Francisco Garrido-Latorre

Metropolitan Autonomous University, Mexico City, The Federal District, Mexico

Are you Francisco Garrido-Latorre?

Claim your profile

Publications (31)27.37 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective. To quantify the supply of essential drugs and the fully filled-in prescription level in the Units Specialized in the Treatment of Chronic Diseases (UNEMES-EC) in Mexico. Materials and methods. The supply and prescription indicators were measured in 30 of the 86 existing UNEMES-EC. The supply of drugs was recorded using a list of 17 essential drugs related to the treatment of diabetes, hypertension, overweight and obesity. The information on fully filled-in prescriptions was obtained through a questionnaire applied to 1 200 health care users. Results. Only 13.3% of these units showed a complete supply of the 17 essential drugs: Supply levels were higher in units with external drugstore service. 35% of the interviewed patients reported out-of-pocket expenditures in medicines. Conclusion. UNEMES-EC should improve their levels of drug supply and fully filled-in prescriptions to reduce out-of-pocket expenditures.
    Salud publica de Mexico 12/2013; 55(6):618-26. · 0.94 Impact Factor
  • Salud publica de Mexico 12/2013; 55(6):618-626. · 0.94 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To describe and quantify hospital services given by units of the Ministry of Health (MoH) to patients with social security or living in states different to those where the hospitals are located. With data from the automatized system for hospital discharges patients were classified, according to the place of living, into locals or outsiders; and, according to their insurance status, into social security beneficiaries or not beneficiaries. Frequencies of services for these groups were estimated, and characteristics of patients and services were described. 5.6% of patients of MoH hospitals were outsiders. This percentage reaches 50% in the National Institutes of Health. Only 1.7% of the patients had social security insurance. Sociodemographic and services characteristics are quite different between outsiders or social security patients and those without those attributes. Despite its segmentation, in the National Health System there is a continuous process of exchange of services between different providers.
    Salud publica de Mexico 06/2013; 55(3):294-300. · 0.94 Impact Factor
  • Francisco Garrido-Latorre, Sergio López-Moreno
    Salud publica de Mexico 01/2011; 53 Suppl 4:399-401. · 0.94 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To assess health care quality provided to type-2 diabetic and hypertensive patients in primary care settings from the Mexican Ministry of Health and to evaluate whether accredited clinics providing services to the Mexican Seguro Popular performed better in terms of metabolic control of those patients compared to the non-accredited. Cross-sectional study performed on 2008. Previous year clinical measures were obtained from 5 444 diabetic and 5 827 hypertensive patient's clinical records. Adequate metabolic control (glucose <110 mg/dl for diabetes and blood pressure <140/90 mmHg for hypertension) associated factors were assessed by multiple-multilevel logistic regression methods. Patients attending accredited clinics were more likely to be controlled, however, metabolic control was not constant over time of accreditation. Additional efforts are required to monitor accredited clinics' performance in order to maintain both metabolic control and clinical assessment of patients.
    Salud publica de Mexico 01/2011; 53 Suppl 4:436-44. · 0.94 Impact Factor
  • Esteban Puentes-Rosas, Karina Rincón, Francisco Garrido-Latorre
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To introduce the Hospital Standardized Mortality Ratio (HSMR) as an alternative to assess the quality of hospital care in Mexico. Data-sets of public hospital discharges were used as source of information. The analyses were based in a logistic model to estimate the risk of hospital death adjusting by sex, age, length of stay and main diagnosis. The HSMR is estimated dividing the observed deaths by the addition of the risk for each discharge by hospital. The ISSSTE had the lowest HSMR. At state level, the best figure was obtained by the hospitals of the ISSSTE in Veracruz, while the worst performance corresponds to hospitals of the SS in Nayarit. Our results suggest that this indicator can be used as a suitable alternative to evaluate the performance of hospitals in terms of mortality.
    Salud publica de Mexico 01/2011; 53 Suppl 4:480-3. · 0.94 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To measure the prevalence of adverse events (AE) in surgical adult patients from the main public health institutions in Mexico. A two stage retrospective medical record review was carried out. A total of 6 119 medical records were randomly selected. The medical records were evaluated by a doctor. Logistic regression was used to identify likely associated variables. The AE prevalence was 4.1%. There were no significant differences by sex or institution. The patients 65 years or older who are served in big hospitals have more risk of suffering an AE. Patients with an AE remained in the hospital an average of nine more days than those without one. According to our results, in 2008 there were at least 128 400 AE in Mexico. It is necessary to develop further studies to investigate the main factors associated to surgical adverse events and to improve patient safety.
