Marc I Chimowitz

Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, United States

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Publications (90)637.37 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: There are limited data on the specific mechanisms of stroke in patients with intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS). We undertook this study to describe infarct patterns and likely mechanisms of stroke in a large cohort of patients with ICAS, and to evaluate the relationship of these infarct patterns to angiographic features (collaterals, stenosis location and stenosis severity). Methods: We evaluated infarct patterns in the territory of a stenotic intracranial artery on neuroimaging performed at baseline and during follow-up if a recurrent stroke occurred in patients enrolled in the Warfarin-Aspirin Symptomatic Intracranial Disease (WASID) trial. We defined the likely mechanism of stroke (artery-to-artery embolism, perforator occlusion, hypoperfusion or mixed) according to the site of ICAS and based on the infarct patterns on neuroimaging. Collaterals were assessed using American Society of Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology/Society of Interventional Radiology (ASITN/SIR) grades, and stenosis severity using the WASID trial's measurement technique. We evaluated the association of infarct patterns with angiographic features using χ(2) tests. Results: The likely mechanisms of stroke based on the infarct patterns at baseline in the 136 patients included in the study were artery-to-artery embolism (n = 69; 50.7%), perforator occlusion (n = 34; 25%), hypoperfusion (n = 12; 8.8%) and mixed (n = 21; 15.5%). Perforator-occlusive infarcts were more frequent in the posterior circulation, and mixed patterns were more prevalent in the anterior circulation (both p < 0.01). Most of the mixed patterns in the anterior circulation combined small pial or scattered multiple cortical infarcts with infarcts in border-zone regions, especially the cortical ones. Isolated border-zone infarcts were not significantly associated with a poor grading for collaterals or the severity of stenosis. Among 47 patients with a recurrent infarct during follow-up, the infarct patterns suggested an artery-to-artery embolic mechanism in 29 (61.7%). Conclusions: Artery-to-artery embolism is probably the most common mechanism of stroke in both the anterior and the posterior circulations in patients with ICAS. An extension of intracranial atherosclerosis at the site of stenosis into adjacent perforators also appears to be a common mechanism of stroke, particularly in the posterior circulation, whereas hypoperfusion as the sole mechanism is relatively uncommon. Further research is important to accurately establish the specific mechanisms of stroke in patients with ICAS, since preliminary data suggest that the underlying mechanism of stroke is an important determinant of prognosis. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Cerebrovascular diseases (Basel, Switzerland). 07/2014; 37(6):417-422.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this updated guideline is to provide comprehensive and timely evidence-based recommendations on the prevention of future stroke among survivors of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. The guideline is addressed to all clinicians who manage secondary prevention for these patients. Evidence-based recommendations are provided for control of risk factors, intervention for vascular obstruction, antithrombotic therapy for cardioembolism, and antiplatelet therapy for noncardioembolic stroke. Recommendations are also provided for the prevention of recurrent stroke in a variety of specific circumstances, including aortic arch atherosclerosis, arterial dissection, patent foramen ovale, hyperhomocysteinemia, hypercoagulable states, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, sickle cell disease, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, and pregnancy. Special sections address use of antithrombotic and anticoagulation therapy after an intracranial hemorrhage and implementation of guidelines.
