[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and binding effects of gooseberry, a less-studied berry, and to compare with blueberry and cranberry in the model of interaction with human serum albumin (HSA). The relationship between the scavenging properties of dietary polyphenols of the selected berries and their affinities for HSA were investigated by fluorescence analysis. In order to perform the extraction and identification of the antioxidants present in the samples, different types of extraction solvents were used, such as water, ethyl acetate, and diethyl ether. The polyphenols, tannins, anthocyanins and ascorbic acid contents, and the total antioxidant capacities (TACs) of the berry extracts were assessed by using ESI–MS, FTIR, and radical scavenging assays. The contents of bioactive compounds and the levels of TACs in water extracts differed significantly and were the highest in water extracts in comparison with other extracts in all the investigated berries (P < 0.05). Gooseberry water extracts contained: polyphenols (mg GAE/g DW)—5.37 ± 0.6, tannins (mg CE/g DW)—0.71 ± 0.2, anthocyanins (mg CGE/g DW)—12.0 ± 1.2, ascorbic acid (mg AA/g DW)—5.15 ± 0.5, and TACs (μMTE/g DW) by ABTS and FRAP assays were 15.53 ± 1.6 and 6.51 ± 0.7, respectively. In conclusion, the bioactivity of gooseberry was lower than blueberries and cranberries. The antioxidant and binding properties of gooseberries in comparison with widely consumed blueberries and cranberries can be used as a new source for food supplementation.
European Food Research and Technology 11/2013; · 1.44 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The bioactivity of two kiwifruit's cultivars growing under organic and conventional conditions were studied and compared. The bioactive compounds were extracted with water and ethanol using similar conditions which are applied in pharmaceutical applications and for daily fruit consumption such as tea drink. Antioxidant radical scavenging assays [ferric-reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP); cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC); 2, 2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS)], fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and ultraviolet spectroscopy, two (2D-FL) and three-dimensional (3D-FL) fluorometry were used for the detection of biologically active metabolites derived from kiwifruits (total phenols, flavonoids, chlorophylls, carotenoids and ascorbic acid). The correlation between the total phenol content (TPC) and other bioactive compounds, and their total antioxidant capacities (TAC) was calculated for studied kiwifruit's extracts. The interaction between drugs and human serum albumin (HSA) plays an important role in the distribution and metabolism of drugs. The properties of kiwifruit's phenol extracts showed their ability to quench HSA, forming the complexes similar to the ones between the proteins and pure flavonoids such as quercetin. The cultivar 'Bidan' exhibited significantly higher TAC than the classic 'Hayward'. In conclusion, for the first time 'Bidan' organic kiwifruit was analyzed and compared with widely consumed 'Hayward', using its bioactive and fluorescence properties. The influence of physiologically active kiwifruit's compounds on human health, through our investigations in vitro and scientifically proven information, was explained. Relatively high content of bioactive compounds, high antioxidant and fluorescence properties of kiwifruit justify its use as a source of valuable antioxidants.
Journal Plant for Human Nutrition 02/2013; · 2.36 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Comparison between organic and conventional kiwifruit cultivars 'Hayward' and 'Bidan', which was done by four radical scavenging assays, ESI-MS, and DSC measurements, showed significant differences between the cultivars. Such results were not estimated in kiwifruit growing under organic and conventional conditions. The extraction of bioactive compounds was done by two different methods: sequential extraction with ethyl acetate followed by methanol and maceration with methanol and ethyl acetate. The highest yield of polyphenols was found in the new cultivar 'Bidan' in comparison with the classic 'Hayward', by direct extraction with methanol. This is the first investigation of 'Bidan' kiwifruit cultivar, grown under organic conditions and compared with 'Hayward' organic. High contents of bioactive compounds and antioxidant and antiproliferative properties of the two kiwifruit cultivars justify their use as sources of valuable antioxidants. It is necessary to continue this study as a long-term experiment to eliminate the influence of seasonality.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 06/2012; 60(28):6984-93. · 2.