    Salud publica de Mexico 01/2011; 53 Suppl 4:484-90. · 0.94 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Esteban Puentes-Rosas, Karina Rincón, Francisco Garrido-Latorre
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE. To introduce the Hospital Standardized Mortality Ratio (HSMR) as an alternative to assess the quality of hospital care in Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Data-sets of public hospital discharges were used as source of information. The analyses were based in a logistic model to estimate the risk of hospital death adjusting by sex, age, length of stay and main diagnosis. The HSMR is estimated dividing the observed deaths by the addition of the risk for each discharge by hospital. RESULTS. The ISSSTE had the lowest HSMR. At state level, the best figure was obtained by the hospitals of the ISSSTE in Veracruz, while the worst performance corresponds to hospitals of the SS in Nayarit. CONCLUSION. Our results suggest that this indicator can be used as a suitable alternative to evaluate the performance of hospitals in terms of mortality.
    Salud publica de Mexico 12/2010; 53:480-483. · 0.94 Impact Factor
  • Francisco Garrido-Latorre, Sergio López-Moreno
    Salud publica de Mexico 12/2010; 53:399-401. · 0.94 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE. To assess health care quality provided to type-2 diabetic and hypertensive patients in primary care settings from the Mexican Ministry of Health and to evaluate whether accredited clinics providing services to the Mexican Seguro Popular performed better in terms of metabolic control of those patients compared to the non-accredited. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Cross-sectional study performed on 2008. Previous year clinical measures were obtained from 5 444 diabetic and 5 827 hypertensive patient's clinical records. Adequate metabolic control (glucose <110 mg/dl for diabetes and blood pressure <140/90 mmHg for hypertension) associated factors were assessed by multiple-multilevel logistic regression methods. RESULTS. Patients attending accredited clinics were more likely to be controlled, however, metabolic control was not constant over time of accreditation. CONCLUSIONS. Additional efforts are required to monitor accredited clinics' performance in order to maintain both metabolic control and clinical assessment of patients.
    Salud publica de Mexico 12/2010; 53:436-444. · 0.94 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE. To measure the prevalence of adverse events (AE) in surgical adult patients from the main public health institutions in Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A two stage retrospective medical record review was carried out. A total of 6 119 medical records were randomly selected. The medical records were evaluated by a doctor. Logistic regression was used to identify likely associated variables. RESULTS. The AE prevalence was 4.1%. There were no significant differences by sex or institution. The patients 65 years or older who are served in big hospitals have more risk of suffering an AE. Patients with an AE remained in the hospital an average of nine more days than those without one. CONCLUSION. According to our results, in 2008 there were at least 128 400 AE in Mexico. It is necessary to develop further studies to investigate the main factors associated to surgical adverse events and to improve patient safety.
    Salud publica de Mexico 12/2010; 53:484-490. · 0.94 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Measure and compare the percentage of prescriptions fully dispensed to persons with and without Popular Health Insurance (SPS in Spanish) who use ambulatory and general hospital services associated with the Mexico State Health Services (SESA in Spanish), and taking into account insurance status. SESA user satisfaction was also measured with respect to access to medication. Information for the study was taken from four surveys of SESA ambulatory and hospital units that included probabilistic samples with state representativity. Samples of ambulatory units were selected by stratification according to level of care and association to the SPS service network. The findings indicate that the percentage of prescriptions fully dispensed in SESA ambulatory units has improved, reaching approximately 90%, especially among those units offering services to persons affiliated with SPS. Nevertheless, these percentages continue to be lower than those of ambulatory units associated with social security institutions. Percentages of prescriptions fully dispensed have also improved in SESA hospital units, but continue to be relatively low. In nearly all states, as the percentage of prescriptions fully dispensed has increased, user satisfaction with access to medication has also improved. In 2006 more than 50% of the states had high levels of fully dispensed prescriptions among persons with SPS (> or =90%). The more significant problem exists among hospitals, since only 44% of users who received a prescription in SESA hospitals in 2006 had their prescriptions fully dispensed. This finding requires a review of SPS medication policies, which have favored highly prescribed low-cost medications at ambulatory services at the expense of higher cost and more therapeutically effective medications for hospital care, the latter having a greater impact on household budgets.