    Stroke 05/2014; · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and Purpose: Medical and endovascular treatment options for stroke prevention in patients with symptomatic intracranial stenosis have evolved over the past several decades, but the impact of 2 major multicenter randomized stroke prevention trials on physician practices has not been studied. We sought to determine changes in US physician treatment choices for patients with intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS) following 2 NIH-funded clinical trials that studied medical therapies (antithrombotic agents and risk factor control) and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting (PTAS). Methods: Anonymous surveys on treatment practices in patients with ICAS were sent to physicians at 3 time points: before publication of the NIH-funded Warfarin-Aspirin Symptomatic Intracranial Disease (WASID) trial (pre-WASID survey, 2004), 1 year after WASID publication (post-WASID survey, 2006) and 1 year after the publication of the NIH-funded Stenting and Aggressive Medical Management for Preventing Recurrent Stroke in Intracranial Stenosis (SAMMPRIS) trial (post-SAMMPRIS survey, 2012). Neurologists were invited to participate in the pre-WASID survey (n = 525). Neurologists and neurointerventionists were invited to participate in the post-WASID (n = 598) and post-SAMMPRIS (n = 2,080) surveys. The 3 surveys were conducted using web-based survey tools delivered by E-mail, and a fax-based response form delivered by E-mail and conventional mail. Data were analyzed using the χ(2) test. Results: Before WASID, there was equipoise between warfarin and aspirin for stroke prevention in patients with ICAS. The number of respondents who recommended antiplatelet treatment for ICAS increased across all 3 surveys for both anterior circulation (pre-WASID = 44%, post-WASID = 85%, post-SAMMPRIS = 94%) and posterior circulation (pre-WASID = 36%, post-WASID = 74%, post-SAMMPRIS = 83%). The antiplatelet agent most commonly recommended after WASID was aspirin, but after SAMMPRIS it was the combination of aspirin and clopidogrel. The percentage of neurologists who recommended PTAS in >25% of ICAS patients increased slightly from pre-WASID (8%) to post-WASID surveys (12%), but then decreased again after SAMMPRIS (6%). The percentage of neurointerventionists who recommended PTAS in >25% of ICAS patients decreased from post-WASID (49%) to post-SAMMPRIS surveys (17%). Conclusions: The surveyed US physicians' recommended treatments for ICAS differed over the 3 survey periods, reflecting the results of the 2 NIH-funded clinical trials of ICAS and suggesting that these clinical trials changed practice in the USA. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Cerebrovascular Diseases 02/2014; 37(3):203-211. · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSEFractional flow may identify hemodynamic effects and ischemic risk beyond percent stenosis of an artery. We hypothesized that diminished TOF-MRA signal intensity distal to an intracranial stenosis predicts stroke risk. METHODSTOF-MRA was acquired prospectively in the SONIA-WASID trials. The distal/proximal signal intensity ratio (SIR) was calculated from 3 mm regions of interest, blinded to outcome. Univariate and multivariate analyses included clinical variables, SIR, and invasive angiography measures to identify predictors for risk of stroke in the territory. RESULTS189 patients with 50-99% symptomatic intracranial stenosis in SONIA-WASID had TOF-MRA available. In univariate analysis, the hazard ratio (HR) for stroke in the territory of the symptomatic artery with SIR < .9 was 5.2 (1.8, 15.3; P < .001) as compared to SIR ≥ .9. Multivariate analysis correcting for baseline systolic blood pressure, LDL, centrally measured percent stenosis, recency of symptoms, TICI and downstream collaterals, the HR for SIR < .9 was 10.9 (2.0, 58.9; P < .001). In those with <70% stenosis, a SIR < .9 maintained a significant association with recurrent stroke in the territory (P = .006), with a 2-year event rate of 17.3%. CONCLUSIONS Fractional flow assessed by TOF-MRA SIR may be a useful noninvasive tool to identify high-risk intracranial lesions. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION-URLThis trial was not registered because enrollment began prior to July 1, 2005.
    Journal of neuroimaging: official journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging 02/2014; · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Significant racial and ethnic disparities in stroke incidence, severity, and morbidity have been consistently reported; however, less is known about potential differences in poststroke rehabilitation outcomes. Objective. To examine racial and ethnic differences in poststroke rehabilitation outcomes. Methods. We completed an in-depth search of Medline and several major journals dedicated to publishing research articles on stroke, rehabilitation, and racial-ethnic patterns of disease over a 10-year period (2003-2012). We identified studies that reported rehabilitation outcomes and the race or ethnicity of at least two groups. Results. 17 studies involving 429,108 stroke survivors met inclusion criteria for the review. The majority (94%) of studies examined outcomes between Blacks and Whites. Of those studies examining outcomes between Blacks and Whites, 59% showed that Blacks were generally less likely to achieve equivalent functional improvement following rehabilitation. Blacks were more likely to experience lower FIM gain or change scores (range: 1-60%) and more likely to have lower efficiency scores (range: 5-16%) than Whites. Conclusions. Black stroke survivors appear to generally achieve poorer functional outcomes than White stroke survivors. Future studies are warranted to evaluate the precise magnitude of these differences, whether they go beyond chance, and the underlying contributory mechanisms.
