Reisa A Sperling

Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (329)3129.1 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The negative efficacy study examining the γ-secretase inhibitor semagacestat in mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) included a number of biomarkers of the disease as well as safety outcomes. We analyzed these data to explore relationships between drug exposure and pharmacodynamic effects and to examine the correlations among outcome measures. The study was a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of two dose regimens of semagacestat and a placebo administered for 18 months to individuals with mild to moderate AD. Changes in measures of central and peripheral drug activity were compared between the three treatment groups using one-way analysis of variance. The relationship between changes in each of the outcome measures and measures of drug exposure and peripheral pharmacodynamic effect were assessed using Spearman's correlation coefficient. Assignment to the active treatment arms was associated with reduction in plasma amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides, increase in ventricular volume, decrease in cerebrospinal fluid phosphorylated tau (p-tau) and several other laboratory measures and adverse event categories. Within the active arms, exposure to drug, as indicated by area under the concentration curve (AUC) of blood concentration, was associated with reduction in plasma Aβ peptides and a subset of laboratory changes and adverse event rates. Ventricular volume increase, right hippocampal volume loss and gastrointestinal symptoms were related to change in plasma Aβ peptide but not AUC, supporting a link to inhibition of γ-secretase cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein. Cognitive decline correlated with ventricular expansion and reduction in p-tau. These findings may inform future studies of drugs targeting secretases involved in Aβ generation. Identifier: NCT00594568. Registered 11 January 2008.
    Alzheimer's Research and Therapy 12/2015; 7(1). DOI:10.1186/s13195-015-0121-6 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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  • Stephen Salloway · Reisa Sperling
    08/2015; DOI:10.1001/jamaneurol.2015.1804
  • Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jalz.2015.06.1887 · 17.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the associations of cerebral amyloidosis with concurrent cognitive performance and with longitudinal cognitive decline in asymptomatic and symptomatic stages of autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD). Two hundred sixty-three participants enrolled in the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network observational study underwent neuropsychological evaluation as well as PET scans with Pittsburgh compound B. One hundred twenty-one participants completed at least 1 follow-up neuropsychological evaluation. Four composite cognitive measures representing global cognition, episodic memory, language, and working memory were generated using z scores from a battery of 13 standard neuropsychological tests. General linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate the relationship between baseline cerebral amyloidosis and baseline cognitive performance and whether baseline cerebral amyloidosis predicts cognitive change over time (mean follow-up 2.32 years ± 0.92, range 0.89-4.19) after controlling for estimated years from expected symptom onset, APOE ε4 allelic status, and education. In asymptomatic mutation carriers, amyloid burden was not associated with baseline cognitive functioning but was significantly predictive of longitudinal decline in episodic memory. In symptomatic mutation carriers, cerebral amyloidosis was correlated with worse baseline performance in multiple cognitive composites and predicted greater decline over time in global cognition, working memory, and Mini-Mental State Examination. Cerebral amyloidosis predicts longitudinal episodic memory decline in presymptomatic ADAD and multidomain cognitive decline in symptomatic ADAD. These findings imply that amyloidosis in the brain is an indicator of early cognitive decline and provides a useful outcome measure for early assessment and prevention treatment trials. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.
    Neurology 08/2015; DOI:10.1212/WNL.0000000000001903 · 8.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In a large multicentre sample of cognitively normal subjects, as a function of age, gender and APOE genotype, we studied the frequency of abnormal cerebrospinal fluid levels of Alzheimer's disease biomarkers including: total tau, phosphorylated tau and amyloid-β1-42. Fifteen cohorts from 12 different centres with either enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays or Luminex® measurements were selected for this study. Each centre sent nine new cerebrospinal fluid aliquots that were used to measure total tau, phosphorylated tau and amyloid-β1-42 in the Gothenburg laboratory. Seven centres showed a high correlation with the new Gothenburg measurements; therefore, 10 cohorts from these centres are included in the analyses here (1233 healthy control subjects, 40-84 years old). Amyloid-β amyloid status (negative or positive) and neurodegeneration status (negative or positive) was established based on the pathological cerebrospinal fluid Alzheimer's disease cut-off values for cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β1-42 