Reisa A Sperling

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (253)2372.69 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: It is acknowledged that progress in combined therapeutic approaches for Alzheimer's disease (AD) will require an unprecedented level of collaboration. At a meeting co-hosted by the Accelerate Cure/Treatments for Alzheimer's Disease Coalition and the Critical Path Institute, investigators from industry, academia and regulatory agencies agreed on the need for combinatorial approaches to treating AD. The need for advancing multiple targets includes recognition for novel adaptive trial designs that incorporate existing and new biomarkers to evaluate drug effects independently and in combination. A combination trial now being planned may test drugs targeting different pathogenic pathways or multiple targets along a common pathway. Collaborations and consortia-based strategies are pivotal for success and a regulatory framework is recommended for success.
    Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics 12/2014; · 2.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Amyloid imaging is a valuable tool for research and diagnosis in dementing disorders. As positron emission tomography (PET) scanners have limited spatial resolution, measured signals are distorted by partial volume effects. Various techniques have been proposed for correcting partial volume effects, but there is no consensus as to whether these techniques are necessary in amyloid imaging, and, if so, how they should be implemented. We evaluated a two-component partial volume correction technique and a regional spread function technique using both simulated and human Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) PET imaging data. Both correction techniques compensated for partial volume effects and yielded improved detection of subtle changes in PiB retention. However, the regional spread function technique was more accurate in application to simulated data. Because PiB retention estimates depend on the correction technique, standardization is necessary to compare results across groups. Partial volume correction has sometimes been avoided because it increases the sensitivity to inaccuracy in image registration and segmentation. However, our results indicate that appropriate PVC may enhance our ability to detect changes in amyloid deposition. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    NeuroImage 12/2014; · 6.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have linked variants in TREM2 and TREML2 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and AD endophenotypes. Here, we pursue a targeted analysis of the TREM locus in relation to cognitive decline and pathological features of AD.Methods: Clinical, cognitive, and neuropathological phenotypes were collected in three prospective cohorts on aging (n=3421 subjects). Our primary analysis was an association with neuritic plaque pathology. To functionally characterize the associated variants, we used flow cytometry data to measure TREM1 expression on monocytes.Results: We provide evidence that an intronic variant, rs6910730G, in Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid cells 1 (TREM1), is associated with an increased burden of neuritic plaques (p=3.7x10-4), diffuse plaques (p=4.1x10-3), and Aβ density (p=2.6x10-3) as well as an increased rate of cognitive decline (p=5.3x10-3). A variant upstream of TREM2, rs7759295C, is independently associated with an increased Tau tangle density (p=4.9x10-4), an increased burden of neurofibrillary tangles (p=9.1x10-3), and an increased rate of cognitive decline (p=2.3x10-3). Finally, a cytometric analysis shows that the TREM1 rs6910730G allele is associated with decreased TREM1 expression on the surface of myeloid cells (p=1.7x10-3).Interpretation: We provide evidence that two common variants within the TREM locus are associated with pathological features of AD and aging-related cognitive decline. Our evidence suggests that these variants are likely to be independent of known AD variants and that they may work through an alteration of myeloid cell function. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Annals of Neurology 12/2014; · 11.91 Impact Factor
  • Reisa Sperling, Elizabeth Mormino, Keith Johnson
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    ABSTRACT: As the field begins to test the concept of a “preclinical” stage of neurodegenerative disease, when the pathophysiological process has begun in the brain, but clinical symptoms are not yet manifest, a number of intriguing questions have already arisen. In particular, in preclinical Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the temporal relationship of amyloid markers to markers of neurodegeneration and their relative utility in the prediction of cognitive decline among clinically normal older individuals remains to be fully elucidated. Secondary prevention trials in AD have already begun in both genetic at-risk and amyloid at-risk cohorts, with several more trials in the planning stages, and should provide critical answers about whether intervention at this very early stage of disease can truly bend the curve of clinical progression. This review will highlight recent progress in cognitive, imaging, and biomarker outcomes in the field of preclinical AD, and the remaining gaps in knowledge.