    Stroke research and treatment. 01/2014; 2014:950746.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Early results of the Stenting and Aggressive Medical Management for Preventing Recurrent stroke in Intracranial Stenosis trial showed that, by 30 days, 33 (14·7%) of 224 patients in the stenting group and 13 (5·8%) of 227 patients in the medical group had died or had a stroke (percentages are product limit estimates), but provided insufficient data to establish whether stenting offered any longer-term benefit. Here we report the long-term outcome of patients in this trial. Methods We randomly assigned (1:1, stratified by centre with randomly permuted block sizes) 451 patients with recent transient ischaemic attack or stroke related to 70–99% stenosis of a major intracranial artery to aggressive medical management (antiplatelet therapy, intensive management of vascular risk factors, and a lifestyle-modification programme) or aggressive medical management plus stenting with the Wingspan stent. The primary endpoint was any of the following: stroke or death within 30 days after enrolment, ischaemic stroke in the territory of the qualifying artery beyond 30 days of enrolment, or stroke or death within 30 days after a revascularisation procedure of the qualifying lesion during follow-up. Primary endpoint analysis of between-group differences with log-rank test was by intention to treat. This study is registered with, number NCT 00576693. Findings During a median follow-up of 32·4 months, 34 (15%) of 227 patients in the medical group and 52 (23%) of 224 patients in the stenting group had a primary endpoint event. The cumulative probability of the primary endpoints was smaller in the medical group versus the percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting (PTAS) group (p=0·0252). Beyond 30 days, 21 (10%) of 210 patients in the medical group and 19 (10%) of 191 patients in the stenting group had a primary endpoint. The absolute differences in the primary endpoint rates between the two groups were 7·1% at year 1 (95% CI 0·2 to 13·8%; p=0·0428), 6·5% at year 2 (–0·5 to 13·5%; p=0·07) and 9·0% at year 3 (1·5 to 16·5%; p=0·0193). The occurrence of the following adverse events was higher in the PTAS group than in the medical group: any stroke (59 [26%] of 224 patients vs 42 [19%] of 227 patients; p=0·0468) and major haemorrhage (29 [13%]of 224 patients vs 10 [4%] of 227 patients; p=0·0009). Interpretation The early benefit of aggressive medical management over stenting with the Wingspan stent for high-risk patients with intracranial stenosis persists over extended follow-up. Our findings lend support to the use of aggressive medical management rather than PTAS with the Wingspan system in high-risk patients with atherosclerotic intracranial arterial stenosis. Funding National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) and others.
    The Lancet 01/2014; 383(9914):333–341. · 39.21 Impact Factor
  • Tanya N Turan, Alison Smock, Marc I Chimowitz
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease have a high risk of recurrent stroke, and secondary prevention in these patients remains a challenge. Aggressive medical management of vascular risk factors is safe and effective for most high risk patients, but the role of endovascular and surgical therapies still remain uncertain. Future studies may identify novel therapeutic strategies for patients with intracranial atherosclerotic disease, but aggressive risk factor control remains the mainstay of evidenced-based treatment at this time.
    Current Cardiology Reports 12/2013; 15(12):422.
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    ABSTRACT: Intracranial atherosclerosis is one of the most common causes of stroke worldwide and is associated with a high risk of recurrent stroke. New therapeutic approaches to treat this high-risk disease include dual antiplatelet treatment, intensive management of risk factors, and endovascular therapy. Early data from randomised trials indicate that aggressive medical therapy is better than stenting for prevention of recurrent stroke in high-risk patients with atherosclerotic stenosis of a major intracranial artery. Nevertheless, there are subgroups of patients who remain at high risk of stroke despite aggressive medical therapy. Further research is needed to identify these high-risk subgroups and to develop more effective treatments. Non-invasive vascular imaging methods that could be used to identify high-risk patients include fractional flow on magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), quantitative MRA, and high-resolution MRI of the atherosclerotic plaque. Alternative therapies to consider for future clinical trials include angioplasty alone, indirect surgical bypass procedures, ischaemic preconditioning, and new anticoagulants (direct thrombin or Xa inhibitors).