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this investigation was to determine the contents of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), minerals, trace elements and bioactivity in the gastropod Rapana thomasiana, which can be used as an environmental bioindicator organism. The chemical differences between Rapana thomasiana from polluted (RapaPol) and non-polluted (RapaNPol) sites of the Black Sea coast in Bulgarian were investigated. Chromatography and high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) were used for evaluation of PAHs, PCBs, minerals and trace elements. Methanol extracts from RapaPol and RapaNPol (to a lesser degree) contained relatively high amounts of free phenolics (2.50 +/- 0.3 and 1.57 +/- 0.18 mg GAE/g DW, respectively) and exhibited the following respective levels of antioxidant activities determined by two radical-scavenging assays (microMTE/g DW): 1.8 +/- 0.2 and 0.98 +/- 0.08 by 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method (DPPH); 1.74 +/- 0.17 and 1.04 +/- 0.12 by cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC). The total amounts of elements, PAHs and PCBs were higher in RapaPol than in RapaNPol. The obtained indices of Rapana thomasiana can serve as a bioindicator of the environmental ecological quality.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bioactive compounds and antioxidant potentials were determined in fresh lotus roots and subjected to boiling for different periods of time (10, 20, 40, and 60 min). The obtained results were compared with the same indices in fresh and boiled white onions. It was found that fresh vegetables contained higher quantities of bioactive compounds than those boiled for 10 min, and these indices were significantly higher in fresh white onions than in fresh lotus roots (P < 0.05). Polyphenols (mg GAE/g) were 3.65 ± 0.2a and 10.48 ± 0.5b; flavanols (μg CE/g) −44.13 ± 2.8a and 91.94 ± 4.3b; flavonoids (mg CE/g) −0.54 ± 0.02a and 1.04 ± 0.03b; anthocyanins (mg CE/kg) −20.61 ± 1.2a and 28.34 ± 1.3b; and tannins (mgCE/g) −0.58 ± 0.02a and 1.69 ± 0.03b of lotus roots and white onions, respectively. The highest antioxidant potential was registered in fresh lotus roots and fresh white onions (10.1 ± 0.70a and 15.0 ± 0.8b; 8.1 ± 0.4a and 23.05 ± 1.1b; 18.7 ± 0.9a and 26.9 ± 1.3b μM TE/g for FRAP, DPPH, and CUPRAC, respectively (P < 0.05) and 26.9 ± 1.5a and 24.14 ± 1.1a μM TE/g for ABTS (P > 0.05). The influence on tumor cell lines Calu-6 (% of cell viability) of fresh lotus roots (75.61 ± 2.03) and boiling boiled for 10 min (76.54 ± 3.14) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than for fresh white onions (94.18 ± 3.67) and 10 min (97.02 ± 4.16) white onion. By comparison, the tumor cell lines SNU-601 (% of cell viability) showed similar data for both fresh and boiled vegetables in the range of 86.45 ± 4.07 to 87.28 ± 2.42. In conclusion, the boiling led to a decrease of bioactivity; however, lotus demonstrated higher thermostability than white onions. Three-dimensional fluorescence can be used as an additional index for evaluation of properties. Fresh and boiled (for 10 min) lotus roots and white onions could be considered as a functional food with high antioxidative and antiproliferative activities.
International Journal of Food Properties 01/2012; 15(1):49-59. · 0.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this investigation was to compare the liver and aorta changes in rats fed cholesterol-containing diets and the possible improvement when diets would be supplemented with frequently used raw vegetables. The phenolic compounds of three vegetables in methanol-water (1:1) fraction were characterized using electrospray ionization mass spectra (ESI-MS). Results showed that the content of polyphenols, flavonoids, quercetin, flavanols, tannins, and ascorbic acid varied for garlic and white and red onions ranging from 6.68 to 18.08 mg GAE/g DW, 490.4-701.0 μg CE/g DW, 281.2-1100.0 μg, 32.40-41.30 μg CE/g DW, 2.88-3.12 mg CE/g DW, 1.87-2.33 mg AA/g DW, 1388.2-1442.3 μg CGE/g DW, respectively. The radical scavenging capacities (μM TE/g DW) for the same investigated vegetables for ABTS, FRAP, CUPRAC, and DPPH assays ranged from 48.78 to 92.42, 9.41-28.56, 3.06-10.41, and 6.49-23.42, respectively. Good correlations were observed between the phenolic contents and the radical scavenging capacities of the vegetables. The interaction between BSA and quercetin, BSA and garlic and onions extracts was measured by 3-dimensional fluorescence (3D-FL) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The highest polyphenol content was found in methanol/water fraction of onions and garlic; therefore, for the investigation of in vitro interactions with BSA only polyphenols of this fraction were used. For in vivo studies, 30 male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups each of 6 and named Control, Chol, Chol/Garlic, Chol/OnionRed, and Chol/OnionWhite. During 6 weeks, the rats of all 5 groups were fed a basal diet (BD). The rats