    Neuron 11/2014; 84(3). · 15.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Age-related alterations in brain structure and function have been challenging to link to cognition due to potential overlapping influences of multiple neurobiological cascades. We examined multiple brain markers associated with age-related variation in cognition. Clinically normal older humans aged 65-90 from the Harvard Aging Brain Study (N = 186) were characterized on a priori magnetic resonance imaging markers of gray matter thickness and volume, white matter hyperintensities, fractional anisotropy (FA), resting-state functional connectivity, positron emission tomography markers of glucose metabolism and amyloid burden, and cognitive factors of processing speed, executive function, and episodic memory. Partial correlation and mediation analyses estimated age-related variance in cognition shared with individual brain markers and unique to each marker. The largest relationships linked FA and striatum volume to processing speed and executive function, and hippocampal volume to episodic memory. Of the age-related variance in cognition, 70-80% was accounted for by combining all brain markers (but only ∼20% of total variance). Age had significant indirect effects on cognition via brain markers, with significant markers varying across cognitive domains. These results suggest that most age-related variation in cognition is shared among multiple brain markers, but potential specificity between some brain markers and cognitive domains motivates additional study of age-related markers of neural health.
    Cerebral Cortex 10/2014; · 8.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: With increasing numbers of people with Alzheimer's and other dementias across the globe, many countries have developed national plans to deal with the resulting challenges. In the United States, the National Alzheimer's Project Act, signed into law in 2011, required the creation of such a plan with annual updates thereafter. Pursuant to this, the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) released the National Plan to Address Alzheimer's Disease in 2012, including an ambitious research goal of preventing and effectively treating Alzheimer's disease by 2025. To guide investments, activities, and the measurement of progress toward achieving this 2025 goal, in its first annual plan update (2013) HHS also incorporated into the plan a set of short, medium and long-term milestones. HHS further committed to updating these milestones on an ongoing basis to account for progress and setbacks, and emerging opportunities and obstacles. To assist HHS as it updates these milestones, the Alzheimer's Association convened a National Plan Milestone Workgroup consisting of scientific experts representing all areas of Alzheimer's and dementia research. The workgroup evaluated each milestone and made recommendations to ensure that they collectively constitute an adequate work plan for reaching the goal of preventing and effectively treating Alzheimer's by 2025. This report presents these Workgroup recommendations.
    Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association 10/2014; 10(5 Suppl):S430-52. · 14.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Subjective cognitive concerns may represent a simple method to assess likelihood of memory decline among apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 carriers. Methods We examined the relationship of self-reported subjective cognitive concerns, using seven specific cognitive concerns, with memory and memory decline over 6 years among APOE ε4 carriers and non-carriers from the Nurses' Health Study. Results In both groups, increasing subjective cognitive concern score predicted worse baseline memory and faster rates of subsequent memory decline, after adjustment for age, education and depression. The relation with baseline memory appeared statistically stronger in APOE ε4 carriers (P-interaction = 0.03). For memory decline, mean differences in slopes of episodic memory (95% CI) for 4 to 7 versus no concern = −0.05 (−0.10, 0.01) standard units in APOE ε4 carriers, and −0.04 (−0.08, −0.01) standard units in non-carriers. Conclusions APOE ε4 carriers with self-assessed cognitive concerns appear to have worse memory, and possibly accelerated memory decline.
    Alzheimer's and Dementia 09/2014; · 17.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Assessing the ability of Alzheimer disease neuroimaging markers to predict short-term cognitive decline among clinically normal (CN) individuals is critical for upcoming secondary prevention trials using cognitive outcomes.
    JAMA Neurology 09/2014; · 7.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Activities of daily living (ADL) impairment is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia, but impairment in instrumental ADL (IADL) has been reported in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The Structured Interview and Scoring Tool-Massachusetts Alzheimer's Disease Research Center (MADRC)-Informant Report (SIST-MIR) includes 60 graded items that assist in scoring the Clinical Dementia Rating; it assesses the spectrum of cognitive and ADL changes relevant to early AD. Of the 60 SIST-M-IR items, 41 address IADL; we aimed to determine which of these best discriminate individuals with MCI from clinically normal (CN) elderly.