    The Lancet Neurology 11/2013; 12(11):1106-14. · 23.92 Impact Factor
  • Colin P Derdeyn, David Fiorella, Marc I Chimowitz
    Neurosurgery 10/2013; · 2.53 Impact Factor
  • Marc I Chimowitz
    Stroke 07/2013; · 6.16 Impact Factor
  • Marc I Chimowitz
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    ABSTRACT: Most ischemic strokes are caused by an embolic or thrombotic occlusion of an intracranial artery. The immediate aims of acute stroke treatment are recanalization of the occluded artery and reperfusion of the ischemic brain region. Currently, intravenous thrombolysis that is administered within 4.5 hours after the onset of a stroke is the only proven treatment.(1),(2) However, recanalization rates within 24 hours after the administration of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) are low when the occlusion involves a large intracranial artery, with rates of 14% for internal carotid arteries and 55% for middle cerebral arteries.(3) These low rates have prompted . . .
    New England Journal of Medicine 02/2013; · 54.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:: Enrollment in the Stenting and Aggressive Medical Management for the Prevention of stroke in Intracranial Stenosis (SAMMPRIS) trial was halted owing to higher than expected 30-day stroke rates in the stenting arm. Improvement in peri-procedural stroke rates from angioplasty and stenting for intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD) requires an understanding of the mechanisms of these events. OBJECTIVE:: To identify the types and mechanisms of peri-procedural stroke after angioplasty and stenting for ICAD. METHODS:: Patients that suffered a hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke or a cerebral infarct with temporary signs (CITS) within 30 days of attempted angioplasty and stenting in SAMMPRIS were identified. Study records, including case report forms, procedure notes, and imaging were reviewed. Strokes were categorized as ischemic or hemorrhagic. Ischemic strokes were categorized as perforator territory, distal embolic, or delayed stent thrombosis. Hemorrhagic strokes were categorized as subarachnoid or intraparenchymal. Causes of hemorrhage (wire perforation, vessel rupture) were recorded. RESULTS:: Three patients suffered an ischemic stroke after diagnostic angiography. Two were unrelated to the procedure. Twenty-one patients suffered an ischemic stroke (n= 19) or CITS (n=2) within 30 days of angioplasty and stenting. Most (n=15) were perforator territory and many of these occurred after angiographically successful angioplasty and stenting of the basilar artery (n = 8). Six patients suffered subarachnoid hemorrhage (three from wire perforation) and seven a delayed intraparenchymal hemorrhage. CONCLUSION:: Efforts at reducing complications from angioplasty and stenting for ICAD must focus on reducing the risks of regional perforator infarction, delayed intraparenchymal hemorrhage, and wire perforation.
    Neurosurgery 01/2013; · 2.53 Impact Factor
  • Stroke 10/2012; 43(10):2806-9. · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Enrollment in the Stenting and Aggressive Medical Management for Preventing Recurrent stroke in Intracranial Stenosis (SAMMPRIS) trial was halted due to the high risk of stroke or death within 30 days of enrollment in the percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting arm relative to the medical arm. This analysis focuses on the patient and procedural factors that may have been associated with periprocedural cerebrovascular events in the trial. METHODS: Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate whether patient and procedural variables were associated with cerebral ischemic or hemorrhagic events occurring within 30 days of enrollment (termed periprocedural) in the percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting arm. RESULTS: Of 224 patients randomized to percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting, 213 underwent angioplasty alone (n=5) or with stenting (n=208). Of these, 13 had hemorrhagic strokes (7 parenchymal, 6 subarachnoid), 19 had ischemic stroke, and 2 had cerebral infarcts with temporary signs within the periprocedural period. Ischemic events were categorized as perforator occlusions (13), embolic (4), mixed perforator and embolic (2), and delayed stent occlusion (2). Multivariate analyses showed that higher percent stenosis, lower modified Rankin score, and clopidogrel load associated with an activated clotting time above the target range were associated (P≤0.05) with hemorrhagic stroke. Nonsmoking, basilar artery stenosis, diabetes, and older age were associated (P≤0.05) with ischemic events. CONCLUSIONS: Periprocedural strokes in SAMMPRIS had multiple causes with the most common being perforator occlusion. Although risk factors for periprocedural strokes could be identified, excluding patients with these features from undergoing percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting to lower the procedural risk would limit percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting to a small subset of patients. Moreover, given the small number of events, the present data should be used for hypothesis generation rather than to guide patient selection in clinical practice. Clinical Trial Registration Information- URL: Unique Identifier: NCT00576693.
