Naoyoshi Maeda

Kyushu University, Fukuoka-shi, Fukuoka-ken, Japan

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Publications (17)82.03 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Type I interferons (IFNs) promote natural killer (NK) and CD8(+) T-cell responses, which play a role not only in the resolution of infection but also in the induction of acute lung injury following influenza A virus infection. We show here that IFN-α receptor knock-out (Ifnar1(-/-)) mice exhibited impaired cytotoxic activity as well as an increased ability of NK and CD8(+) T cells to produce IFN-γ after infection with influenza virus A/FM/1/47 (H1N1, a mouse-adapted strain). A deficiency in IFNAR signaling significantly impaired IL-10 production in influenza virus-infected lungs and enhanced IFN-γ production by NK cells, which were suppressed by exogenous IL-10. Depletion of NK cells but not CD8(+) T cells in Ifnar1(-/-) mice improved the survival rate after A/FM/1/47 infection, indicating that NK cells are responsible for acute lung injury in Ifnar1(-/-) mice following influenza A virus infection, although the depletion of IFN-γ did not improve the outcome. Thus, type I IFN signaling plays a role not only in the upregulation of cytotoxicity but also in the downregulation of some effector mechanisms including IFN-γ production by NK and CD8(+) T cells via IL-10 production. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Journal of Innate Immunity 01/2014; · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anti-viral immune responses play as a double edged sword in resolution of infection and pathogenesis of acute lung injury caused by infection with highly pathogenic influenza A viruses. Here we show that type I interferons (IFNs) are important in protection against acute influenza A virus infection not only via their antiviral activity but also via their anti-inflammatory activity. IFN α receptor (IFNAR) knock-out (KO) mice exhibited increased mortality and morbidity with higher viral load after infection with influenza virus A/FM/1/47 (H1N1, a mouse-adapted strain) compared with wild-type (WT) mice, though the viruses were finally eliminated in both groups. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the lungs were significantly higher, while the level of IL-10 in the lungs was significantly lower in IFNAR KO mice than in WT mice during the course of infection. Restoration of IL-10 during an ongoing virus infection significantly reduced the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and improved mortality of IFNAR KO mice. These results suggest that type I IFNs are responsible not only for direct resolution of viral load but also for suppression of immunopathology caused by influenza A virus through IL-10 production.
    Antiviral research 05/2013; · 3.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Highly pathogenic influenza A viruses cause acute severe pneumonia to which the occurrence of "cytokine storm" has been proposed to contribute. Here we show that interleukin-15 (IL-15) knockout (KO) mice exhibited reduced mortality after infection with influenza virus A/FM/1/47 (H1N1, a mouse-adapted strain) albeit the viral titers of these mice showed no difference from those of control mice. There were significantly fewer antigen-specific CD44(+) CD8(+) T cells in the lungs of infected IL-15 KO mice, and adoptive transfer of the CD8(+) T cells caused reduced survival of IL-15 KO mice following influenza virus infection. Mice deficient in beta(2)-microglobulin by gene targeting and those depleted of CD8(+) T cells by in vivo administration of anti-CD8 monoclonal antibody displayed a reduced mortality rate after infection. These results indicate that IL-15-dependent CD8(+) T cells are at least partly responsible for the pathogenesis of acute pneumonia caused by influenza A virus.