    Salud publica de Mexico 01/2008; 50 Suppl 4:S429-36. · 0.94 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Measure and compare the percentage of prescriptions fully dispensed to persons with and without Popular Health Insurance (SPS in Spanish) who use ambulatory and general hospital services associated with the Mexico State Health Services (SESA in Spanish), and taking into account insurance status. SESA user satisfaction was also measured with respect to access to medication. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Information for the study was taken from four surveys of SESA ambulatory and hospital units that included probabilistic samples with state representativity. Samples of ambulatory units were selected by stratification according to level of care and association to the SPS service network. RESULTS: The findings indicate that the percentage of prescriptions fully dispensed in SESA ambulatory units has improved, reaching approximately 90%, especially among those units offering services to persons affiliated with SPS. Nevertheless, these percentages continue to be lower than those of ambulatory units associated with social security institutions. Percentages of prescriptions fully dispensed have also improved in SESA hospital units, but continue to be relatively low. In nearly all states, as the percentage of prescriptions fully dispensed has increased, user satisfaction with access to medication has also improved. CONCLUSIONS: In 2006 more than 50% of the states had high levels of fully dispensed prescriptions among persons with SPS (>90%). The more significant problem exists among hospitals, since only 44% of users who received a prescription in SESA hospitals in 2006 had their prescriptions fully dispensed. This finding requires a review of SPS medication policies, which have favored highly prescribed low-cost medications at ambulatory services at the expense of higher cost and more therapeutically effective medications for hospital care, the latter having a greater impact on household budgets.
    Salud publica de Mexico 01/2008; 50. · 0.94 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To present and discuss findings on the responsiveness of the Mexican health system. The data source was the 2002-2003 National Performance Assessment Survey. A descriptive analysis was performed and results were adjusted for user's expectations using vignette information. Final results were disaggregated by sex, provider, age, and education level. Responsiveness scores given by women and senior individuals were higher than those provided by men and young adults. Major differences were observed when provider comparisons were made. In ambulatory care, the Ministry of Health and private providers were better rated than major social security institutions. For in-patient care, private providers were better rated than public health institutions. Responsiveness of the Mexican health system requires improvements in certain areas in order to meet one of the basic goals of all health systems.
    Salud publica de Mexico 02/2005; 47 Suppl 1:S12-21. · 0.94 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Esteban Puentes-Rosas, Francisco Garrido-Latorre, Octavio Gómez-Dantés
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objetivo. Describir el comportamiento de las cesáreas en México en los últimos 10 años y medir su relación con distintas variables. Material y métodos. Estudio ecológico en el que se utilizó la base de datos de nacimientos atendidos en instituciones de salud públicas y privadas que concentra la Secretaría de Salud de México. La variable dependiente fue el tipo de atención del parto. Las variables independientes fueron el producto interno bruto per cápita, el índice de desarrollo humano, el porcentaje de analfabetismo de las mujeres, el nivel de marginación y el porcentaje de médicos especialistas, entre otras. La relación entre las variables en estudio se midió con las pruebas de correlación de Pearson y de Spearman. Con los datos de 1999 se realizó un análisis de regresión lineal múltiple para identificar las principales variables asociadas con el porcentaje de cesáreas por entidad federativa. Resultados. El porcentaje de nacimientos por cesárea en el ámbito nacional se incrementó en los últimos 10 años a un ritmo ligeramente superior a 1% anual. El ritmo de crecimiento fue considerablemente mayor en la seguridad social y el sector privado. El porcentaje de cesáreas a escala nacional en 1999 fue ligeramente superior a 35%. Los valores más altos correspondieron al sector privado con 53%. Las instituciones de seguridad social presentaron un porcentaje de cesáreas de 38.2%. Las variables con valores de asociación más intensa con el porcentaje de cesáreas fueron el porcentaje de médicos que son especialistas en el estado y el producto interno bruto per cápita. Discusión. Los resultados presentados respaldan las opiniones que defienden la implantación de políticas correctivas específicas, con el fin de impulsar un descenso en la frecuencia de cesáreas. En otros contextos se han producido paraledescensos importantes con requisitos como la solicitud de una segunda opinión antes de realizar una cesárea, la definición precisa de las razones para llevarla a cabo y el monitoreo de los porcentajes individuales de cesáreas entre los obstetras de los hospitales. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html
    Salud pública de México, ISSN 0036-3634, Vol. 46, Nº. 1, 2004, pags. 16-22. 01/2004;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Demonstrate the economic benefits that community participation may render in the construction of health units. The purpose of this study was to analyze the efficiency in the construction of 21 auxiliary health units and 81 rural health built through the Program to Support the Development of Health Services for the Non-Insured Population (PASSPA) through three different construction models (national public bidding, restricted invitation and community participation). Comparisons were also made with the units built through regular construction procedures of the Ministry of Health and other institutions. To evaluate the expenditure/m2, a univariate analysis using non-parametric statistics and a mathematical model of bootstrapping were used. The median expenditure/m2 and the delivery times for auxiliary health units, and the median expenditure/m2 for rural health units were smaller when using community participation. The expenditure/m2 of those units built through PASSPA was considerably lower than that of health units built through regular construction procedures. The use of community participation in the construction of auxiliary health units and rural health units may impact positively the resource investment and the delivery times when compared with units built through national public biddings and restricted invitations. The possibility of using community participation in other health activities (supervision, maintenance) should be evaluated. The English version of this paper is available at:http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html.