of the Control group were fed the BD only. The BD of the Chol group was supplemented with 10 g/kg of nonoxidized cholesterol (NOC). Each of the other three groups was supplemented with 10 g/kg of NOC and 500 mg of raw fresh garlic, 500 mg of raw fresh red onion, and 500 mg of raw fresh white onion on 1 kg of body weight for Chol/Garlic, Chol/OnionRed, and Chol/OnionWhite diet groups, respectively. In order to detect the changes in the liver and aorta, a histological procedure was applied, and the liver enzymes were determined and compared. It was found that the main changes vs the Control group were in the liver of rats fed the cholesterol-containing diet without vegetable supplementation. Significantly less histological changes in the liver and lower level of liver enzymes vs those of the Chol group were detected in rats of the Chol/Garlic group (P < 0.05). The interaction between the polyphenol extract of garlic and BSA in vitro showed its strong ability comparable with that of quercetin to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA. In conclusion, all studied vegetables showed protective effects, but raw garlic supplemented with cholesterol-containing diets significantly prevented the aorta and liver damages of rats.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 06/2011; 59(13):7441-51. · 2.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This research was performed in order to compare the water and acetone extracts of raw and boiled for 10, 20, 40 and 60 min Korean lotus roots (KLR) and Polish white onion (PWO) in the contents of their bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity and thermostability.It was found that polyphenols (mg GAE/g), flavanols (μg GAE/g), flavonoids (mg CE/g), anthocyanins (mg CGE/kg) and tannins (mg CE/g) in water extract of raw lotus roots were 14.18 ± 0.7, 8.41 ± 0.5, 1.09 ± 0.06, 21.3 ± 1.2 and 7.29 ± 0.4, and of white onion – 11.11 ± 0.6, 6.78 ± 0.3, 0.71 ± 0.03, 17.00 ± 0.9 and 1.64 ± 0.08, respectively, and significantly higher in KLR (P < 0.05). The antioxidant activity of raw KLR water extract (139.4 ± 6.1, 53.1 ± 3.6 and 89.3 ± 4.6 μmol TE/g for DPPH, CUPRAC and ABTS, respectively) was significantly higher than in white onion (23.84 ± 1.8, 31.9 ± 2.1 and 38.14 ± 2.6 for DPPH, CUPRAC and ABTS, respectively, P < 0.05).The thermostability of the water KLR extract’s of polyphenols, flavanols, flavonoids, anthocyanins and tannins was high and even after 60 min of boiling remains as 40.0, 42.3, 50.5, 41.4 and 41.0%, respectively. After 60 min of boiling the most thermostable compounds were flavonoids – remaining at 50.5% in water extract of KLR. Also after 60 min of boiling the thermostability of the antioxidant activity of water extracts of KLR remained significantly high: 40.6, 42.3, 46.3 and 43.6%, according to DPPH, FRAP, ABTS and CUPRAC assays, respectively.Similar relationship was obtained with acetone extracts, but the value was lower than with the water ones. In conclusion, the contents of some bioactive compounds, the antioxidant activity and the thermostability in water and acetone extracts of KLR are significantly higher than the same indices in PWO. FTIR and fluorimetry can be used as additional markers for the characterization of bioactive compounds in vegetables.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the influence of two persimmon cultivars on some atherosclerosis indices in rats fed cholesterol (Chol)-containing diets.
Persimmon cultivars "Fuyu" and "Jiro" as supplementation to rats' diets were investigated in vitro to compare the contents of their bioactive compounds (polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins, carotenoids, and ascorbic acid) and antioxidant potentials. In the in vivo investigation, 36 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six diet groups, each with six rats: control, control/Fuyu, control/Jiro, Chol, Chol/Fuyu, and Chol/Jiro. During a period of 47 d (42 d of feeding and 5-d adaptation before the experiment) of the trial, rats in the control group were fed a basal diet and two additional control groups (control/Fuyu and control/Jiro) a basal diet plus 5% of lyophilized Fuyu and Jiro, respectively. The Chol, Chol/Fuyu, and Chol/Jiro rat groups were fed a basal diet supplemented with 1% Chol (Chol group) and 1% Chol plus 5% lyophilized Fuyu (Chol/Fuyu group) and plus 5% lyophilized Jiro (Chol/Jiro group), respectively. After completion of the experiment, the rats were anesthetized using Narcotan (halothane) and sacrificed and the atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta were assessed. The obtained results of the investigation of all six groups were compared. Testing of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerols, total cholesterol in the liver, electrophoretic patterns of liver tissue, and three-dimensional fluorescence of serum protein fractions was performed.