    Journal of Virology 03/2010; 84(11):5574-82. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) play a key role in antiviral immunity, but also contribute to the pathogenesis of certain autoimmune diseases, by producing large amounts of type I IFNs. Although activation of pDCs is triggered by engagement of nucleotide-sensing toll-like receptors (TLR) 7 and 9, type I IFN induction additionally requires IkappaB kinase (IKK) alpha-dependent activation of IFN regulatory factor (IRF) 7. However, the signaling pathway mediating IKK-alpha activation is poorly defined. We show that DOCK2, an atypical Rac activator, is essential for TLR7- and TLR9-mediated IFN-alpha induction in pDCs. We found that the exposure of pDCs to nucleic acid ligands induces Rac activation through a TLR-independent and DOCK2-dependent mechanism. Although this Rac activation was dispensable for induction of inflammatory cytokines, phosphorylation of IKK-alpha and nuclear translocation of IRF-7 were impaired in Dock2-deficient pDCs, resulting in selective loss of IFN-alpha induction. Similar results were obtained when a dominant-negative Rac mutant was expressed in wild-type pDCs. Thus, the DOCK2-Rac signaling pathway acts in parallel with TLR engagement to control IKK-alpha activation for type I IFN induction. Owing to its hematopoietic cell-specific expression, DOCK2 may serve as a therapeutic target for type I IFN-related autoimmune diseases.
    Journal of Experimental Medicine 03/2010; 207(4):721-30. · 13.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is an aggressive malignancy of activated CD4(+) T cells associated with human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) infection. No conventional chemotherapy regimen has appeared successful in patients with ATL, thus establishing effective therapy is urgently required. In some cases, ATL tumor cells express CD30 on the cell surface, therefore, a therapy with mAb against CD30 would be beneficial. To investigate the effect of CD30-mediated therapy on ATL, we assessed SGN-30, a chimeric anti-CD30 mAb, and SGN-35, a monomethyl auristatin E-conjugated anti-CD30 mAb, in vitro and in vivo. Three HTLV-I-infected cell lines were co-cultured with SGN-30 or SGN-35, and the growth-inhibitory effects on the HTLV-I-infected cells were evaluated using an in vitro cell proliferation assay and cell cycle analysis. SGN-30 and SGN-35 showed growth-inhibitory activity against the HTLV-I-infected cell lines by apoptosis and/or cell growth arrest in vitro. To further investigate the effects of SGN-30 and SGN-35 on HTLV-I-infected cells in vivo, we used NOD/SCID mice subcutaneously engrafted with HTLV-I-infected cells. Both mAbs significantly inhibited the growth of HTLV-I-infected cell tumors in the NOD/SCID murine xenograft models. These data suggest that CD30-mediated therapy with SGN-30 or SGN-35 would be useful for patients with ATL.
    Cancer Science 09/2009; 101(1):224-30. · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have previously reported that heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum L-137 (HK-LP) stimulates macrophage/dendritic cells to produce T helper (Th) 1-related cytokines in vitro and in vivo in mice. We here examined the effect of oral administration of HK-LP on protection against influenza virus infection in mice. C57BL/6 mice were orally given HK-LP from day -7 to 7 and intranasally infected with influenza virus A/FM/1/47 (H1N1, a mouse-adapted strain) at 100 pfu on day 0. The survival time was significantly prolonged in mice treated with HK-LP than that in mice treated with PBS as controls. The viral titers in the lung were significantly lower in mice treated with HK-LP than controls at the early stage after influenza virus infection. An appreciable level of interferon (IFN)-beta was detected in the serum of mice treated with HK-LP, while no IFN-beta was detected in controls after influenza infection. Our results suggest that HK-LP, a potent IFN-beta inducer, is useful for prevention against influenza infection.
