method for detection of Clonorchis sinensis eggs in stool samples. Nine primers were designed based on the long-terminal repeat (LTR) of C. sinensis retrotransposon1 (CsRn1) gene, and seven PCR primer sets were paired. Polymerase chain reaction with each primer pair produced specific amplicons for C. sinensis, but not for other trematodes including Metagonimus yokogawai and Paragonimus westermani. Particularly, three primer sets were able to detect 10 C. sinensis eggs and were applicable to amplify specific amplicons from DNA samples purified from stool of C. sinensis-infected patients. This PCR method could be useful for diagnosis of C. sinensis infections in human stool samples with a high level of specificity and sensitivity.
Pathogens and global health. 07/2013; 107(5):253-9.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Transmission-blocking vaccines (TBVs), which target the sexual stages of malaria parasites to interfere with and/or inhibit the parasite's development within mosquitoes, have been regarded as promising targets for disrupting the malaria transmission cycle.In this study, genetic diversity of four TBV candidate antigens, Pvs25, Pvs28, Pvs48/45, and PvWARP, among Plasmodium vivax Korean isolates was analysed. METHODS: A total of 86 P. vivax-infected blood samples collected from patients in Korea were used for analyses. Each of the full-length genes encoding four TBV candidate antigens, Pvs25, Pvs28, Pvs48/45, and PvWARP, were amplified by PCR, cloned into T&A vector, and then sequenced. Polymorphic characteristics of the genes were analysed using the DNASTAR, MEGA4, and DnaSP programs. RESULTS: Polymorphism analyses of the 86 Korean P. vivax isolates revealed two distinct haplotypes in Pvs25 and Pvs48/45, and three different haplotypes in PvWARP. In contrast, Pvs28 showed only a single haplotype. Most of the nucleotide substitutions and amino acid changes identified in all four TBV candidate antigens were commonly found in P. vivax isolates from other geographic areas. The overall nucleotide diversities of the TBV candidates were much lower than those of blood stage antigens. CONCLUSIONS: Limited sequence polymorphisms of TBV candidate antigens were identified in the Korean P. vivax population. These results provide baseline information for developing an effective TBV based on these antigens, and offer great promise for applications of a TBV against P. vivax infection in regions where the parasite is most prevalent.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein (PvDBP) is a micronemal type I membrane protein that plays an essential role in erythrocyte invasion of merozoites. PvDBP is a prime blood stage vaccine candidate antigen against P. vivax, but its polymorphic nature represents a major obstacle to the successful design of a protective vaccine against vivax malaria. In this study, we analyzed the genetic polymorphism and natural selection at the N-terminal cysteine-rich region of PvDBP (PvDBPII) among 70 P. vivax isolates collected from Korean patients during 2005-2010. Seventeen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), which resulted in 14 non-synonymous and 3 synonymous mutations, were found in PvDBPII among the Korean P. vivax isolates. Sequence analyses revealed that 13 different PvDBPII haplotypes, which were clustered into 3 distinct clades, were identified in Korean P. vivax isolates. The difference between the rates of nonsynomyous and synonymous mutations suggested that the region has evolved under natural selection. High selective pressure preferentially acted on regions identified or predicted to be B- and T-cell epitopes and MHC binding regions of PvDBPII. Recombination may also contribute to genetic diversity of PvDBPII. Our results suggest that PvDBPII of Korean P. vivax isolates display a limited genetic polymorphism and are under selective pressure. These results have significant implications for understanding the nature of the P. vivax population circulating in Korea and provide useful information for development of malaria vaccines based on this antigen.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acanthamoeba spp. are free-living amoebae, but opportunistic infections of some strains of the organisms cause severe diseases such as acanthamoebic keratitis, pneumonitis, and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis in human. In this study, we identified a gene encoding iron superoxide dismutase of Acanthamoeba castellanii (AcFe-SOD) and characterized biochemical and functional properties of the recombinant enzyme. Multiple sequence alignment of the deduced amino acid sequence of AcFe-SOD with those of previously reported iron-containing SODs (Fe-SODs) from other protozoan parasites showed that AcFe-SOD shared common metal-binding residues and motifs that are conserved in Fe-SODs. The genomic length of the AcFe-SOD gene was 926 bp consisting of five exons interrupted by four introns. The recombinant AcFe-SOD showed similar biochemical characteristics with its native enzyme and shared typical biochemical properties with other characterized Fe-SODs, including molecular structure, broad pH optimum, and sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide. Immunolocalization analysis revealed that the enzyme localized in the cytosol of the trophozoites. Activity and expression level of the enzyme were significantly increased under oxidative stressed conditions. These results collectively suggest that AcFe-SOD may play essential roles in the survival of the parasite not only by protecting itself from endogenous oxidative stress but also by detoxifying oxidative killing of the parasite by host immune effector cells.
