Reisa A Sperling

Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Skåne, Sweden

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Publications (334)2667.58 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The negative efficacy study examining the γ-secretase inhibitor semagacestat in mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) included a number of biomarkers of the disease as well as safety outcomes. We analyzed these data to explore relationships between drug exposure and pharmacodynamic effects and to examine the correlations among outcome measures. The study was a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of two dose regimens of semagacestat and a placebo administered for 18 months to individuals with mild to moderate AD. Changes in measures of central and peripheral drug activity were compared between the three treatment groups using one-way analysis of variance. The relationship between changes in each of the outcome measures and measures of drug exposure and peripheral pharmacodynamic effect were assessed using Spearman's correlation coefficient. Assignment to the active treatment arms was associated with reduction in plasma amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides, increase in ventricular volume, decrease in cerebrospinal fluid phosphorylated tau (p-tau) and several other laboratory measures and adverse event categories. Within the active arms, exposure to drug, as indicated by area under the concentration curve (AUC) of blood concentration, was associated with reduction in plasma Aβ peptides and a subset of laboratory changes and adverse event rates. Ventricular volume increase, right hippocampal volume loss and gastrointestinal symptoms were related to change in plasma Aβ peptide but not AUC, supporting a link to inhibition of γ-secretase cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein. Cognitive decline correlated with ventricular expansion and reduction in p-tau. These findings may inform future studies of drugs targeting secretases involved in Aβ generation. Identifier: NCT00594568. Registered 11 January 2008.
    Alzheimer's Research and Therapy 12/2015; 7(1). DOI:10.1186/s13195-015-0121-6 · 3.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: If we are to find treatments to postpone, reduce the risk of, or completely prevent the clinical onset of Alzheimer disease (AD), we need faster methods to evaluate promising preclinical AD treatments, new ways to work together in support of common goals, and a determination to expedite the initiation and performance of preclinical AD trials. In this article, we note some of the current challenges, opportunities and emerging strategies in preclinical AD treatment. We describe the Collaboration for Alzheimer's Prevention (CAP)-a convening, harmonizing and consensus-building initiative to help stakeholders advance AD prevention research with rigour, care and maximal impact-and we demonstrate the impact of CAP on the goals and design of new preclinical AD trials.
    Nature Reviews Neurology 09/2015; DOI:10.1038/nrneurol.2015.177 · 15.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We used a protein quantitative trait analysis in monocytes from 226 individuals to evaluate cross-talk between Alzheimer loci. The NME8 locus influenced PTK2B and the CD33 risk allele led to greater TREM2 expression. There was also a decreased TREM1/TREM2 ratio with a TREM1 risk allele, decreased TREM2 expression with CD33 suppression and elevated cortical TREM2 mRNA expression with amyloid pathology.
    Nature Neuroscience 09/2015; DOI:10.1038/nn.4126 · 16.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Research increasingly suggests that subjective cognitive decline (SCD) in older adults, in the absence of objective cognitive dysfunction or depression, may be a harbinger of non-normative cognitive decline and eventual progression to dementia. Little is known, however, about the key features of self-report measures currently used to assess SCD. The Subjective Cognitive Decline Initiative (SCD-I) Working Group is an international consortium established to develop a conceptual framework and research criteria for SCD (Jessen et al., 2014, Alzheimers Dement 10, 844-852). In the current study we systematically compared cognitive self-report items used by 19 SCD-I Working Group studies, representing 8 countries and 5 languages. We identified 34 self-report measures comprising 640 cognitive self-report items. There was little overlap among measures- approximately 75% of measures were used by only one study. Wide variation existed in response options and item content. Items pertaining to the memory domain predominated, accounting for about 60% of items surveyed, followed by executive function and attention, with 16% and 11% of the items, respectively. Items relating to memory for the names of people and the placement of common objects were represented on the greatest percentage of measures (56% each). Working group members reported that instrument selection decisions were often based on practical considerations beyond the study of SCD specifically, such as availability and brevity of measures. Results document the heterogeneity of approaches across studies to the emerging construct of SCD. We offer preliminary recommendations for instrument selection and future research directions including identifying items and measure formats associated with important clinical outcomes.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 09/2015; 48(s1). DOI:10.3233/JAD-150154 · 4.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Apathy is a common neuropsychiatric symptom in Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Detecting apathy accurately may facilitate earlier diagnosis of AD. The Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) is a promising tool for measurement of apathy in prodromal and possibly preclinical AD. Objective: To compare the three AES sub-scales- subject-reported (AES-S), informant-reported (AES-I), and clinician-reported (AES-C)- over time in individuals at risk for AD due to MCI and advanced age (cognitively normal [CN] elderly). Methods: Mixed effects longitudinal models were used to assess predictors of score for each AES sub-scale. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess which AES sub-scales predict progression from MCI to AD dementia. Results: Fifty-seven MCI and 18 CN subjects (ages 53-86) were followed for 1.4 ± 1.2 years and 0.7 ± 0.7 years, respectively. Across the three mixed effects longitudinal models, the common findings were associations between greater apathy and greater years in study, a baseline diagnosis of MCI (compared to CN), and male gender. CN elderly self-reported greater apathy compared to that reported by informants and clinicians, while individuals with MCI under-reported their apathy compared to informants and clinicians. Of the three sub-scales, the AES-C best predicted transition from MCI to AD dementia. Conclusion: In a sample of CN elderly and elderly with MCI, apathy increased over time, particularly in men and those with MCI. AES-S scores may be more sensitive than AES-I and AES-C scores in CN elderly, but less reliable if subjects have MCI. Moreover, the AES-C sub-scale predicted progression from MCI to AD dementia.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 09/2015; 47(2):421-432. DOI:10.3233/JAD-150146 · 4.15 Impact Factor
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  • Stephen Salloway · Reisa Sperling
    08/2015; DOI:10.1001/jamaneurol.2015.1804
  • Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jalz.2015.06.1887 · 12.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the associations of cerebral amyloidosis with concurrent cognitive performance and with longitudinal cognitive decline in asymptomatic and symptomatic stages of autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD). Two hundred sixty-three participants enrolled in the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network observational study underwent neuropsychological evaluation as well as PET scans with Pittsburgh compound B. One hundred twenty-one participants completed at least 1 follow-up neuropsychological evaluation. Four composite cognitive measures representing global cognition, episodic memory, language, and working memory were generated using z scores from a battery of 13 standard neuropsychological tests. General linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate the relationship between baseline cerebral amyloidosis and baseline cognitive performance and whether baseline cerebral amyloidosis predicts cognitive change over time (mean follow-up 2.32 years ± 0.92, range 0.89-4.19) after controlling for estimated years from expected symptom onset, APOE ε4 allelic status, and education. In asymptomatic mutation carriers, amyloid burden was not associated with baseline cognitive functioning but was significantly predictive of longitudinal decline in episodic memory. In symptomatic mutation carriers, cerebral amyloidosis was correlated with worse baseline performance in multiple cognitive composites and predicted greater decline over time in global cognition, working memory, and Mini-Mental State Examination. Cerebral amyloidosis predicts longitudinal episodic memory decline in presymptomatic ADAD and multidomain cognitive decline in symptomatic ADAD. These findings imply that amyloidosis in the brain is an indicator of early cognitive decline and provides a useful outcome measure for early assessment and prevention treatment trials. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.