    International immunopharmacology 06/2009; 9(9):1122-5. · 2.21 Impact Factor
  • Naoyoshi Maeda, Hung Fan, Yasunobu Yoshikai
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    ABSTRACT: Retroviruses are associated with a variety of diseases including an array of malignancies, immunodeficiencies and neurological disorders. In particular, studies of oncogenic retroviruses established fundamental principles of modern molecular cancer biology. Studies of avian Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) led to the discovery of the viral oncogene src, and this was followed by the discovery of other viral oncogenes in retroviruses of mammals including rodents, cats, monkeys and so forth. Studies of the viral oncogenes in turn led to the discovery of cellular proto-oncogenes in the host genome; cellular oncogenes have been shown to be activated in a variety of human cancers, including those with no viral involvement. Oncogenic animal retroviruses can be divided into two groups based on their mechanisms of tumourigenesis, acute transforming retroviruses and nonacute retroviruses. Acute transforming retroviruses are typically replication defective and they induce tumours rapidly due to expression of their viral oncogenes. Nonacute retroviruses are replication competent and they induce tumours with longer latencies, by activating cellular proto-oncogenes in the tumour cells; this results from insertion of proviral DNA in the vicinity of the activated proto-oncogene. More recently, human T-cell leukaemia virus type I (HTLV-I) was discovered as an etiological agent of human cancer (adult T-cell leukaemia [ATL]); this virus also encodes regulatory genes some of which are important for its oncogenic potential. Most recently, the retroviral structural protein Envelope (Env) has been shown to be directly involved in oncogenic transformation for certain retroviruses. Env-induced transformation is a new paradigm for retroviral oncogenesis. In this review, we will summarise research on retrovirus oncogenic transformation over the past 100 years since the first published report of an oncogenic virus with particular attention to Env-induced transformation.
    Reviews in Medical Virology 08/2008; 18(6):387-405. · 7.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis not only depends on CD4+ T helper type 1 (Th1) cells but, also, on CD8+ T cells. Interleukin (IL)-15 has an important function in the maintenance of memory CD8+ T cells. In the present study, we examined the efficacy of recombinant Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (rBCG) secreting fusion protein antigen (Ag) 85B murine IL-15 (rBCG-Ag85B-IL15) in providing protection against M. tuberculosis infection. The levels of major histocompatibility (MHC) class Ib (H2-M3)-binding TB2- or MHC class Ia (H-2Db)-binding MPT64-specific CD8+ T cells producing interferon (IFN)-gamma were significantly higher after immunization with rBCG-Ag85B-IL15 than after immunization with rBCG secreting Ag85B (rBCG-Ag85B). The levels of purified protein derivative- or Ag85B-specific CD4+ T cells producing IFN-gamma were also higher in mice immunized with rBCG-Ag85B-IL15 than in mice immunized with rBCG-Ag85B. Mice immunized with rBCG-Ag85B-IL15 exhibited CD8+ and CD4+ T cells responses that were stronger than those in mice immunized with rBCG-Ag85B, as well as robust protection in the lung against intratracheal challenge of M. tuberculosis. Thus, rBCG-Ag85B-IL15 vaccination capable of inducing efficient cell-mediated immunity might be used as an effective vaccine for tuberculosis.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 06/2008; 197(9):1263-74. · 5.85 Impact Factor
  • Naoyoshi Maeda, Hung Fan
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    ABSTRACT: The ovine beta-retroviruses enzootic nasal tumor virus (ENTV) and Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) are the causative agent of enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma (ENA) and ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA), respectively, characterized by neoplastic transformation of secretory epithelial cells. The Envelope (Env) proteins of these related betaretroviruses act as oncogenes, in that they can transform fibroblast and epithelial cell lines in culture. In addition, viral vector-mediated expression of the Env proteins for these viruses causes tumors in animals. Here, we investigated what signaling pathways are required for the ENTV transformation in vitro. We have previously found that Ras-MEK-MAPK and PI3k-Akt-mTOR are involved in JSRV transformation of fibroblast and epithelial cells. In this study, we found that the MEK inhibitor PD98059 and mTOR inhibitor Rapamycin inhibited ENTV transformation in RK3E rat kidney epithelial cells, but the p38 inhibitor SB203580 drastically enhanced transformation, which is quite similar to JSRV transformation. Small molecular inhibitors and dominant negative versions of H-ras and Rac1 indicated a role for both of these molecules in transformation by either virus. These results indicate that the signaling pathways for ENTV and JSRV transformation are quite similar, consistent with the notion that these proteins do not determine the tissue-specificity of the tumors for these viruses.