The polyphenols and tannins were significantly higher in the Fuyu cultivar (P<0.05). The antioxidant potential of persimmon Fuyu was higher than in the Jiro cultivar, but the difference was significant only according to the 2,2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assay (P<0.05). Supplementation of diets with 5% of the lyophilized Fuyu and Jiro hindered the increase in plasma lipids versus the Chol group (total cholesterol 19.4% and 9.5%, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 25.6% and 13.1%, respectively, P<0.05) and hindered the decrease in plasma antioxidant activity versus the Chol group by 40.0% and 16.8% and by 39.6% and 11.3% for the ABTS and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assays, respectively. The atherosclerotic lesions in the aortas of the Chol/Fuyu and Chol/Jiro groups were significantly less than in the Chol group (P<0.05). Electrophoresis of the proteins from rats' liver tissue showed changes in 14-kDa bands after persimmon supplementation. A shift in maximum wavelengths in three-dimensional fluorescence of serum protein fractions after persimmon supplementation was found in comparison with the control group and an increase in fluorescence intensity compared with the Chol groups.
The contents of polyphenols and tannins were significantly higher in the Fuyu cultivar (P<0.05). The antioxidant potentials of Fuyu were higher than those of the Jiro cultivar, but the difference was significant only according to the ABTS assay (P<0.05). Supplementation of 5% lyophilized Fuyu and Jiro to diets of rats fed Chol-containing diets 1) hindered the increase in plasma lipids levels and the decrease in plasma antioxidant activity and 2) significantly decreased the atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta (P<0.05). Electrophoretic patterns of liver tissue and fluorescence spectra can be used as additional biomarkers for determination of atherosclerosis indices.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this investigation was to introduce several analytical methods for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), minerals, trace elements, and fatty acids in Rapana thomasiana as a marine pollution indicator organism. The chemical differences of the gastropod Ra. thomasiana from polluted and nonpolluted sites of the Black Sea on the Bulgarian coast were investigated. Chromatography and high-resolution inductively coupled plasma/MS analyses were used for evaluation of PAHs, PCBs, fatty acids, minerals, and trace elements. These methods can be applied to other marine products.
Journal of AOAC International 08/2010; 93(5):1600-8. · 1.23 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was conducted in order to compare the nutrient and chemical contents of two Korean teas: traditional Chungtaejeon tea (CTJ) with that of green tea (GT). Main bioactive compounds and the antioxidant activities using four radical scavenging assays (ABTS, CUPRAC, FRAP and DPPH) in methanol and acetone extracts of both teas were determined. It was found that the contents of vitamin C, amino acids and total nitrogen in CTJ were lower than that of GT (p < 0.05). Caffeine, reducing sugar and chlorophyll contents in CTJ were similar to GT. Catechin (C), epicatechin (EC), and epigallocatechin (EGC) contents were lower in CTJ than in green tea (p < 0.05), but gallocatechin (GC), epicatechin gallate (ECG), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and catechin gallate (CG) showed no significant differences between CTJ and GT (p >/= 0.05). The contents of polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols and tannins in CTJ methanol were 229.30 +/- 11.3 mg GAE/g dry weight (DW), 15.24 +/- 0.8 mg CE/g DW, 109.10 +/- 5.1 mg CE/g DW and 25.68 +/- 1.2 mg CE/g DW, respectively, and significantly higher than in acetone extracts (p < 0.05). Flavonoids (quercetin and kaempferol) were higher in GT than in CTJ and myricetin was higher in CTJ (p < 0.05). Threonine and aspartic acid was lower, and glutamic acid was higher in CTJ compared with GT (p < 0.05). Free amino acid content in CTJ and GT showed no significant difference. Potassium and magnesium in CTJ were lower compared to GT, but no significant difference was found for iron, manganese and calcium. Also, the level of the antioxidant activity by all four used assays was significantly higher in CTJ and in methanol was higher than in acetone extracts (p < 0.05). In conclusion, traditional fermented Korean tea Chungtaejeon contains high quantities of bioactive compounds and possesses high antioxidant activity. The contents of the bioactive compounds and the levels of antioxidant activities are significantly higher in methanol than in acetone extracts. 3-D fluorescence and FTIR- spectroscopy showed slight differences between the two investigated tea samples and can be used as additional tools for identification of polyphenols. Both studied teas can be recommended as a source of bioactive compounds.