and total tau, respectively. While gender did not affect these biomarker values, APOE genotype modified the age-associated changes in cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers such that APOE ε4 carriers showed stronger age-related changes in cerebrospinal fluid phosphorylated tau, total tau and amyloid-β1-42 values and APOE ε2 carriers showed the opposite effect. At 40 years of age, 76% of the subjects were classified as amyloid negative, neurodegeneration negative and their frequency decreased to 32% at 85 years. The amyloid-positive neurodegeneration-negative group remained stable. The amyloid-negative neurodegeneration-positive group frequency increased slowly from 1% at 44 years to 16% at 85 years, but its frequency was not affected by APOE genotype. The amyloid-positive neurodegeneration-positive frequency increased from 1% at 53 years to 28% at 85 years. Abnormally low cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β1-42 levels were already frequent in midlife and APOE genotype strongly affects the levels of cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β1-42, phosphorylated tau and total tau across the lifespan without influencing the frequency of subjects with suspected non-amyloid pathology. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:
    Brain 07/2015; DOI:10.1093/brain/awv199 · 10.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effects of bapineuzumab on brain β-amyloid (Aβ) burden using (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B ((11)C-PiB)-PET. Two phase 3 clinical trials, 1 each in apolipoprotein APOE ε4 carriers and noncarriers, were conducted in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease dementia. Bapineuzumab, an anti-Aβ monoclonal antibody, or placebo, was administered by IV infusion every 13 weeks for 78 weeks. PET substudies assessed change in brain fibrillar Aβ over 71 weeks using an (11)C-PiB-PET standardized uptake value ratio (SUVr) global cortical average (GCA) comprising the average SUVr from 5 cortical regions of interest with cerebellar gray matter as the reference region. A total of 115 carriers and 39 noncarriers were analyzed. The difference (δ) in mean baseline to 71 week change in (11)C-PiB-PET GCA between bapineuzumab and placebo was significant in carriers (0.5 mg/kg vs placebo δ = -0.101; p = 0.004) and in pooled analyses of both carriers and noncarriers (0.5 mg/kg vs placebo δ = -0.068; p = 0.027; 1.0 mg/kg vs placebo δ = -0.133; p = 0.028) but not in the noncarrier trial separately. Analyses by individual region of interest and in mild disease yielded findings similar to the main trial results. The (11)C-PiB-PET imaging results demonstrated reduction of fibrillar Aβ accumulation in patients with Alzheimer disease treated with bapineuzumab; however, as no clinical benefit was observed, the findings are consistent with the hypotheses that bapineuzumab may not have been initiated early enough in the disease course, the doses were insufficient, or the most critical Aβ species were inadequately targeted. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.
    Neurology 07/2015; DOI:10.1212/WNL.0000000000001877 · 8.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cerebral microinfarcts (CMI) are important contributors to vascular cognitive impairment. Magnetic resonance imaging diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) hyperintensities have been suggested to represent acute CMI. We aim to describe a mathematical method for estimating total number of CMI based on the presence of incidental DWI lesions. We reviewed magnetic resonance imaging scans of subjects with cognitive decline, cognitively normal subjects and previously reported subjects with past intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Based on temporal and spatial characteristics of DWI lesions, we estimated the annual rate of CMI needed to explain the observed rate of DWI lesion detection in each group. To confirm our estimates, we performed extensive sampling for CMI in the brain of a deceased subject with past lobar ICH who found to have a DWI lesion during life. Clinically silent DWI lesions were present in 13 of 343 (3.8%) cognitively impaired and 10 of 199 (5%) cognitively intact normal non-ICH patients, both lower than the incidence in the past ICH patients (23 of 178; 12.9%; P<0.0006). The predicted annual incidence of CMI ranges from 16 to 1566 for non-ICH and 50 to 5041 for ICH individuals. Histological sampling revealed a total of 60 lesions in 32 sections. Based on previously reported methods, this density of CMI yields an estimated total brain burden maximum likelihood estimate of 9321 CMIs (95% confidence interval, 7255-11 990). Detecting even a single DWI lesion suggests an annual incidence of hundreds of new CMI. The cumulative effects of these lesions may directly contribute to small-vessel-related vascular cognitive impairment. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