Parasitology Research 07/2012; 111(4):1673-82. · 2.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A gene encoding the manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) of Spirometra erinacei was identified, and the biochemical properties of the recombinant enzyme were partially characterized. The S. erinacei Mn-SOD gene consisted of 669 bp, which encoded 222 amino acids. A sequence analysis of the gene showed that it had typical molecular structures, including characteristic metal-binding residues and motifs that were conserved in Mn-SODs. An analysis of the N-terminal presequence of S. erinacei Mn-SOD revealed that it had physiochemical characteristics commonly found in mitochondria-targeting sequences and predicted that the enzyme is located in the mitochondria. A biochemical analysis also revealed that the enzyme is a typical Mn-SOD. The enzyme was consistently expressed in both S. erinacei plerocercoid larvae and adult worms. Our results collectively suggested that S. erinacei Mn-SOD is a typical mitochondrial Mn-SOD and may play an important role in parasite physiology, detoxifying excess superoxide radicals generated in the mitochondria.
Journal of Parasitology 06/2011; 97(6):1106-12. · 1.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adult worms of Parvatrema spp. (Digenea: Gymnophallidae) were found in the intestines of 2 species of migratory birds, i.e., a great knot, Calidris tenuirostris, and 2 Mongolian plovers, Charadrius mongolus, in the coastal area of Gunsan-si, Jeollabuk-do in October 2009. The recovered Parvatrema worms were 79 in total number and composed of 2 species. The worms from a great knot were 289 µm in length with the oral and ventral sucker ratio of 2 : 1. They had a single vitellarium, and their intrauterine eggs were 25.0 x 17.5 µm in size. These findings were compatible with P. duboisi (Dollfus, 1923) Bartoli, 1974 (syn. P. timondavidi Bartoli, 1963). The worms recovered from the Mongolian plovers were smaller in length than P. duboisi and had 2 vitellaria. The oral and ventral sucker ratio was 2.5:1, and the eggs were 17.5 x 8.8 µm in size. These worms were assigned to be P. homoeotecnum James, 1964. This is the first report on the natural final hosts of Parvatrema spp. in Korea.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology 09/2010; 48(3):271-4. · 0.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reptiles were known to serve as paratenic hosts for Centrorhynchus (Acanthocephala: Centrorhynchidae) in Korea, but the infection course in experimental animals was not elucidated yet. In this study, the tiger keelback snakes (Rhabdophis tigrinus) were collected and digested with artificial pepsin solution, and the larvae of Centrorhynchus were recovered from them. Then, the collected larvae were orally infected to rats for developmental observations. In rats, all the larvae were observed outside the intestine on day 3 post-infection (PI), including the mesentery and abdominal muscles. As for the development in rats, the ovary of Centrorhynchus sp. was observed at day 15 PI, and the cement glands were 3 in number. Based on the morphological characteristics, including the arrangement of proboscis hooks, these larvae proved to be a species of Centrorhynchus, and more studies were needed for species identification.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology 06/2010; 48(2):139-43. · 0.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malaria is endemic or hypoendemic in Myanmar and the country still contributes to the high level of malaria deaths in South-East Asia. Although information on the nature and extent of population diversity within malaria parasites in the country is essential not only for understanding the epidemic situation but also to establish a proper control strategy, very little data is currently available on the extent of genetic polymorphisms of the malaria parasites in Myanmar. In this study, we analyzed the genetic polymorphism and natural selection at domain I of the apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) among Plasmodium vivax Myanmar isolates. A total of 34 distinguishable haplotypes were identified among the 76 isolates sequenced. Comparison with the previously available PvAMA-1 sequences in the GenBank database revealed that 21 of them were new haplotypes that have never been reported till date. The difference between the rate of nonsynonymous (dN) and synonymous (dS) mutations was positive (dN-dS, 0.013+/-0.005), suggesting the domain I is under positive natural selection. The Tajima's D statistics was found to be -0.74652, suggesting that the gene has evolved under population size expansion and/or positive selection. The minimum recombination events were also high, indicating that recombination may occur within the domain I resulting in allelic diversity of PvAMA-1. Our results collectively suggest that PvAMA-1 displays high genetic polymorphism among Myanmar P. vivax isolates with highly diversifying selection at domain I. These results have significant implications in understanding the nature of P. vivax population circulating in Myanmar as well as providing useful information for malaria vaccine development based on this antigen.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spirometra erinacei is a pseudophyllidean tapeworm which inhabits the intestines of cats and dogs. The infections are usually asymptomatic in these animals, but the infection of the plerocercoid larvae of the parasite, spargana, cause sparganosis in other vertebrates, including human. In this study, we identified a gene encoding the copper/zinc-superoxide dismutase of S. erinacei (SeCuZn-SOD) and partially characterized the biochemical and functional properties of the enzyme. The open reading frame of SeCuZnSOD was 465 bp that encodes 154 amino acids. The characteristic amino acid residues and motifs required for coordinating copper and zinc enzymatic function were well conserved. The genomic length of the SeCuZnSOD was 1,985 bp consisting of three exons that are separated by two introns. SeCuZnSOD is a typical cytosolic form which shares similar biochemical properties, including broad pH optima and inhibition profile by KCN and H(2)O(2), with cytosolic Cu/Zn-SODs of other organisms. SeCuZnSOD was functionally expressed in both S. erinacei plerocercoid larvae and adult worms, and its expression level was significantly increased when the plerocercoid larvae were treated with paraquat. The enzyme may play essential roles for survival of the parasite not only by protecting itself from endogenous oxidative stress, but also by detoxifying oxidative killing of the parasite by host immune effector cells.
Parasitology Research 02/2010; 106(3):627-35. · 2.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: National surveys on the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections have been carried out every 5-7 years since 1971 in the Republic of Korea in order to establish control measures. The present nationwide survey was conducted from June to December 2004. The 10% population sampling data of Population and Housing Census by the Korean government in 2000 was used as the survey population. One sample was selected randomly from each of the 22,858 registered subjects, and a total of 20,541 people were ultimately included in this survey. Fecal examinations were performed by the cellophane thick smear and saturated brine flotation techniques. Pinworm infection was examined by cello-tape anal swab method. This survey also included a questionnaire study for a socioeconomic analysis. The total helminth egg positive rate was 3.7%, and the estimated total positive number among nationwide people was 1,780,000. The rates in urban and rural areas were 3.1% and 6.8%, respectively. As the total egg positive rate in the 6th survey in 1997 was 2.4%, the present survey showed that there was a considerable degree of increase in the prevalence rate of intestinal parasitic infections over the 7-year period following the 6th survey. The largest increases occurred in the egg positive rates of Clonorchis sinensis and heterophyids including Metagonimus yokogawai.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology 04/2009; 47(1):37-47. · 0.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gynaecotyla squatarolae (Digenea: Microphallidae) adult flukes were recovered from experimental chicks at day 4-6 post-infection and their tegumental ultrastructure was observed with a scanning electron microscopy. They were pyriform in shape, and their anterior halves were concaved ventrally. The whole body surface was covered with tegumental spines, which were wide and 16-17 digitated between oral and ventral suckers. The density of spines and number of digits decreased posteriorly. The oral sucker was subterminal and the excretory pore was at the posterior end of the worm. Two ventral suckers were similar in appearance and protruded near midline of the worm. The genital atrium was dextral to the small ventral sucker. The dorsal surface was covered with tegumental spines, but the spines were sparser than on the ventral surface. On the middle portion of the dorsal surface, a small opening presumed to be the Laurer's canal was seen. From these findings, it has been confirmed that the adult G. squatarolae has unique characteristics in the surface ultrastructure.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology 07/2008; 46(2):87-90. · 0.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new endemic focus of Gymnophalloides seoi infection has been discovered on Aphae Island (Shinangun, Jeollanam-do), Republic of Korea. This area, which is referred to as Bokyong-ri, is a small seashore village located in the northern portion of the island. Fecal samples were collected from a total of 57 residents and examined by the Kato-Katz and formalin-ether sedimentation techniques. Helminth eggs were detected in 37 samples (64.9%); 33 samples were positive for G. seoi eggs (57.9%), 4 for Pygidiopsis summa (7.0%), 13 for other heterophyids (22.8%), 1 for Clonorchis sinensis (1.7%), and 1 for Trichuris trichiura (1.7%). Women (70.4%) revealed higher rates of G. seoi infection than did men (46.7%), and individuals older than 50 years of age also evidenced higher rates of G. seoi infection than in other age groups (P < 0.05). In worm collection from 13 G. seoi egg positive cases, G. seoi (total 86,558 specimens), Heterophyes nocens (278), Stictodora sp. (10), Heterophyopsis continua (3), P. summa (3), and unidentified flukes (42) were collected. Oysters, the source of G. seoi infection, were collected from an area proximal to the village and 50 were examined for metacercariae; 47 (94%) were found infected and the observed metacercarial density was 9.5 +/- 8.9 per oyster. The results of this study indicate that Bokyong-ri is a new endemic area of G. seoi infection, with high rates of infection in humans and oysters.