    Current Alzheimer Research 09/2014; 11(8):785-91. · 3.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) is a powerful tool for understanding the network level organization of the brain in research settings and is increasingly being used to study large-scale neuronal network degeneration in clinical trial settings. Presently, a variety of techniques, including seed-based correlation analysis and group independent components analysis (with either dual regression or back projection) are commonly employed to compute functional connectivity metrics. In the present report, we introduce template based rotation,(1) a novel analytic approach optimized for use with a priori network parcellations, which may be particularly useful in clinical trial settings. Template based rotation was designed to leverage the stable spatial patterns of intrinsic connectivity derived from out-of-sample datasets by mapping data from novel sessions onto the previously defined a priori templates. We first demonstrate the feasibility of using previously defined a priori templates in connectivity analyses, and then compare the performance of template based rotation to seed based and dual regression methods by applying these analytic approaches to an fMRI dataset of normal young and elderly subjects. We observed that template based rotation and dual regression are approximately equivalent in detecting fcMRI differences between young and old subjects, demonstrating similar effect sizes for group differences and similar reliability metrics across 12 cortical networks. Both template based rotation and dual-regression demonstrated larger effect sizes and comparable reliabilities as compared to seed based correlation analysis, though all three methods yielded similar patterns of network differences. When performing inter-network and sub-network connectivity analyses, we observed that template based rotation offered greater flexibility, larger group differences, and more stable connectivity estimates as compared to dual regression and seed based analyses. This flexibility owes to the reduced spatial and temporal orthogonality constraints of template based rotation as compared to dual regression. These results suggest that template based rotation can provide a useful alternative to existing fcMRI analytic methods, particularly in clinical trial settings where predefined outcome measures and conserved network descriptions across groups are at a premium.
    NeuroImage 08/2014; · 6.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD) is caused by rare genetic mutations in 3 specific genes in contrast to late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD), which has a more polygenetic risk profile.
    JAMA Neurology 07/2014; · 7.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Advanced aging negatively impacts memory performance. Brain aging has been associated with shrinkage in medial temporal lobe structures essential for memory-including hippocampus and entorhinal cortex-and with deficits in default-mode network connectivity. Yet, whether and how these imaging markers are relevant to age-related memory deficits remains a topic of debate. Using a sample of 182 older (age 74.6 ± 6.2 years) and 66 young (age 22.2 ± 3.6 years) participants, this study examined relationships among memory performance, hippocampus volume, entorhinal cortex thickness, and default-mode network connectivity across aging. All imaging markers and memory were significantly different between young and older groups. Each imaging marker significantly mediated the relationship between age and memory performance and collectively accounted for most of the variance in age-related memory performance. Within older participants, default-mode connectivity and hippocampus volume were independently associated with memory. Structural equation modeling of cross-sectional data within older participants suggest that entorhinal thinning may occur before reduced default-mode connectivity and hippocampal volume loss, which in turn lead to deficits in memory performance.
    Neurobiology of Aging 07/2014; · 4.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To identify factors influencing age at symptom onset and disease course in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD), and develop evidence-based criteria for predicting symptom onset in ADAD.METHODS: We have collected individual-level data on ages at symptom onset and death from 387 ADAD pedigrees, compiled from 137 peer-reviewed publications, the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN) database, and 2 large kindreds of Colombian (PSEN1 E280A) and Volga German (PSEN2 N141I) ancestry. Our combined dataset includes 3,275 individuals, of whom 1,307 were affected by ADAD with known age at symptom onset. We assessed the relative contributions of several factors in influencing age at onset, including parental age at onset, age at onset by mutation type and family, and APOE genotype and sex. We additionally performed survival analysis using data on symptom onset collected from 183 ADAD mutation carriers followed longitudinally in the DIAN Study.RESULTS: We report summary statistics on age at onset and disease course for 174 ADAD mutations, and discover strong and highly significant (p < 10(-16), r(2) > 0.38) correlations between individual age at symptom onset and predicted values based on parental age at onset and mean ages at onset by mutation type and family, which persist after controlling for APOE genotype and sex.CONCLUSIONS: Significant proportions of the observed variance in age at symptom onset in ADAD can be explained by family history and mutation type, providing empirical support for use of these data to estimate onset in clinical research.
    Neurology 06/2014; · 8.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE As Alzheimer disease (AD) research moves to intervene in presymptomatic phases of the disease, we must develop outcome measures sensitive to the earliest disease-related changes. OBJECTIVE To demonstrate the feasibility of a cognitive composite outcome for clinically normal elderly participants with evidence of AD pathology using the ADCS Preclinical Alzheimer Cognitive Composite (ADCS-PACC). The ADCS-PACC combines tests that assess episodic memory, timed executive function, and global cognition. The ADCS-PACC is the primary outcome measure for the first clinical trial in preclinical AD (ie, the Anti-Amyloid Treatment in Asymptomatic Alzheimer's study). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS With the ADCS-PACC, we derive pilot estimates of amyloid-related decline using data from 2 observational studies conducted in North America and another conducted in Australia. The participants analyzed had normal cognition and mean ages of 75.81, 71.37, and 79.42 years across the 3 studies. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES For the 2 studies that collected data on Aβ levels (ADNI and AIBL), we estimate decline in a preclinical AD "Aβ-positive" placebo group and compare them with an "Aβ-negative" group. For the study that did not include data on Aβ levels (the ADCS Prevention Instrument [ADCS-PI] study), we grouped participants by the presence of APOE-ε4 and by clinical progression. RESULTS In ADNI, Aβ-positive participants showed more decline than did Aβ-negative participants with regard to the ADCS-PACC score at 24 months (mean [SE] difference, -1.239 [0.522] [95% CI, -2.263 to -0.215]; P = .02). In AIBL, the mean (SE) difference is significant at both 18 months (-1.009 [0.406] [95% CI, -1.805 to -0.213]; P = .01) and 36 months (-1.404 [0.452] [95% CI, -2.290 to -0.519]; P = .002). In the ADCS-PI study, APOE-ε4 allele carriers performed significantly worse on the ADCS-PACC at 24 months (mean [SE] score, -0.742 [0.294] [95% CI, -1.318 to -0.165]; P = .01) and 36 months (-1.531 [0.469] [95% CI, -2.450 to -0.612]; P = .001). In the ADCS-PI study, cognitively normal participants who progress from a global Clinical Dementia Rating score of 0 are significantly worse on the ADCS-PACC than cognitively normal participants who are stable with a global Clinical Dementia Rating score of 0 at months 12, 24, and 36 (mean [SE] ADCS-PACC score, -4.471 [0.702] [95% CI, -5.848 to -3.094]; P < .001). Using pilot estimates of variance and assuming 500 participants per group with 30% attrition and a 5% α level, we project 80% power to detect effects in the range of Δ = 0.467 to 0.733 on the ADCS-PACC. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Analyses of at-risk cognitively normal populations suggest that we can reliably measure the first signs of cognitive decline with the ADCS-PACC. These analyses also suggest the feasibility of secondary prevention trials.
    JAMA Neurology 06/2014; · 7.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Impairment in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) begins as individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) transition to Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia. IADL impairment in AD dementia has been associated with inferior parietal, inferior temporal, and superior occipital hypometabolism using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Objective: To investigate the relationship between regional FDG metabolism and IADL in clinically normal (CN) elderly, MCI, and mild AD dementia subjects cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Methods: One hundred and four CN, 203 MCI, and 95 AD dementia subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative underwent clinical assessments every 6 to 12 months for up to three years and baseline FDG PET. The subjective, informant-based Functional Activities Questionnaire was used to assess IADL. General linear models and mixed effects models were used, covarying for demographics, cognition, and behavior. Results: The cross-sectional analysis revealed middle frontal and orbitofrontal hypometabolism were significantly associated with greater IADL impairment. Additionally, the interaction of diagnosis with posterior cingulate and with parahippocampal hypometabolism showed a greater decline in IADL performance as metabolism decreased for the AD dementia relative to the MCI group, and the MCI group relative to the CN group. The longitudinal analysis showed that baseline middle frontal and posterior cingulate hypometabolism were significantly associated with greater rate of increase in IADL impairment over time. Conclusion: These results suggest that regional synaptic dysfunction, including the Alzheimer-typical medial parietal and less typical frontal regions, relates to daily functioning decline at baseline and over time across the early AD spectrum.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 05/2014; · 3.61 Impact Factor
  • Donald G McLaren, Reisa A Sperling, Alireza Atri
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    ABSTRACT: Functional neuroimaging tools, such as fMRI methods, may elucidate the neural correlates of clinical, behavioral, and cognitive performance. Most functional imaging studies focus on regional task-related activity or resting state connectivity rather than how changes in functional connectivity across conditions and tasks are related to cognitive and behavioral performance. To investigate the promise of characterizing context-dependent connectivity-behavior relationships, this study applies the method of generalized psychophysiological interactions (gPPI) to assess the patterns of associative-memory-related fMRI hippocampal functional connectivity in Alzheimer's disease (AD) associated with performance on memory and other cognitively demanding neuropsychological tests and clinical measures. Twenty-four subjects with mild AD dementia (ages 54-82, nine females) participated in a face-name paired-associate encoding memory study. Generalized PPI analysis was used to estimate the connectivity between the hippocampus and the whole brain during encoding. The difference in hippocampal-whole brain connectivity between encoding novel and repeated face-name pairs was used in multiple-regression analyses as an independent predictor for 10 behavioral, neuropsychological and clinical tests. The analysis revealed connectivity-behavior relationships that were distributed, dynamically overlapping, and task-specific within and across intrinsic networks; hippocampal-whole brain connectivity-behavior relationships were not isolated to single networks, but spanned multiple brain networks. Importantly, these spatially distributed performance patterns were unique for each measure. In general, out-of-network behavioral associations with encoding novel greater than repeated face-name pairs hippocampal-connectivity were observed in the default-mode network, while correlations with encoding repeated greater than novel face-name pairs hippocampal-connectivity were observed in the executive control network (p<0.05, cluster corrected). Psychophysiological interactions revealed significantly more extensive and robust associations between paired-associate encoding task-dependent hippocampal-whole brain connectivity and performance on memory and behavioral/clinical measures than previously revealed by standard activity-behavior analysis. Compared to resting state and task-activation methods, gPPI analyses may be more sensitive to reveal additional complementary information regarding subtle within- and between-network relations. The patterns of robust correlations between hippocampal-whole brain connectivity and behavioral measures identified here suggest that there are 'coordinated states' in the brain; that the dynamic range of these states is related to behavior and cognition; and that these states can be observed and quantified, even in individuals with mild AD.
    NeuroImage 05/2014; · 6.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neuropsychologists are developing more challenging and specific tests to detect early and subtle changes in cognition related to preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD). The 16-item Face-Name Associative Memory Exam (FNAME-16) is a challenging paired associative memory test able to detect subtle memory changes associated with biomarker evidence of preclinical AD. However, as individuals progress along the AD trajectory, measures that are sensitive at the preclinical stage may become too challenging by the stage of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Our goal was to develop a modified version of the face-name and face-occupation paired associative memory task (FNAME-12) with fewer stimuli and additional learning trials suitable for use in MCI. We administered the FNAME-12A, an alternate version FNAME 12B, the original FNAME-16, and a series of other neuropsychological measures to 65 clinically normal (CN) older adults (aged 65 to 85) and a subsample characterized by MCI (n = 18). The FNAME-12 exhibited psychometric equivalence with the FNAME-16 (r = .77, p < .001) and was correlated with other measures of episodic and semantic memory. The alternate form, FNAME-12B, was highly correlated with FNAME-12A (r = .76, p < .001). Mean performance on the FNAME 12A, stratified by education, was generated. The task could be completed by our MCI group yet remained challenging in the CN group, providing evidence for its utility along the AD trajectory.