    Salud publica de Mexico 01/2003; 45(6):483-91. · 0.94 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJETIVO: Demostrar los beneficios económicos de la participación comunitaria en la construcción de unidades de salud. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó una evaluación de la eficiencia del gasto en la construcción de unidades de salud. Se comparó el gasto/m² y los tiempos de construcción de cada una de las 21 unidades auxiliares de salud y los 81 centros de salud rural dispersos edificados por el Programa de Apoyo a los Servicios de Salud para Población Abierta a través de tres modalidades de construcción: licitación pública nacional, invitación restringida y participación comunitaria. Este gasto también se comparó con el gasto monetario de otras unidades de salud similares edificadas a través de los programas normales de obra de otras instituciones. Se desarrolló un análisis univariado utilizando estadísticas no paramétricas y se diseñó un modelo matemático de ajuste a normal (bootstrapping) para analizar el gasto/m². RESULTADOS: La mediana de gasto/m² y de tiempos de entrega en las unidades auxiliares de salud y de gasto/m² para los centros de salud rural dispersos fue menor cuando se empleó la participación comunitaria. Los gastos/m² de las unidades construidas por el Programa de Apoyo a los Servicios de Salud para Población Abierta, sobre todo con participación comunitaria, fueron considerablemente más eficientes que los reportados por las obras de otros programas de construcción. CONCLUSIONES: El uso de la participación comunitaria en la construcción de unidades auxiliares de salud y todos los centros de salud rural dispersos permite disminuir considerablemente el monto de recursos invertidos por m² y mejorar los tiempos de construcción en relación con la licitación pública nacional y la invitación restringida. La construcción de unidades de salud bajo las condiciones generadas por el Programa de Apoyo a los Servicios de Salud para la Población Abierta permitiría mejorar los gastos/m² en relación con otros programas de construcción. Debe valorarse la viabilidad de emplear participación comunitaria en otras actividades normales de los servicios de salud.
    Salud publica de Mexico 01/2003; · 0.94 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To identify the availability of some essential drugs (ED) at primary health care units of the Mexican Ministry of Health (SSA), using data from a research work conducted in 1996 and 1997. A random sample of the 18 sanitary jurisdictions of states participating in the Extension of Coverage Program (ECP) was drawn. All primary care units from selected jurisdictions were evaluated through an inspection visit, using a checklist that included 36 ED. In phase I of the analysis, the absolute number and proportion of units without a single item of any of the 36 drugs were calculated. In the units with available drugs, the median of the distribution was also calculated. In phase II, the medians according to the type of health unit and state was obtained. The statistic utilized for the comparison of the medians was the Scheffé test with one way variance analysis. In addition, the drugs were classified according to their therapeutic indication and the medians and proportion of available drugs were calculated. The differences in proportion were evaluated with the statistic chi 2. During the visits, on average, 18 of the 36 drugs included in the list of the study were found in the health units. The availability of antibiotics, antituberculosis drugs, and antimalarial drugs was particularly poor. In contrast, oral rehydration salts, family planning methods and vaccines were usually available. In general, the PAC3 states presented the best availability figures. The Ministry of Health of México will have to develop an enormous effort to overcome the obstacles related to the supply of essential drugs in primary health care units. Otherwise, all other efforts directed to meet the needs of the non-insured population will end up being useless, and enormous amounts of the already scarce resources of the health sector will be wasted since drugs are a vital component of the long chain of health care.
    Salud publica de Mexico 06/2001; 43(3):224-32. · 0.94 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objetivo. Caracterizar los significados que se atribuyen al proceso de la menopausia como una primera aproximación al mundo representacional de este evento. Material y métodos. Estudio cualitativo, hecho entre septiembre y octubre de 1998 con 20 mujeres de entre 45 y 65 años de edad, residentes en los municipios de Cuernavaca y Emiliano Zapata del estado de Morelos, México. Se efectuaron sendas entrevistas a profundidad, utilizando una guía con los siguientes apartados: datos sociodemográficos, diagnóstico, sentimientos y sensaciones, cambios en el estilo de vida, cambios fisiológicos e información. Resultados. Se halla una representación que se construye alrededor de la menopausia en términos de cese de la fertilidad y entrada al envejecimiento. Esta caracterización tiene que ver también con otras construcciones como la concepción de la mujer, del cuerpo y de la sexualidad. Conclusiones. En este artículo se retoman principalmente los resultados con relación a las prácticas de las mujeres como consecuencia de la vivencia que tienen de la menopausia, entre las que sobresale la visita al médico. Se discuten las implicaciones desde el marco de la construcción social de los significados. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html
    Salud publica de Mexico 01/2001; · 0.94 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objetivo. Conocer el nivel de disponibilidad de algunos medicamentos esenciales (ME) en las unidades de primer nivel de atención de la Secretaría de Salud de México (SSA), a partir de una investigación realizada en 1996-1997. Material y métodos. Del universo de jurisdicciones sanitarias de los 18 estados participantes en el Programa de Ampliación de Cobertura (PAC) se construyó una muestra de manera aleatoria. Todas las unidades de primer nivel de atención ubicadas en las jurisdicciones seleccionadas fueron evaluadas mediante una inspección que utilizó una guía que contenía una lista de 36 ME. En una primera fase del análisis se calcularon el número absoluto y la proporción de unidades que no contaban con un solo ejemplar de alguno de los ME de la lista. En las unidades con disponibilidad de medicamentos se calculó la mediana de la distribución. En una segunda fase se realizó la sumatoria por separado de los 36 medicamentos y de los 10 insumos, y se obtuvieron las medias diferenciadas por tipo de centro de salud y por estado. El estadístico utilizado para la comparación de las medias fue la prueba de Scheffé mediante el análisis de varianza de una vía. Posteriormente se agruparon los medicamentos de acuerdo con sus principales tipos de indicación, y se calcularon las medias y las proporciones de medicamentos disponibles. Las diferencias de proporciones se evaluaron con el estadístico ji cuadrada. Resultados. En el momento de la inspección, las unidades visitadas contaban en promedio, con sólo 18 de los 36 medicamentos incluidos en el estudio. Los problemas de abastecimiento de antibióticos, antifímicos y antipalúdicos fueron particularmente graves. En contraste, el abasto de sales de rehidratación oral, métodos de planificación familiar y biológicos fue relativamente aceptable. En general, los estados clasificados como PAC3 presentaron las mejores cifras de abastecimiento. Conclusiones. La SSA de México, en general, y el Programa de Ampliación de Cobertura, en particular, deberán redoblar esfuerzos para acabar con los cuellos de botella que impiden un abastecimiento adecuado de medicamentos esenciales en las unidades de primer nivel de atención. De otra manera, todas las demás actividades dirigidas a atender las necesidades de salud de las poblaciones más marginadas del país resultarán inútiles, ya que el acceso a los medicamentos constituye la pieza final indispensable de la enorme cadena de la atención a la salud. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html
    Salud Pública de México. 01/2001;

Publication Stats

77 Citations
27.37 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010–2011
    • Metropolitan Autonomous University
      • Departamento de Atención a la Salud
      Mexico City, The Federal District, Mexico
  • 2001–2011
    • Secretaría de Salud
      Ciudad de México, The Federal District, Mexico
  • 1996
    • National Institute of Nuclear Research, Mexico
      Ocoyoacac, México, Mexico