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology 04/2007; 45(1):39-44. · 0.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To know the prevalence of heterophyid trematodes among inhabitants of a southern coastal village, i.e., Sacho-ri, Gangjin-gun, Jeollanam-do (Province), 82 stool samples were examined on helminth eggs and protozoan cysts using Kato-Katz and formalin-ether sedimentation techniques. Total 33 people (40.2%) were positive for trematodes (Heterophyes nocens 15 people, Pygidiopsis summa 3, Metagonimus sp.; 4, Clonorchis sinensis 7, Gymnophalloides seoi 6) and/or protozoa (Entamoeba coli 3). Among intestinal trematode egg positive cases, 17 were treated with praziquantel and their whole diarrheic stools were collected after purgation. Adult flukes of H. nocens (number of specimens = 1,294), P. summa (386), Stellantchasmus falcatus (5), Stictodora lari (4), and Heterophyopsis continua (1) were collected using a stereomicroscope. To know the source of human H. nocens infections in this village, metacercarial infections in mullets (10) were examined and most H. nocens metacercariae (101/105, 96.2%) were found in the trunk portion. From above results, the surveyed coastal village has been newly known as an endemic focus of human H. nocens infection and consuming raw mullets was the presumable source of human heterophyid infections.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology 04/2007; 45(1):33-8. · 0.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Taenia solium metacestode, a larval pork tapeworm, is a causative agent of neurocysticercosis, one of the most common parasitic diseases in the human central nervous system. In this study, we identified a cDNA encoding for a cathepsin L-like cysteine protease from the T. solium metacestode (TsCL-1) and characterized the biochemical properties of the recombinant enzyme. The cloned cDNA of 1216 bp encoded 339 amino acids with an approximate molecular weight of 37.6 kDa which containing a typical signal peptide sequence (17 amino acids), a pro-domain (106 amino acids), and a mature domain (216 amino acids). Sequence alignments of TsCL-1 showed low sequence similarity of 27.3-44.6 to cathepsin L-like cysteine proteases from other helminth parasites, but the similarity was increased to 35.9-55.0 when compared to mature domains. The bacterially expressed recombinant protein (rTsCL-1) did not show enzyme activity; however, the rTsCL-1 expressed in Pichia pastoris showed typical biochemical characteristics of cysteine proteases. It degraded human immunoglobulin G (IgG) and bovine serum albumin (BSA), but not collagen. Western blot analysis of the rTsCL-1 showed antigenicity against the sera from patients with cysticercosis, sparganosis or fascioliasis, but weak or no antigenicity against the sera from patients with paragonimiasis or clonorchiasis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For some species of 37-collar-spined Echinostoma, their cercariae successfully encyst and develop to metacercariae in vitro. In our study, we cultured Echinostoma cinetorchis cercariae in 12 different media to study the formation of metacercariae. Locke's solution, medium 199, and RPMI 1640 were used as media for culture. RPMI 1640 produced the highest encystment and normal metacercariae development. The osmolality of the media was related to their ability to encyst and develop. The 0.5 X media induced higher encystment and normal metacercaria formation than the 1x media. The addition of fetal bovine serum to RPMI 1640 increased the level of encystment and normal metacercariae development. In the mixture of 0.5 x RPMI 1640 and 10% fetal bovine serum, encystment was highest, at 96.0%, and the development ratio of normal metacercariae was also the highest, at 91.5%, after 48 hr of cultivation. In a viability test, 7 day- and 14 day-cultured metacercariae were successfully matured to adult worms in experimentally infected rats. These results showed that E. cinetorchis cercariae could be cultured to viable metacercariae in an in vitro culture system and that 0.5 x RPMI 1640 plus 10% fetal bovine serum was the most useful medium for cultivation. This culture system can be adapted for additional studies on the E. cinetorchis life cycle, especially to supply large numbers of metacercariae for other studies on this echinostome.
Journal of Parasitology 11/2006; 92(5):1010-3. · 1.32 Impact Factor