    Virus Genes 03/2008; 36(1):147-55. · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IL-15 plays a critical role in the development and maturation of gammadelta intraepithelial T lymphocytes (IEL), which are known to play important roles in wound healing and resolving inflammation in mice. In this study, we found that IL-15 transgenic (Tg) mice, under the control of a MHC Class I promoter, exhibited accelerated wound healing but were highly susceptible to genital infection with HSV-2. The IEL in the skin and reproductive organs of IL-15 Tg mice produced an aberrantly higher level of TGF-beta1 upon TCR triggering than in control mice. In vivo neutralization of TGF-beta ameliorated the susceptibility of IL-15 Tg mice to genital HSV-2 infection. Taken together, overexpression of IL-15 may stimulate IEL to produce TGF-beta1, promoting wound healing but impeding protection against genital HSV-2 infection.
    Journal of Leukocyte Biology 02/2008; 83(1):165-72. · 4.57 Impact Factor
  • Naoyoshi Maeda, Yasunobu Yoshikai
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    ABSTRACT: RNA tumor viruses as classified in Retroviruses have been isolated and identified to induce tumors in a variety of animals including chickens, mice, and rats, or even in human in the last 100 years, since the first one has been reported in 1908. The RNA tumor viruses have been historically classified into two groups, acute transforming RNA tumor viruses and nonacute RNA tumor viruses. Acute transforming RNA tumor viruses are basically replication-defective and rapidly induce tumors by expressing the viral oncogenes captured from cellular genome in host cells. The first oncogene derived from Rous sarcoma virus was the src non-receptor tyrosine kinase, which has been identified to play the significant roles for signal transduction. On the other hand, nonacute RNA tumor viruses, which consist of only gag, pro, pol, and env regions but do not carry oncogenes, are replication-competent and could activate the cellular proto-oncogenes by inserting the viral long terminal repeat close to the proto-oncogenes to induce tumors with a long incubation period, as is termed a promoter insertion. These molecular mechanisms have been thought to induce tumors. However, very recently several reports have described that the retroviral structural protein Envelope could directly induce tumors in vivo and transform cells in vitro. These are very unusual examples of native retroviral structural proteins with transformation potential. In this review we look back over the history of oncogenic retrovirus research and summarize recent progress for our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of oncogenic transformation by retrovirus Envelope proteins.
    Uirusu 01/2008; 57(2):159-70.
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    ABSTRACT: Jaagsiekte retrovirus (JSRV) causes ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA), a transmissible lung cancer of sheep. The envelope (Env) glycoprotein protein of JSRV functions as a dominant oncoprotein in vitro and in vivo. An SH2 binding domain (YXXM) in the cytoplasmic tail of the JSRV Env is one of the main determinants of viral transformation at least in vitro. In these studies, we report the first in vivo tests of site-specific mutants of JSRV in their natural host, the sheep. We show that, in vivo, JSRV(21) with the cytoplasmic tail YXXM mutated to DXXM did not cause disease nor detectable infection, indicating that this motif is absolutely required for virus replication and possibly transformation in vivo. In contrast, mutation of the JSRV open reading frame orfX, for which no function has yet been attributed, did not alter the disease induced by JSRV(21).
    Virology 11/2007; 367(2):413-21. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is the causative agent of ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA), a transmissible lung cancer of sheep. The virus can induce tumors rapidly, and we previously found that the JSRV envelope protein (Env) functions as an oncogene, because it can transform mammalian and avian fibroblast cell lines. (N. Maeda, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98:4449-4454, 2001). The molecular mechanisms of JSRV Env transformation are of considerable interest. Several reports suggested that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway is important for transformation of mammalian fibroblasts but not for chicken fibroblasts. In this study, we found that Akt/mTOR is involved in JSRV transformation of mouse NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, because treatment with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin reduced transformation. We also found that H/N-Ras inhibitor FTI-277 and MEK1/2 inhibitors PD98059 and U0126 strongly inhibited JSRV transformation of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, suggesting that the H/N-Ras-MEK-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p44/42 pathway is necessary for the transformation. In RK3E epithelial cells, the MEK1/2 inhibitors also eliminated transformation, but FTI-277 only partially inhibited transformation. It was noteworthy that p38 MAPK inhibitors enhanced JSRV transformation in both fibroblasts and epithelial cells. Treatment of transformed cells with p38 inhibitors both increased levels of phospho-MEK1/2 and phospho-p44/42 and induced rapid enhancement of the transformed phenotype. Immunohistochemical staining of tumor tissues from naturally and experimentally induced OPA and naturally occurring enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma revealed strong activation of MAPK p44/42 in all cases examined. However, p38 activation was not generally observed. These results indicate that signaling through two pathways (in particular, H/N-Ras-MEK-MAPK and, to a lesser extent, Akt-mTOR) is important for JSRV-induced transformation and that p38 MAPK has a negative regulatory effect on transformation, perhaps via MEK1/2 and p44/42.