    Neurology 08/2015; 85(9). DOI:10.1212/WNL.0000000000001903 · 8.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In a large multicentre sample of cognitively normal subjects, as a function of age, gender and APOE genotype, we studied the frequency of abnormal cerebrospinal fluid levels of Alzheimer's disease biomarkers including: total tau, phosphorylated tau and amyloid-β1-42. Fifteen cohorts from 12 different centres with either enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays or Luminex® measurements were selected for this study. Each centre sent nine new cerebrospinal fluid aliquots that were used to measure total tau, phosphorylated tau and amyloid-β1-42 in the Gothenburg laboratory. Seven centres showed a high correlation with the new Gothenburg measurements; therefore, 10 cohorts from these centres are included in the analyses here (1233 healthy control subjects, 40-84 years old). Amyloid-β amyloid status (negative or positive) and neurodegeneration status (negative or positive) was established based on the pathological cerebrospinal fluid Alzheimer's disease cut-off values for cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β1-42 and total tau, respectively. While gender did not affect these biomarker values, APOE genotype modified the age-associated changes in cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers such that APOE ε4 carriers showed stronger age-related changes in cerebrospinal fluid phosphorylated tau, total tau and amyloid-β1-42 values and APOE ε2 carriers showed the opposite effect. At 40 years of age, 76% of the subjects were classified as amyloid negative, neurodegeneration negative and their frequency decreased to 32% at 85 years. The amyloid-positive neurodegeneration-negative group remained stable. The amyloid-negative neurodegeneration-positive group frequency increased slowly from 1% at 44 years to 16% at 85 years, but its frequency was not affected by APOE genotype. The amyloid-positive neurodegeneration-positive frequency increased from 1% at 53 years to 28% at 85 years. Abnormally low cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β1-42 levels were already frequent in midlife and APOE genotype strongly affects the levels of cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β1-42, phosphorylated tau and total tau across the lifespan without influencing the frequency of subjects with suspected non-amyloid pathology. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:
    Brain 07/2015; 138(Pt 9). DOI:10.1093/brain/awv199 · 9.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effects of bapineuzumab on brain β-amyloid (Aβ) burden using (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B ((11)C-PiB)-PET. Two phase 3 clinical trials, 1 each in apolipoprotein APOE ε4 carriers and noncarriers, were conducted in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease dementia. Bapineuzumab, an anti-Aβ monoclonal antibody, or placebo, was administered by IV infusion every 13 weeks for 78 weeks. PET substudies assessed change in brain fibrillar Aβ over 71 weeks using an (11)C-PiB-PET standardized uptake value ratio (SUVr) global cortical average (GCA) comprising the average SUVr from 5 cortical regions of interest with cerebellar gray matter as the reference region. A total of 115 carriers and 39 noncarriers were analyzed. The difference (δ) in mean baseline to 71 week change in (11)C-PiB-PET GCA between bapineuzumab and placebo was significant in carriers (0.5 mg/kg vs placebo δ = -0.101; p = 0.004) and in pooled analyses of both carriers and noncarriers (0.5 mg/kg vs placebo δ = -0.068; p = 0.027; 1.0 mg/kg vs placebo δ = -0.133; p = 0.028) but not in the noncarrier trial separately. Analyses by individual region of interest and in mild disease yielded findings similar to the main trial results. The (11)C-PiB-PET imaging results demonstrated reduction of fibrillar Aβ accumulation in patients with Alzheimer disease treated with bapineuzumab; however, as no clinical benefit was observed, the findings are consistent with the hypotheses that bapineuzumab may not have been initiated early enough in the disease course, the doses were insufficient, or the most critical Aβ species were inadequately targeted. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.
    Neurology 07/2015; 85(8). DOI:10.1212/WNL.0000000000001877 · 8.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cerebral microinfarcts (CMI) are important contributors to vascular cognitive impairment. Magnetic resonance imaging diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) hyperintensities have been suggested to represent acute CMI. We aim to describe a mathematical method for estimating total number of CMI based on the presence of incidental DWI lesions. We reviewed magnetic resonance imaging scans of subjects with cognitive decline, cognitively normal subjects and previously reported subjects with past intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Based on temporal and spatial characteristics of DWI lesions, we estimated the annual rate of CMI needed to explain the observed rate of DWI lesion detection in each group. To confirm our estimates, we performed extensive sampling for CMI in the brain of a deceased subject with past lobar ICH who found to have a DWI lesion during life. Clinically silent DWI lesions were present in 13 of 343 (3.8%) cognitively impaired and 10 of 199 (5%) cognitively intact normal non-ICH patients, both lower than the incidence in the past ICH patients (23 of 178; 12.9%; P<0.0006). The predicted annual incidence of CMI ranges from 16 to 1566 for non-ICH and 50 to 5041 for ICH individuals. Histological sampling revealed a total of 60 lesions in 32 sections. Based on previously reported methods, this density of CMI yields an estimated total brain burden maximum likelihood estimate of 9321 CMIs (95% confidence interval, 7255-11 990). Detecting even a single DWI lesion suggests an annual incidence of hundreds of new CMI. The cumulative effects of these lesions may directly contribute to small-vessel-related vascular cognitive impairment. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
    Stroke 07/2015; 46(8). DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.115.009208 · 5.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Brain imaging and fluid biomarkers are characterized in children at risk for autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD). To characterize and compare structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), resting-state and task-dependent functional MRI, and plasma amyloid-β (Aβ) measurements in presenilin 1 (PSEN1) E280A mutation-carrying and noncarrying children with ADAD. Cross-sectional measures of structural and functional MRI and plasma Aβ assays were assessed in 18 PSEN1 E280A carriers and 19 noncarriers aged 9 to 17 years from a Colombian kindred with ADAD. Recruitment and data collection for this study were conducted at the University of Antioquia and the Hospital Pablo Tobon Uribe in Medellín, Colombia, between August 2011 and June 2012. All participants had blood sampling, structural MRI, and functional MRI during associative memory encoding and resting-state and cognitive assessments. Outcome measures included plasma Aβ1-42 concentrations and Aβ1-42:Aβ1-40 ratios, memory encoding-dependent activation changes, resting-state connectivity, and regional gray matter volumes. Structural and functional MRI data were compared using automated brain mapping algorithms and search regions related to AD. Similar to findings in adult mutation carriers, in the later preclinical and clinical stages of ADAD, mutation-carrying children were distinguished from control individuals by significantly higher plasma Aβ1-42 levels (mean [SD]: carriers, 18.8 [5.1] pg/mL and noncarriers, 13.1 [3.2] pg/mL; P < .001) and Aβ1-42:Aβ1-40 ratios (mean [SD]: carriers, 0.32 [0.06] and noncarriers, 0.21 [0.03]; P < .001), as well as less memory encoding task-related deactivation in parietal regions (eg, mean [SD] parameter estimates for the right precuneus were -0.590 [0.50] for noncarriers and -0.087 [0.38] for carriers; P < .005 uncorrected). Unlike carriers in the later stages, mutation-carrying children demonstrated increased functional connectivity of the posterior cingulate cortex with medial temporal lobe regions (mean [SD] parameter estimates were 0.038 [0.070] for noncarriers and 0.190 [0.057] for carriers), as well as greater gray matter volumes in temporal regions (eg, left parahippocampus; P < . 049, corrected for multiple comparisons). Children at genetic risk for ADAD have functional and structural brain changes and abnormal levels of plasma Aβ1-42. The extent to which the underlying brain changes are either neurodegenerative or developmental remains to be determined. This study provides additional information about the earliest known biomarker changes associated with ADAD.
    06/2015; 72(8). DOI:10.1001/jamaneurol.2015.1099
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    ABSTRACT: We aimed to determine whether there was a relationship between lifestyle factors and Alzheimer disease biomarkers. In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated self-reported histories of recent and past cognitive activity, self-reported history of recent physical activity, and objective recent walking activity in 186 clinically normal individuals with mean age of 74 ± 6 years. Using backward elimination general linear models, we tested the hypotheses that greater cognitive or physical activity would be associated with lower Pittsburgh compound B-PET retention, greater (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET metabolism, and larger hippocampal volume, as well as better cognitive performance on neuropsychological testing. Linear regression demonstrated that history of greater cognitive activity was correlated with greater estimated IQ and education, as well as better neuropsychological testing performance. Self-reported recent physical activity was related to objective exercise monitoring. However, contrary to hypotheses, we did not find evidence of an association of Pittsburgh compound B retention, (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake, or hippocampal volume with past or current levels of cognitive activity, or with current physical activity. We conclude that a history of lifelong cognitive activity may support better cognitive performance by a mechanism that is independent of brain β-amyloid burden, brain glucose metabolism, or hippocampal volume. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.