Journal Plant for Human Nutrition 06/2010; 65(2):186-91. · 2.36 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In traditional Korean medicine, lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn) roots have been used as an antidiabetic and an antiproliferative remedy. However, scientific publications on lotus properties are very limited. Therefore, it was decided to investigate the Korean white lotus cultivars in order to find out their bioactivity. It was found that all lotus cultivars (Inchisa, Muan, Garam, and Chungyang) possess high amounts of bioactive compounds: total phenols, between 7.95 +/- 0.8 and 4.21 +/- 0.3 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g dry weight (DW); ascorbic acid, between 15.8 +/- 1.1 and 22.3 +/- 1.7 mg of ascorbic acid/g DW; and amino acids, between 15.05 +/- 0.82% and 16.62 +/- 0.90% DW. The highest contents of polyphenols (7.95 +/- 0.8 mg of GAE/g DW) and the highest levels of antioxidant [by 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assays, 54.27 +/- 6.1 and 21.98 +/- 2.5 microM Trolox equivalents/g DW, respectively] and antiproliferative activities on both human cancer cell lines (Calu-6 for human pulmonary carcinoma and SMU-601 for human gastric carcinoma, 59.75 +/- 3.99% and 71.21 +/- 2.79% cell viability, respectively) were found in the Chungyang cultivar. Fluorometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy can be applied as rapid methods for determination of bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols. The correlation between the bioactive compounds and the antioxidant activity was high. In conclusion, all Korean white lotus cultivars are valuable medicinal foods, and in order to receive the best results a combination of lotus cultivars has to be consumed.
Journal of medicinal food 10/2009; 12(5):1057-64. · 1.39 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the time of globalization many of the tropical fruits can be find at the markets of Europe and North America. Most customers are not familiar with the nutritional and proliferative values of these fruits. Therefore, a less known snake fruit was compared with better known kiwi fruit, using fluorometry, FT-IR spectroscopy, several radical scavenging and proliferative assays and statistical evaluation. It was found similarity between snake fruit (cultivar Sumalee) and kiwi fruit (cultivar Hayward) in the contents of polyphenols (8.15-7.91, mg GAE g(-1) DW), antioxidant values by DPPH (11.28-10.24, microMTE g(-1) DW), and antiproliferative activities on both human cancer cell lines (Calu-6 for human pulmonary carcinoma, and SMU-601 for human gastric carcinoma, 90.5-87.6 and 89.3-87.1%, cell survival, respectively). In conclusion, snake fruit cultivar Sumalee is comparable with kiwi fruit cultivar Hayward. Two fruits can be used as supplements to the normal diet. Consumption of a combination of both fruits could be recommended in order to receive the best results.
Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 06/2009; 47(8):1884-91. · 2.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the antioxidant value and antiproliferative activity of some vegetables such as raw garlic
(Allium sativum L), white and yellow, and red onions (Allium cepa L), red and green peppers (Capsicum annuum L.), and white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. alba), which were harvested in the same year and in the same geographical and climatic conditions. It was found that the highest
content of some bioactive compounds (25.19±2.2mg GAE/g, 3.84±0.3mg CE/g, 4.88±0.3mg CE/g, 59.20±0.8μg CE/g, 1992±99.8μg
AA/g, 452.7±26.1mg CGE/kg DW for polyphenols, flavonoids, tannins, flavanols, ascorbic acid, and anthocyanins, respectively)
and the antioxidant activity (41.32±3.9, 31.05±2.7, 59.17±5.2 and 58.94±5.1μM TE/g for DPPH, FRAP, CUPRAC and ABTS,
respectively) was in red onion. Methanol extracts in concentration of 1,000μgml−1 of garlic and red onion exhibited antiproliferative activity (83.1±2.1 and 85.0±3.2% of viability, respectively). In
spite of relatively high antioxidant activity in methanol extracts of yellow onion, red and green pepper, no antiproliferative
activity on both tumor cell lines was registered. In conclusion, among the studied vegetables raw red onion was the preferable.
The interrelationship was in the following order: red onion>white onion=yellow onion>red pepper>garlic=green pepper>white
cabbage. The antiproliferative activities of these vegetables were different: some samples reacted only on Calu-6 and the
others—on SNU-601. Thus, vegetables from the same cultivation place were examined for their antioxidant and antiproliferative
activities with four different methods. Based on obtained data a direct comparison between these vegetables was possible for
the first time.
European Food Research and Technology 03/2009; 228(6):903-911. · 1.44 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organotins were analyzed in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis from polluted and unpolluted sites from Mokpo Bay, Korea. The total PAH's concentrations (10(-3)mgkg(-1)) measured by GC-MS were in the range from 31+/-23 to 1+/-1. Among the eight PAHs the predominant ones were fluoranthene, phenanthrene and pyrene and accounted approximately 63% of the total PAHs. Among the four detected PCBs the highest content was of PCB 153, which accounted about 47% of the total PCBs. The main organotin compounds were dibutyltindichloride (DBT) and tributyltinchloride (TBT) and their composition was approximately 33% and 24%. PAHs, PCBs and organotins were found only in the mussels from polluted site. The antioxidant activity by ABTS [2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] test was higher in mussels from polluted than from unpolluted sites (P<0.05). It was found a correlation between the determined compounds (PAHs, PCBs and organotins) and the antioxidant activity of the mussel tissue from polluted site and the correlation coefficients were 0.96, 0.92 and 0.80, respectively. Such correlation can be explained by the properties of mussels. Since the mussel cell wall and tissues are hydrophobic, they can concentrate a number of hydrophobic pollutants like PAHs and PCBs from the marine environment by solubility rules. On the other hand, proteins are lipophilic compounds having antioxidant properties. Certain amino acid residues and thiol (-SH) groups, contained in proteins, respond to the ABTS antioxidant activity assay. Thus there may be a correlation between the total antioxidant activity of the organism and the PAH-PCB pollutants which were concentrated from its environment. The studied properties of mussels from polluted site can be used as an additional indicator of pollution.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The influence of diets supplemented with mussels, from polluted (MPoll) and non-polluted (MNPoll) areas, on some atherosclerosis indices in rats fed cholesterol (Chol) were studied. According to the results of our investigation in vitro, mussels from polluted areas had higher contents of proteins, metals and antioxidant compounds, mostly phenolics and higher antioxidant capacities. 28 male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups of 7 and named Control, Chol, Chol/MPoll and Chol/MNPoll. The rats of the Control group received basal diet (BD) only, and the diets of the other 3 groups were supplemented with 1% of non-oxidized cholesterol (NOC), 1% of NOC and 5.6% of mussel dry matter (DM) from polluted and 1% of NOC and 5.6% of mussel DM from non-polluted areas for Chol, Chol/MPoll and Chol/MNPoll, respectively. The histology of the aorta and brain in rats fed cholesterol did not show any signs of atherosclerosis. Some differences were registered in the electrophoretic protein patterns of plasma in rats, with mussel-supplemented diets. In full plasma electrophoretic patterns of the Chol/MPoll diet group more proteins were detected than in both Chol and Control groups, and the differences were significant. In conclusion, in groups of rats fed cholesterol with mussels supplementation, a significant hindering in the rise of plasma lipid levels and also hindering in the decrease of plasma antioxidant activity were registered.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this investigation was to determine the bioactive compounds in kiwifruit as an indication of quality after extraction using methanol and ethyl acetate. Using FTIR and three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy and electrospray ionization/MS, the contents of polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols, and tannins, and the level of the antioxidant activity by 2, 2-azino-bis (3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, ferric-reducing/ antioxidant power, and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity assays were determined and compared. It was found that the methanol extracts of kiwifruit showed significantly higher amounts of bioactive acetate extracts. The cultivar Bidan, in comparison compounds and antioxidant activities than the ethyl with the classic Hayward, showed significantly higher bioactivity. For the first time, Bidan organic kiwifruit was analyzed for its antioxidant activities and compared with the widely consumed Hayward organic based on its bioactive compounds and fluorescence properties. Relatively high content of bioactive compounds and positive antioxidant and antiproliferative properties of kiwifruit determined by the advanced analytical methods justify its use as a source of valuable antioxidants. The methods used are applicable for bioactivity determination, in general, for any food products.
Journal of AOAC International 95(6):1725-32. · 1.23 Impact Factor