    Journal of Virology 05/2005; 79(7):4440-50. · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • Claus Hallwirth, Naoyoshi Maeda, Denis York, Hung Fan
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    ABSTRACT: Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is a betaretrovirus causing ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma, a transmissible lung tumor of sheep. A very closely related endogenous retrovirus (enJSRV) occurs as 15 to 20 copies in the genome of all sheep, and is not known to be linked to pathogenesis. We previously localized a particle release defect of the full-length endogenous-derived expression construct pCMV2enJS56A1 to the amino-terminal region of gag that incorporates the two variable regions VR1 and VR2, which harbor the main sequence differences between endogenous and exogenous JSRV in this part of gag. Here, we tested the hypothesis that either or both of these variable regions are responsible for the observed particle release defect in enJS56A1. We found that the PPPPPPPS motif of the exogenous VR1 is neither necessary nor sufficient for particle release. Furthermore, the precise substitution of VR1 and VR2 in the exogenous JSRV expression plasmid pCMV2JS21, using their enJS56A1-derived counterparts, did not abrogate the ability of the resulting constructs to release particles. The particle release defect of enJS56A1 is therefore not determined exclusively by either VR1 or VR2. These results point to a small number of amino acids lying outside of VR1 and VR2 that may be responsible for the particle defect of enJS56A1 Gag.
    Virus Genes 02/2005; 30(1):59-68. · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is the causative agent of ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma, a transmissible lung cancer of sheep. The envelope of JSRV may have oncogenic properties, since it can morphologically transform mouse NIH 3T3 cells and other fibroblast lines. Recently, we found that the cytoplasmic tail of the envelope transmembrane (TM) protein is necessary for transformation, and in particular a consensus binding motif (YXXM) for phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) is important. Moreover, JSRV-transformed cells show phosphorylation (activation) of Akt/protein kinase B, a downstream target of PI3K. In these studies, we directly tested for the involvement of PI3K in transformation by JSRV. Contrary to expectations, four different experiments indicated that PI3K is not necessary for JSRV-induced transformation: (i) cotransfection with a dominant negative truncated form of the PI3K regulatory subunit (Deltap85) did not affect transformation frequency, (ii) cells stably expressing Deltap85 showed the same frequencies of transformation as parental NIH 3T3 cells, (iii) fibroblasts established from double-knockout mice lacking PI3K p85alpha and p85beta could be transformed with JSRV envelope, and (iv) incubation of cells with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 did not specifically inhibit transformation, nor did the drug reverse transformation of JSRV-transformed cells. One alternate explanation for the lack of transformation by YXXM mutants could be that they were defective in intracellular trafficking. However, confocal microscopy of epitope-tagged envelope proteins of both wild-type and nontransforming YXXM mutants showed a cell surface or plasma membrane localization. While PI3K is not required for JSRV-induced transformation of NIH 3T3 cells, the downstream target Akt kinase was found to be activated (phosphorylated) in JSRV-transformed PI3K-negative cells. Therefore, JSRV envelope can induce PI3K-independent phosphorylation of Akt.