    Stroke 07/2015; DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.115.009208 · 6.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Brain imaging and fluid biomarkers are characterized in children at risk for autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD). To characterize and compare structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), resting-state and task-dependent functional MRI, and plasma amyloid-β (Aβ) measurements in presenilin 1 (PSEN1) E280A mutation-carrying and noncarrying children with ADAD. Cross-sectional measures of structural and functional MRI and plasma Aβ assays were assessed in 18 PSEN1 E280A carriers and 19 noncarriers aged 9 to 17 years from a Colombian kindred with ADAD. Recruitment and data collection for this study were conducted at the University of Antioquia and the Hospital Pablo Tobon Uribe in Medellín, Colombia, between August 2011 and June 2012. All participants had blood sampling, structural MRI, and functional MRI during associative memory encoding and resting-state and cognitive assessments. Outcome measures included plasma Aβ1-42 concentrations and Aβ1-42:Aβ1-40 ratios, memory encoding-dependent activation changes, resting-state connectivity, and regional gray matter volumes. Structural and functional MRI data were compared using automated brain mapping algorithms and search regions related to AD. Similar to findings in adult mutation carriers, in the later preclinical and clinical stages of ADAD, mutation-carrying children were distinguished from control individuals by significantly higher plasma Aβ1-42 levels (mean [SD]: carriers, 18.8 [5.1] pg/mL and noncarriers, 13.1 [3.2] pg/mL; P < .001) and Aβ1-42:Aβ1-40 ratios (mean [SD]: carriers, 0.32 [0.06] and noncarriers, 0.21 [0.03]; P < .001), as well as less memory encoding task-related deactivation in parietal regions (eg, mean [SD] parameter estimates for the right precuneus were -0.590 [0.50] for noncarriers and -0.087 [0.38] for carriers; P < .005 uncorrected). Unlike carriers in the later stages, mutation-carrying children demonstrated increased functional connectivity of the posterior cingulate cortex with medial temporal lobe regions (mean [SD] parameter estimates were 0.038 [0.070] for noncarriers and 0.190 [0.057] for carriers), as well as greater gray matter volumes in temporal regions (eg, left parahippocampus; P < . 049, corrected for multiple comparisons). Children at genetic risk for ADAD have functional and structural brain changes and abnormal levels of plasma Aβ1-42. The extent to which the underlying brain changes are either neurodegenerative or developmental remains to be determined. This study provides additional information about the earliest known biomarker changes associated with ADAD.
    06/2015; DOI:10.1001/jamaneurol.2015.1099
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    ABSTRACT: We aimed to determine whether there was a relationship between lifestyle factors and Alzheimer disease biomarkers. In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated self-reported histories of recent and past cognitive activity, self-reported history of recent physical activity, and objective recent walking activity in 186 clinically normal individuals with mean age of 74 ± 6 years. Using backward elimination general linear models, we tested the hypotheses that greater cognitive or physical activity would be associated with lower Pittsburgh compound B-PET retention, greater (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET metabolism, and larger hippocampal volume, as well as better cognitive performance on neuropsychological testing. Linear regression demonstrated that history of greater cognitive activity was correlated with greater estimated IQ and education, as well as better neuropsychological testing performance. Self-reported recent physical activity was related to objective exercise monitoring. However, contrary to hypotheses, we did not find evidence of an association of Pittsburgh compound B retention, (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake, or hippocampal volume with past or current levels of cognitive activity, or with current physical activity. We conclude that a history of lifelong cognitive activity may support better cognitive performance by a mechanism that is independent of brain β-amyloid burden, brain glucose metabolism, or hippocampal volume. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.
    Neurology 06/2015; 85(1). DOI:10.1212/WNL.0000000000001704 · 8.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether neuroimaging biomarkers of amyloid-β (Aβ) and neurodegeneration (ND) are associated with greater self-reported subjective cognitive concerns (SCC) in clinically normal older individuals. A total of 257 participants underwent Pittsburgh compound B PET, PET with fluorodeoxyglucose (18)F, and structural MRI, as well as a battery of neuropsychological measures including several questionnaires regarding SCC. Individuals were classified into 4 biomarker groups: biomarker negative (Aβ-/ND-), amyloidosis alone (Aβ+/ND-), amyloidosis plus ND (Aβ+/ND+), and ND alone (Aβ-/ND+). Both Aβ and ND were independently associated with greater SCC controlling for objective memory performance. By contrast, neither Aβ nor ND was associated with objective memory performance controlling for SCC. Further examination revealed greater SCC in individuals with Aβ or ND positivity compared to biomarker-negative individuals. In addition, greater SCC predicted Aβ positivity when controlling for ND status. When individuals were grouped by biomarker status, those who were positive on Aβ or ND had the highest report of SCC compared to biomarker-negative individuals. Findings were consistent when SCC was used to predict Aβ positivity. Taken together, results suggest that both Aβ and ND are associated with SCC, independent of objective memory performance. Enrichment of individuals with SCC may increase likelihood of Aβ and ND markers in potential participants for secondary prevention trials. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.