    Neurology 06/2015; 85(1). DOI:10.1212/WNL.0000000000001704 · 8.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether neuroimaging biomarkers of amyloid-β (Aβ) and neurodegeneration (ND) are associated with greater self-reported subjective cognitive concerns (SCC) in clinically normal older individuals. A total of 257 participants underwent Pittsburgh compound B PET, PET with fluorodeoxyglucose (18)F, and structural MRI, as well as a battery of neuropsychological measures including several questionnaires regarding SCC. Individuals were classified into 4 biomarker groups: biomarker negative (Aβ-/ND-), amyloidosis alone (Aβ+/ND-), amyloidosis plus ND (Aβ+/ND+), and ND alone (Aβ-/ND+). Both Aβ and ND were independently associated with greater SCC controlling for objective memory performance. By contrast, neither Aβ nor ND was associated with objective memory performance controlling for SCC. Further examination revealed greater SCC in individuals with Aβ or ND positivity compared to biomarker-negative individuals. In addition, greater SCC predicted Aβ positivity when controlling for ND status. When individuals were grouped by biomarker status, those who were positive on Aβ or ND had the highest report of SCC compared to biomarker-negative individuals. Findings were consistent when SCC was used to predict Aβ positivity. Taken together, results suggest that both Aβ and ND are associated with SCC, independent of objective memory performance. Enrichment of individuals with SCC may increase likelihood of Aβ and ND markers in potential participants for secondary prevention trials. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.
    Neurology 06/2015; 85(1). DOI:10.1212/WNL.0000000000001712 · 8.29 Impact Factor
  • R A Sperling · R E Amariglio · G A Marshall · D M Rentz
    06/2015; 2(2):85-87. DOI:10.14283/jpad.2015.56
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    ABSTRACT: For Alzheimer's disease treatment trials that focus on the pre-dementia stage of disease, outcome measures are needed that will enable assessment of disease progression in patients who are clinically normal. The EU/US CTAD Task Force, an international collaboration of investigators from industry, academia, non-profit foundations, and regulatory agencies, met in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, on November 19, 2014 to discuss existing and novel outcome assessments that may be useful in pre-dementia trials. Composite measures that assess changes in episodic memory, executive function, global cognition, and global function have recently been developed by a number of groups and appear to be sensitive at this stage. Functional measures that involve real-life complex tasks also appear to capture early subtle changes in pre-dementia subjects and have the advantage of representing clinically meaningful change. Patient reported outcomes and novel CSF and imaging biomarkers have also shown promise. More studies are needed to validate all of these tests in the pre-dementia population. Many of them have been incorporated as exploratory measures in ongoing or planned trials.
    06/2015; 2(2):128-135. DOI:10.14283/jpad.2015.55
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    ABSTRACT: Impairment in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) emerges in the transition from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia. Some IADL scales are sensitive to early deficits in MCI, but none have been validated for detecting subtle functional changes in clinically normal (CN) elderly at risk for AD. Data from 624 subjects participating in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and 524 subjects participating in the Massachusetts Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, which are two large cohorts including CN elderly and MCI subjects, were used to determine which Functional Activities Questionnaire items best discriminate between and predict progression from CN to MCI. We found that "Remembering appointments" and "assembling tax records" best discriminated between CN and MCI subjects, while worse performance on "paying attention and understanding a TV program", "paying bills/balancing checkbook", and "heating water and turning off the stove" predicted greater hazard of progressing from a diagnosis of CN to MCI. These results demonstrate that certain questions are especially sensitive in detecting the earliest functional changes in CN elderly at risk for AD. As the field moves toward earlier intervention in preclinical AD, it is important to determine which IADL changes can be detected at that stage and track decline over time.