    Journal of Virology 10/2003; 77(18):9951-9. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is the causative agent of a transmissible lung cancer of sheep known as ovine pulmonary carcinoma. Recently, we have found that the expression of the JSRV envelope (Env) is sufficient to transform mouse NIH 3T3 cells in classical transformation assays. To further investigate the mechanisms of JSRV oncogenesis, we generated a series of envelope chimeras between JSRV and the JSRV-related endogenous retroviruses of sheep (enJSRVs) and assessed them in transformation assays. Chimeras containing the exogenous JSRV SU region and the enJSRV TM region were unable to transform NIH 3T3 cells. Additional chimeras containing only the carboxy-terminal portion of TM (a region that we previously identified as VR3) of the endogenous envelope with SU and the remaining portion of TM from the exogenous JSRV were also unable to transform NIH 3T3 cells. The VR3 region includes the putative membrane-spanning region and cytoplasmic tail of the JSRV TM glycoprotein; this suggested that the cytoplasmic tail of the JSRV Env mediates transformation, possibly via a cell signaling mechanism. Mutations Y590 and M593 in the cytoplasmic tail of the JSRV envelope were sufficient to inhibit the transforming abilities of these constructs. Y590 and M593 are part of a Y-X-X-M motif that is recognized by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K). PI-3K initiates a cell signaling pathway that inhibits apoptosis and is required for a number of mitogens during the G(1)-to-S-phase transition of the cell cycle. PI-3K activates Akt by phosphorylation of threonine 308 and serine 473. We detected by Western blot analysis phosphorylated Akt in serum-starved MP1 cells (NIH 3T3 cells transformed by JSRV) but not in the parental NIH 3T3 cells. These data indicate that the cytoplasmic tail of the JSRV TM is necessary for cell transformation and suggest a new mechanism of retroviral transformation. In addition, the ability to dissociate the function of the JSRV envelope to mediate viral entry from its transforming capacity has direct relevance for the design of JSRV-based vectors that target the differentiated epithelial cells of the lungs.
    Journal of Virology 12/2001; 75(22):11002-9. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is the causative agent of ovine pulmonary carcinoma, a unique animal model for human bronchioalveolar carcinoma. We previously isolated a JSRV proviral clone and showed that it was both infectious and oncogenic. Thus JSRV is necessary and sufficient for the development of ovine pulmonary carcinoma, but no data are available on the mechanisms of transformation. Inspection of the JSRV genome reveals standard retroviral genes, but no evidence for a viral oncogene. However, an alternate ORF in pol (orf-x) might be a candidate for a transforming gene. We tested whether the JSRV genome might encode a transforming gene by transfecting an expression plasmid for JSRV [pCMVJS21, driven by the cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate early promoter] into mouse NIH 3T3 cells. Foci of transformed cells appeared in the transfected cultures 2-3 weeks posttransfection; cloned transformants showed anchorage independence for growth, and they expressed JSRV RNA. These results indicate that the JRSV genome contains information with direct transforming potential for NIH 3T3 cells. Transfection of a mutated version of pCMVJS21 in which the orf-x protein was terminated by two stop codons also gave transformed foci. Thus, orf-x was eliminated as the candidate transforming gene. In addition, another derivative of pCMVJS21 (pCMVJS21DeltaGP) in which the gag, pol (and orf-x) coding sequences were deleted also gave transformed foci. These results indicate that the envelope gene carries the transforming potential. This is an unusual example of a native retroviral structural protein with transformation potential.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/2001; 98(8):4449-54. · 9.81 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

396 Citations
82.03 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2013
    • Kyushu University
      • • Division of Host Defense
      • • Medical Institute of Bioregulation - MIB Hospital
      Fukuoka-shi, Fukuoka-ken, Japan
  • 2010
    • Osaka Prefectural Institute of Public Health
      Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 2001–2008
    • University of California, Irvine
      • • Cancer Research Institute
      • • Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry
      Irvine, CA, United States
  • 2007
    • Moredun Research Institute
      Penicuik, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 2005
    • University of KwaZulu-Natal
      • Department of Virology
      Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa