Trace Kershaw

Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, Connecticut, United States

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Publications (166)429.63 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Social networking technologies are influential among men who have sex with men (MSM) and may be an important strategy for HIV prevention. We conducted focus groups with HIV positive and negative participants. Almost all participants used social networking sites to meet new friends and sexual partners. The main obstacle to effective HIV prevention campaigns in social networking platforms was stigmatization based on homosexuality as well as HIV status. Persistent stigma associated with HIV status and disclosure was cited as a top reason for avoiding HIV-related conversations while meeting new partners using social technologies. Further, social networking sites have different social etiquettes and rules that may increase HIV risk by discouraging HIV status disclosure. Overall, successful interventions for MSM using social networking technologies must consider aspects of privacy, stigma, and social norms in order to enact HIV reduction among MSM.
    AIDS education and prevention: official publication of the International Society for AIDS Education 08/2015; 27(4):298-311. DOI:10.1521/aeap.2015.27.4.298 · 1.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mental health issues often become apparent as adolescents emerge into young adulthood. The use of mental health services is low among adolescents and young adults, and use is particularly low among minorities. In this study, we examine mental health utilization among diverse young parenting couples. The sample consisted of 296 couples. We used the social-personal framework to examine personal, family, partner relationship, and environmental predictors for using mental health services. We used the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to assess actor and partner effects on mental health utilization. We also examined moderator effects for gender and internalizing and externalizing behaviors. We found that being female, being White, higher income, more conduct problems, and less anxious romantic attachment predicted mental health utilization. Significant moderator effects included depression × gender, depression × medical insurance, and stress × Latino. Implications for community mental health practice include conducting mental health assessments during medical visits and systematic mental health follow-up for individuals and couples with identified mental health and support needs. Future research should include married couples and the spouse's influence on mental health use and examine relevant parenting factors that may also predict mental health utilization among couples.
    American Journal of Community Psychology 07/2015; 56(1-2). DOI:10.1007/s10464-015-9738-7 · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Social network and area level characteristics have been linked to substance use. We used snowball sampling to recruit 90 predominantly African American emerging adult men who provided typical locations visited (n=510). We used generalized estimating equations to examine social network and area level predictors of substance use. Lower social network quality was associated with days of marijuana use (B=-0.0037, p<0.0001) and problem alcohol use (B=-0.0050, p=0.0181). The influence of area characteristics on substance use differed between risky and non-risky spaces. Peer and area influences are important for substance use among men, and may differ for high and low risk places. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Health & Place 07/2015; 35:28-36. DOI:10.1016/j.healthplace.2015.06.004 · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate whether group prenatal care [Centering Pregnancy Plus (CP+)] impacts pregnancy weight gain and postpartum weight loss trajectories, and to determine whether prenatal depression and distress might mediate these trajectories. Secondary analysis of a cluster-randomized trial of CP+ in 14 Community Health Centers and hospitals in New York City. Participants were pregnant women aged 14-21 (N=984). Medical record review and four structured interviews were conducted: second and third trimester, 6- and 12-months postpartum. Longitudinal mixed modeling was utilized to evaluate weight change trajectories in control and intervention groups. Prenatal distress and depression were also assessed to examine their impact on weight change. There were no significant differences between intervention and control groups in baseline demographics. Thirty five percent of participants were overweight or obese and more than 50% had excessive weight gain by Institute of Medicine standards. CP+ was associated with improved weight trajectories compared to controls (p<0.0001): women at clinical sites randomized to group prenatal care gained less weight during pregnancy and lost more weight post-partum. This effect was sustained among women who were categorized as obese based on pre-pregnancy body mass index (p<0.01). Prenatal depression and distress were significantly associated with higher antepartum weight gain and postpartum weight retention. Women with the highest levels of depression and prenatal distress exhibited the greatest positive impact of group prenatal care on weight trajectories during pregnancy and through 12-months postpartum. Group prenatal care has a significant impact on weight gain trajectories in pregnancy and postpartum. The intervention also appeared to mitigate the effects of depression and prenatal distress on antepartum weight gain and postpartum weight retention. Targeted efforts are needed during and after pregnancy to improve weight gain trajectories and overall health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.ajog.2015.06.066 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine differences in healthcare service utilization among patients with advanced cancer participating in a nurse-led psychoeducational intervention. . Secondary analysis of trial data. . Four Michigan cancer centers. . 484 patients with advanced cancer. . Patients were randomized to three groups. Study arm (brief, extensive, or control), ED visitation (one or more times versus none), inpatient hospitalizations (one or more times versus none), and covariates. . No significant differences in ED visits or inpatient hospitalizations were observed among study arms. ED visits were more frequent for patients with lung or colorectal cancer, more comorbidities, and lower baseline QOL. Baseline QOL was associated with inpatient hospitalizations in the adjusted analysis. . The psychoeducational intervention, either in brief or extensive format, is unlikely to increase healthcare service utilization. . Efficacious nurse-led psychoeducational interventions to improve QOL do not place undue burdens on the healthcare system and may improve care. .