    Current Alzheimer research 05/2015; 12(5):493-502. · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Age-related impairments in the default network (DN) have been related to disruptions in connecting white matter tracts. We hypothesized that the local correlation between DN structural and functional connectivity is negatively affected in the presence of global white matter injury. In 125 clinically normal older adults, we tested whether the relationship between structural connectivity (via diffusion imaging tractography) and functional connectivity (via resting-state functional MRI) of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and medial prefrontal frontal cortex (MPFC) of the DN was altered in the presence of white matter hyperintensities (WMH). A significant correlation was observed between microstructural properties of the cingulum bundle and MPFC-PCC functional connectivity in individuals with low WMH load, but not with high WMH load. No correlation was observed between PCC-MPFC functional connectivity and microstructure of the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, a tract not passing through the PCC or MPFC. Decoupling of connectivity, measured as the absolute difference between structural and functional connectivity, in the high WMH group was related to poorer executive functioning and memory performance. These results suggest that such decoupling may reflect reorganization of functional networks in response to global white matter pathology and may provide an early marker of clinically relevant network alterations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    NeuroImage 05/2015; 117. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.05.054 · 6.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Furthering our understanding of the relationship between amyloidosis (Aβ), neurodegeneration (ND), and cognition is imperative for early identification and early intervention of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the subtle cognitive decline differentially associated with each biomarker-defined stage of preclinical AD has yet to be fully characterized. Recent work indicates that different components of memory performance (free and cued recall) may be differentially specific to memory decline in prodromal AD. We sought to examine the relationship between free and cued recall paradigms, in addition to global composites of memory, executive functioning, and processing speed in relation to stages of preclinical AD. Methods: A total of 260 clinically normal (CN) older adults (CDR=0) from the Harvard Aging Brain study were grouped according to preclinical AD stages including Stage 0 (Aβ-/ND-), Stage 1 (Aβ+/ND-), Stage 2 (Aβ+/ND+), and suspected non-Alzheimer's associated pathology (SNAP; Aβ-/ND+). General linear models controlling for age, sex, and education were used to assess for stage-based performance differences on cognitive composites of executive functioning, processing speed, and memory in addition to free and cued delayed recall on the Selective Reminding Test (SRT) and Memory Capacity Test (MCT). Results: Global memory performance differed between preclinical stages with Stage 2 performing worse compared with Stage 0. When examining free and cued paradigms by memory test, only the MCT (and not the SRT) revealed group differences. More specifically, Stage 1 was associated with decrements in free recall compared with Stage 0 while Stage 2 was associated with decrements in both free and cued recall. There was a trend for the SNAP group to perform worse on free recall compared with Stage 0. Finally, there was no association between preclinical stage and global composites of executive functioning or processing speed. Conclusions: Clinically normal older adults with underlying evidence of amyloidosis and neurodegeneration exhibit subtle, yet measurable differences in memory performance, but only on a challenging associative test. The sensitivity of free vs. cued memory paradigms may be dependent on preclinical stage such that reduced free recall is associated with amyloidosis alone (Stage 1) while a decline in cued recall may represent progression to amyloidosis and neurodegeneration (Stage 2). These findings may have practical applications for clinical assessment and clinical trial design.
    Neuropsychologia 05/2015; 73. DOI:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2015.04.034 · 3.30 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

12k Citations
2,667.58 Total Impact Points


  • 2015
    • Skåne University Hospital
      Malmö, Skåne, Sweden
  • 2002–2015
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • • Department of Neurology
      • • Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2001–2015
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      • Department of Neurology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2000–2015
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Neurology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2001–2014
    • Harvard University
      • Department of Psychology
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2013
    • University of Pennsylvania
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
    • University of Melbourne
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2011–2013
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • Department of Neurology
      San Luis, Missouri, United States
    • Banner Alzheimer's Institute
      Phoenix, Arizona, United States
  • 2004
    • Johns Hopkins University
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    • Boston University
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States