    Stroke 09/2012; 43(10):2682-2688. · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between physician and site experience and the risk of 30 day hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes in the stenting arm of the Stenting and Aggressive Medical Management for the Prevention of Recurrent Ischemic Stroke (SAMMPRIS) trial. METHODS: Study records and an investigator survey were examined for physician and site related factors, including: number of Wingspan and aneurysm stents submitted for credentialing, number of study procedures performed in SAMMPRIS, years in practice after training, primary specialty, and site enrollment. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine if these factors were associated with the 30 day rate of cerebrovascular events after angioplasty and stenting. RESULTS: 213 patients underwent angioplasty alone (n=5) or angioplasty and stenting (n=208) with study devices by 63 interventionists at 48 sites. For credentialing, the median number of Wingspan and similar aneurysm stent cases submitted by study interventionists were 10 and 6, respectively. Interventionists with higher numbers (>10) of Wingspan cases submitted for credentialing tended to have higher rates of 30 day events (19.0% vs 9.9%) than those with <10 cases. High enrolling sites in the trial tended to have lower rates of hemorrhagic stroke (9.8% at sites enrolling <12 patients vs 2.7% at sites enrolling >12 patients). CONCLUSIONS: Interventionists credentialed with less Wingspan experience were not responsible for the high rate of periprocedural stroke in SAMMPRIS. Hemorrhagic stroke may be related to low enrollment in the trial but not previous Wingspan experience.
    Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery 09/2012; · 2.50 Impact Factor
  • Colin P Derdeyn, David Fiorella, Marc Chimowitz
    Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery 09/2012; · 2.50 Impact Factor
  • Circulation Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes 09/2012; 5(5):e51-e60. · 5.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Patient selection for acute ischemic stroke has been largely driven by time-based criteria, although emerging data suggest that image-based criteria may be useful. The purpose of this study was to directly compare outcomes of patients treated within a traditional time window with those treated beyond this benchmark when CT perfusion (CTP) imaging was used as the primary selection tool. METHODS: A prospectively collected database of all patients with acute ischemic stroke who received intra-arterial therapy at the Medical University of South Carolina was retrospectively analyzed, regardless of time from symptom onset. At presentation, CTP maps were qualitatively assessed. Selected patients underwent intra-arterial therapy. Functional outcome according to the modified Rankin scale (mRS) score at about 90 days was documented. RESULTS: 140 patients were included in the study. The median time from symptom onset to groin access was 7.0 h. Overall, 28 patients (20%) had bleeding complications, but only 10 (7.1%) were symptomatic. The average National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score for patients treated ≤7 h from symptom onset was 17.3 and 30.2% had a mRS score of 0-2 at 90 days. Patients treated >7 h from symptom onset had an average NIHSS score of 15.1 and 45.5% achieved a mRS score of 0-2 at 90 days (p=0.104). Patients in the two groups had similar rates of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (8.5% and 5.8%, respectively; p=0.745). CONCLUSIONS: No difference was found in the rates of good functional outcome between patients treated ≤7 h and those treated >7 h from symptom onset. These data suggest that imaging-based patient selection is a safe and viable methodology.
    Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery 08/2012; · 2.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that patients with intracranial stenosis with lacunar stroke presentations would face lower risks of recurrent stroke than those with index nonlacunar strokes, and that their recurrent strokes would predominantly be lacunar. We analyzed subjects enrolled with an index stroke into the Warfarin Aspirin Symptomatic Intracranial Disease (WASID) trial. The index stroke was classified as lacunar or nonlacunar. The primary end point was recurrent ischemic stroke. Cox proportional hazard models were generated with stratification for severity of stenosis. Three hundred forty-seven subjects were enrolled after an index stroke; 38 were lacunar and 309 were nonlacunar. Over a mean follow-up of 1.8 years, there was no significant difference in stroke recurrence between patients whose index stroke was lacunar (7 of 38 [18%]) versus nonlacunar (69 of 309 [22%]; hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.36-1.71). Furthermore, no significant differences were found when groups were stratified by 50% to 69% stenosis (hazard ratio, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.12-2.1) and ≥ 70% stenosis (hazard ratio, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.34-2.2). Of the 7 recurrent strokes in patients whose index stroke was lacunar, all 7 were nonlacunar and 3 were in the territory of the stenotic artery. In patients with symptomatic intracranial stenosis, the risk of recurrent stroke was similar in patients who presented with lacunar and nonlacunar strokes, and recurrent strokes in patients presenting with lacunar stroke were typically nonlacunar. These findings suggest that the pathophysiology of these strokes is related to the stenosis rather than small vessel disease. Patients presenting with lacunar strokes should be included in trials investigating secondary prevention for symptomatic intracranial stenosis.
    Stroke 02/2012; 43(5):1230-3. · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: REACH Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) provides stroke consults via the internet in South Carolina. From May 2008 to April 2011 231 patients were treated with intravenous (IV) thrombolysis and 369 were transferred to MUSC including 42 for intra-arterial revascularization [with or without IV tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)]. Medical outcomes and hemorrhage rates, reported elsewhere, were good (Lazaridis et al., 2011). Here we report operational features of REACH MUSC which covers 15 sites with 2,482 beds and 471,875 Emergency Department (ED) visits per year. Eight Academic Faculty from MUSC worked with 165 different physicians and 325 different nurses in the conduct of 1085 consults. For the 231 who received tPA, time milestones (in minutes) were: Onset to Door: 62 (mean), 50 (median); Door to REACH Consult: 43 and 33, Consult Request to Consult Start: was 9 and 7, Consult Start to tPA Decision: 31 and 25; Decision to Infusion: 20 and 14, and total Door to Needle: 98 and 87. The comparable times for the 854 not receiving tPA were: Onset to Door: 140 and 75; Door to REACH Consult: 61 and 41; Consult Request to Consult Start: 9 and 7, Consult Start to tPA Decision: 27 and 23. While the consultants respond to consult requests in <10, there is a long delay between arrival and Consult request. Tracking of operations indicates if we target shortening Door to Call time and time from tPA decision to start of drug infusion we may be able to improve Door to Needle times to target of <60. The large number of individuals involved in the care of these patients, most of whom had no training in REACH usage, will require novel approaches to staff education in ED based operations where turnover is high. Despite these challenges, this robust system delivered tPA safely and in a high fraction of patients evaluated using the REACH MUSC system.
    Frontiers in Neurology 01/2012; 3:33.

Publication Stats

2k Citations
637.37 Total Impact Points


  • 2008–2014
    • Medical University of South Carolina
      • Department of Neurosciences (College of Medicine)
      Charleston, South Carolina, United States
    • Medical College of Wisconsin
      • Department of Neurology
      Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States
  • 2012
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Neurology
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
  • 2009–2012
    • Stony Brook University
      • Department of Neurosurgery
      Stony Brook, NY, United States
  • 2007–2012
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      San Luis, Missouri, United States
    • Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Neurology
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
    • Wayne State University
      Detroit, Michigan, United States
  • 2011
    • Mayo Clinic - Rochester
      Rochester, Minnesota, United States
  • 2010
    • Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center
      Torrance, California, United States
  • 2008–2010
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • • Department of Neurology
      • • Center for Neurobiology of Stress
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
  • 1997–2009
    • Emory University
      • Department of Neurology
      Atlanta, Georgia, United States
  • 2006–2007
    • Harbor-UCLA Medical Center
      Torrance, California, United States
  • 1992–1995
    • Concordia University–Ann Arbor
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
  • 1994
    • University of Michigan
      • Department of Neurology
      Ann Arbor, MI, United States
    • University of Rochester
      • Department of Neurology
      Rochester, NY, United States
  • 1989–1993
    • Cleveland Clinic
      • • Neurological Institute
      • • Department of Cardiology
      Cleveland, OH, United States
  • 1987–1990
    • New England Baptist Hospital
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States