    Neurology 06/2015; DOI:10.1212/WNL.0000000000001712 · 8.30 Impact Factor
  • R A Sperling · R E Amariglio · G A Marshall · D M Rentz
    06/2015; 2(2):85-87. DOI:10.14283/jpad.2015.56
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    ABSTRACT: For Alzheimer's disease treatment trials that focus on the pre-dementia stage of disease, outcome measures are needed that will enable assessment of disease progression in patients who are clinically normal. The EU/US CTAD Task Force, an international collaboration of investigators from industry, academia, non-profit foundations, and regulatory agencies, met in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, on November 19, 2014 to discuss existing and novel outcome assessments that may be useful in pre-dementia trials. Composite measures that assess changes in episodic memory, executive function, global cognition, and global function have recently been developed by a number of groups and appear to be sensitive at this stage. Functional measures that involve real-life complex tasks also appear to capture early subtle changes in pre-dementia subjects and have the advantage of representing clinically meaningful change. Patient reported outcomes and novel CSF and imaging biomarkers have also shown promise. More studies are needed to validate all of these tests in the pre-dementia population. Many of them have been incorporated as exploratory measures in ongoing or planned trials.
    06/2015; 2(2):128-135. DOI:10.14283/jpad.2015.55
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    ABSTRACT: Age-related impairments in the default network (DN) have been related to disruptions in connecting white matter tracts. We hypothesized that the local correlation between DN structural and functional connectivity is negatively affected in the presence of global white matter injury. In 125 clinically normal older adults, we tested whether the relationship between structural connectivity (via diffusion imaging tractography) and functional connectivity (via resting-state functional MRI) of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and medial prefrontal frontal cortex (MPFC) of the DN was altered in the presence of white matter hyperintensities (WMH). A significant correlation was observed between microstructural properties of the cingulum bundle and MPFC-PCC functional connectivity in individuals with low WMH load, but not with high WMH load. No correlation was observed between PCC-MPFC functional connectivity and microstructure of the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, a tract not passing through the PCC or MPFC. Decoupling of connectivity, measured as the absolute difference between structural and functional connectivity, in the high WMH group was related to poorer executive functioning and memory performance. These results suggest that such decoupling may reflect reorganization of functional networks in response to global white matter pathology and may provide an early marker of clinically relevant network alterations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    NeuroImage 05/2015; 117. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.05.054 · 6.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Furthering our understanding of the relationship between amyloidosis (Aβ), neurodegeneration (ND), and cognition is imperative for early identification and early intervention of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the subtle cognitive decline differentially associated with each biomarker-defined stage of preclinical AD has yet to be fully characterized. Recent work indicates that different components of memory performance (free and cued recall) may be differentially specific to memory decline in prodromal AD. We sought to examine the relationship between free and cued recall paradigms, in addition to global composites of memory, executive functioning, and processing speed in relation to stages of preclinical AD.
    Neuropsychologia 05/2015; 73. DOI:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2015.04.034 · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our objective was to investigate cross-sectional associations between odor identification ability and imaging biomarkers of neurodegeneration and amyloid deposition in clinically normal (CN) elderly individuals, specifically testing the hypothesis that there may be an interaction between amyloid deposition and neurodegeneration in predicting odor identification dysfunction. Data were collected on 215 CN participants from the Harvard Aging Brain Study. Measurements included the 40-item University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test and neuropsychological testing, hippocampal volume (HV) and entorhinal cortex (EC) thickness from MRI, and amyloid burden using Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) PET. A linear regression model with backward elimination (p < 0.05 retention) evaluated the cross-sectional association between the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test and amyloid burden, HV, and EC thickness, assessing for effect modification by PiB status. Covariates included age, sex, premorbid intelligence, APOE ε4 carrier status, and Boston Naming Test. In unadjusted univariate analyses, worse olfaction was associated with decreased HV (p < 0.001), thinner EC (p = 0.003), worse episodic memory (p = 0.03), and marginally associated with greater amyloid burden (binary PiB status, p = 0.06). In the multivariate model, thinner EC in PiB-positive individuals (interaction term) was associated with worse olfaction (p = 0.02). In CN elderly, worse odor identification was associated with markers of neurodegeneration. Furthermore, individuals with elevated cortical amyloid and thinner EC exhibited worse odor identification, elucidating the potential contribution of olfactory testing to detect preclinical AD in CN individuals. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.