    The Clinical Neuropsychologist 05/2014; · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is increasing evidence that subjective cognitive decline (SCD) in individuals with unimpaired performance on cognitive tests may represent the first symptomatic manifestation of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The research on SCD in early AD, however, is limited by the absence of common standards. The working group of the Subjective Cognitive Decline Initiative (SCD-I) addressed this deficiency by reaching consensus on terminology and on a conceptual framework for research on SCD in AD. In this publication, research criteria for SCD in pre-mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are presented. In addition, a list of core features proposed for reporting in SCD studies is provided, which will enable comparability of research across different settings. Finally, a set of features is presented, which in accordance with current knowledge, increases the likelihood of the presence of preclinical AD in individuals with SCD. This list is referred to as SCD plus.
    Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association 05/2014; · 14.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the relationship between vascular disease and risk factors versus cognitive decline cross-sectionally and longitudinally in normal older control, mild cognitive impairment, and mild Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia subjects. A total of 812 participants (229 normal older control, 395 mild cognitive impairment, 188 AD) underwent cognitive testing, brain magnetic resonance imaging, and clinical evaluations at baseline and over a period of 3 years. General linear, longitudinal mixed-effects, and Cox proportional hazards models were used. Greater homocysteine level and white matter hyperintensity volume were associated with processing speed impairment (homocysteine: P=0.02; white matter hyperintensity: P<0.0001); greater Vascular Index score was associated with memory impairment (P=0.007); and greater number of apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOE4) alleles was associated with global cognitive impairment (P=0.007) at baseline. Apolipoprotein E ε4 was associated with greater rate of increase in global cognitive impairment (P=0.002) and processing speed impairment (P=0.001) over time, whereas higher total cholesterol was associated with greater rate of increase in global cognitive impairment (P=0.02) and memory impairment (P=0.06) over time. These results suggest a significant association of increased vascular disease and risk factors with cognitive impairment at baseline and over time in the AD spectrum in a sample that was selected to have low vascular burden at baseline.
    Alzheimer disease and associated disorders 04/2014; · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine whether β-amyloid (Aβ) and APOE ε4 status independently contribute or interact to influence longitudinal cognitive decline in clinically normal older individuals (CN). Data from 490 CNs were aggregated across 3 observational cohort studies (Harvard Aging Brain Study, Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, and Australian Imaging Biomarkers and Lifestyle Study of Ageing; median age = 75.0 years, 255 female), and the contributions of APOE ε4 and Aβ on longitudinal change over a median of 1.49 years were examined. Cognitive decline was assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Logical Memory (immediate and delayed recall scores). High Aβ participants were more likely to be APOE ε4+ than low Aβ participants. CNs who were both high Aβ and APOE ε4+ showed greater decline in Logical Memory immediate recall (p < 0.087), Logical Memory delayed recall (p < 0.024), and MMSE (p < 0.034) compared to all other groups (low Aβ/APOE ε4-, low Aβ/APOE ε4+, and high Aβ/APOE ε4-). No other pairwise contrast was significant for any cognitive measure. Clinically normal individuals who are APOE ε4+ and have high Aβ showed the highest cognitive decline. These results suggest that Aβ and APOE ε4 are not redundant contributors of decline in aging but rather interact to promote decline during the short follow-up period examined in this study. Longer follow-up periods will be essential to fully elucidate the influence of Alzheimer disease risk factors on cognitive decline in aging.
    Neurology 04/2014; · 8.30 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

8k Citations
2,372.69 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002–2014
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Neurology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2013
    • University of California, San Diego
      • Department of Neurosciences
      San Diego, CA, United States
    • Alzheimer's Association
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2002–2013
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • • Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging
      • • Department of Neurology
      • • Alzheimer Research Unit
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2012
    • Boston University
      • Department of Psychology
      Pittsburgh, PA, United States
  • 2001–2012
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Neurology
      Cambridge, MA, United States
  • 2011
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • Department of Neurology
      Saint Louis, MO, United States
    • Partners HealthCare
      • Department of Neurology
      Boston, MA, United States
    • Banner Alzheimer's Institute
      Phoenix, Arizona, United States
  • 2010
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2007
    • Harvard University
      • Department of Psychology
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States