    Neurology 05/2015; 84(21). DOI:10.1212/WNL.0000000000001614 · 8.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS), such as apathy and depression, commonly accompany cognitive and functional decline in early Alzheimer's disease (AD). Prior studies have shown associations between affective NPS and neurodegeneration of medial frontal and inferior temporal regions in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD dementia. To investigate the association between functional connectivity in four brain networks and NPS in elderly with MCI. NPS were assessed using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory in 42 subjects with MCI. Resting-state functional connectivity in four networks (default mode network, fronto-parietal control network (FPCN), dorsal attention network, and ventral attention network) was assessed using seed-based magnetic resonance imaging. Factor analysis was used to identify two factors of NPS: Affective and Hyperactivity. Linear regression models were utilized with the neuropsychiatric factors as the dependent variable and the four networks as the predictors of interest. Covariates included age, gender, premorbid intelligence, processing speed, memory, head movement, and signal-to-noise ratio. These analyses were repeated with the individual items of the affective factor, using the same predictors. There was a significant association between greater Affective factor symptoms and reduced FPCN connectivity (p = 0.03). There was no association between the Hyperactivity factor and any of the networks. Secondary analyses revealed an association between greater apathy and reduced FPCN connectivity (p = 0.005), but none in other networks. Decreased connectivity in the FPCN may be associated with greater affective symptoms, particularly apathy, early in AD. These findings extend prior studies, using different functional imaging modalities in individuals with greater disease severity.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 04/2015; 46(3). DOI:10.3233/JAD-150017 · 4.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Harvard Aging Brain Study is sharing its data with the global research community. The longitudinal dataset consists of a 284-subject cohort with the following modalities acquired: demographics, clinical assessment, comprehensive neuropsychological testing, clinical biomarkers, and neuroimaging. To promote more extensive analyses, imaging data was designed to be compatible with other publicly available datasets. A cloud-based system enables access to interested researchers with blinded data available contingent upon completion of a data usage agreement and administrative approval. Data collection is ongoing and currently in its fifth year. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    NeuroImage 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.03.069 · 6.36 Impact Factor
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    Emily E Shaw · Aaron P Schultz · Reisa A. Sperling · Trey Hedden
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    ABSTRACT: Intrinsic functional connectivity MRI has become a widely-used tool for measuring integrity in large-scale cortical networks. This study examined multiple cortical networks using Template-Based Rotation (TBR), a method that applies a priori network and nuisance component templates defined from an independent dataset to test datasets of interest. A priori templates were applied to a test dataset of 276 older adults (ages 65-90) from the Harvard Aging Brain Study to examine the relationship between multiple large-scale cortical networks and cognition. Factor scores derived from neuropsychological tests represented processing speed, executive function, and episodic memory. Resting-state BOLD data were acquired in two six-minute acquisitions on a 3-Telsa scanner and processed with TBR to extract individual-level metrics of network connectivity in multiple cortical networks. All results controlled for data quality metrics including motion. Connectivity in multiple large-scale cortical networks was positively related to all cognitive domains, with a composite measure of general connectivity positively associated with general cognitive performance. Controlling for the correlations between networks, the fronto-parietal control network and executive function demonstrated the only significant association, suggesting specificity in this relationship. Further analyses found that the fronto-parietal control network mediated the relationships of the other networks with cognition, suggesting that this network may play a central role in understanding individual variation in cognition during aging.
    Brain Connectivity 04/2015; DOI:10.1089/brain.2014.0327
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Aging is associated with reduced neural integrity, yet there are remarkable individual differences in brain health among older adults (OA). One factor that may attenuate age-related neural decline is cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). The primary aim of this study was to link CRF to neural white matter microstructure using diffusion tensor imaging in OA.Methods Young adults (YA; n = 32) and OA (n = 27) completed a graded maximal exercise test to evaluate CRF and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging to examine neural white matter integrity.ResultsAs expected, pervasive age-related declines in white matter integrity were observed when OA were compared to YA. Further, peak VO2 was positively associated with fractional anisotropy (FA), an indicator of white matter integrity, in multiple brain regions in OA, but not YA. In multiple posterior regions such as the splenium, sagittal stratum, posterior corona radiata, and superior parietal white matter, FA values were similar in YA and OA classified as higher fit, with both groups having greater FA than lower fit OA. However, age-related differences in FA values remained in other regions, including the body and genu of the corpus callosum, precuneus, and superior frontal gyrus.InterpretationCRF is positively associated with neural white matter microstructure in aging. The relationship between peak VO2 and FA appears to be tract-specific, as equivalent FA values were observed in higher fit OA and YA in some white matter tracts, but not others. Further, the association between peak VO2 and FA appears to be age-dependent.
    04/2015; 2(6). DOI:10.1002/acn3.204

Publication Stats

12k Citations
3,129.10 Total Impact Points


  • 2002–2015
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • • Department of Neurology
      • • Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2001–2015
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      • Department of Neurology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2000–2015
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Neurology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2001–2014
    • Harvard University
      • Department of Psychology
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2013
    • University of Pennsylvania
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
    • University of Melbourne
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    • Alzheimer's Association
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2011–2013
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • Department of Neurology
      San Luis, Missouri, United States
    • Banner Alzheimer's Institute
      Phoenix, Arizona, United States
  • 2004
    • Johns Hopkins University
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    • Boston University
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States