    Oncology Nursing Forum 07/2015; 42(4):E310-E318. DOI:10.1188/15.ONF.E310-E318 · 1.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether prenatal depressive symptoms are associated with postpartum sexual risk among young, urban women of color. Participants completed surveys during their second trimester of pregnancy and at 1 year postpartum. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, excluding somatic items because women were pregnant. Logistic and linear regression models adjusted for known predictors of sexual risk and baseline outcome variables were used to assess whether prenatal depressive symptoms make an independent contribution to sexual risk over time. Fourteen community health centers and hospitals in New York City. The participants included 757 predominantly black and Latina (91%, n = 692) pregnant teens and young women aged 14-21 years. The main outcome measures were number of sex partners, condom use, exposure to high-risk sex partners, diagnosis of a sexually transmitted disease, and repeat pregnancy. High levels of prenatal depressive symptoms were significantly associated with increased number of sex partners (β = 0.17; standard error, 0.08), decreased condom use (β = -7.16; standard error, 3.08), and greater likelihood of having had sex with a high-risk partner (odds ratio = 1.84; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-2.70), and repeat pregnancy (odds ratio = 1.72; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-2.72), among participants who were sexually active (all P < .05). Prenatal depressive symptoms were not associated with whether participants engaged in postpartum sexual activity or sexually transmitted disease incidence. Screening and treatment for depression should be available routinely to women at risk for antenatal depression. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jpag.2015.04.011 · 1.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: When examining older adults' health behaviors and psychological health, it is important to consider the social context. The purpose of this study was to examine in older adult marriages whether each spouse's physical activity predicted changes in their own (actor effects) and their partner's (partner effects) depressive symptoms. Gender differences were also examined. Each spouse within 1260 married couples (at baseline) in the Cardiovascular Health Study completed self-report measures at wave 1 (1989-1990), wave 3 (1992-1993), and wave 7 (1996-1997). Dyadic path analyses were performed. Husbands' physical activity significantly predicted own decreased depressive symptoms (actor effect). For both spouses, own physical activity did not significantly predict the spouse's depressive symptoms (partner effects). However, husbands' physical activity and depressive symptoms predicted wives' physical activity and depressive symptoms (partner effects), respectively. Depressive symptoms did not predict physical activity. Findings suggest that husbands' physical activity is particularly influential for older married couples' psychological health.
    Annals of Behavioral Medicine 04/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12160-015-9705-4 · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alcohol, tobacco and other drug use (ATOD) among adolescent and young adult couples during prenatal and postnatal periods is a significant public health problem, and couples may mutually influence each others' ATOD behaviors. The current study investigated romantic partner influences on ATOD among adolescent and young adult couples during pregnancy and postnatal periods. Participants were 296 young couples in the second or third trimester of pregnancy recruited from OBGYN clinics between July 2007 and February 2011. Participants completed questionnaires at prenatal, 6 months postnatal, and 12 months postnatal periods. Dyadic data analysis was conducted to assess the stability and interdependence of male and female ATOD over time. Male partner cigarette and marijuana use in the prenatal period significantly predicted female cigarette and marijuana use at 6 months postnatal (b = 0.14, P < 0.01; b = 0.11, P < 0.05, respectively). Male partner marijuana use at 6 months postnatal also significantly predicted female marijuana use at 12 months postnatal (b = 0.11, P < 0.05). Additionally, significant positive correlations were found for partner alcohol and marijuana at pre-pregnancy and 6 months postnatal, and partner cigarette use at pre-pregnancy, 6 months and 12 months postnatal. Partner ATOD among young fathers, particularly during the prenatal period, may play an important role in subsequent ATOD among young mothers during postnatal periods. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Journal of Public Health 04/2015; DOI:10.1093/pubmed/fdv039 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This mixed-methods investigation combines a quantitative survey, focus groups, and in-depth interviews to examine sexual risk behaviors and HIV status disclosure among HIV-positive hijras (male-to-female transgender people) and HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in Chennai and Mumbai, India. From the survey results, the authors found a relatively high prevalence of inconsistent condom use for anal sex with male partners—about one-fifth to almost one-half, depending on the type of partner (regular, casual) and sexual role (receptive, insertive). One-quarter of MSM and two-fifths of hijras reported having disclosed their HIV status to their male regular partner. The qualitative data helped in understanding social and structural factors that created barriers to disclosure of HIV status and to condom use. Disclosure was not uniformly followed by safer sex, and nondisclosure did not always lead to unprotected sex. Implications for practice and policies and potential interventions are discussed.
    Journal of HIV/AIDS & Social Services 03/2015; 14(1):26-44. DOI:10.1080/15381501.2013.859113
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Deficits in emotion expression skills have been associated with alcohol and substance use, but the mechanisms through which these associations occur are not well understood. The current study investigated (a) associations between emotion expression and substance use (i.e., alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana) in newly parenting adolescents and young adults and (b) whether symptoms of depression and stress mediate these associations in young mothers and fathers.Methods Participants recruited from obstetrics and gynecology clinics completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, Emotion Expression Scale for Children, and substance use items.ResultsPath analysis indicated that lower emotion expression at 6 months postpartum was significantly associated with more alcohol and marijuana use at 12 months postpartum for males but not females. Also among males, stress levels at 6 months postpartum partially mediated associations between emotion expression and alcohol and marijuana use at 12 months postpartum.Conclusions Findings suggest that poor emotion expression skills are related to more substance use in young fathers, and levels of stress may partially account for this association.
    Journal of Clinical Psychology 03/2015; 71(7). DOI:10.1002/jclp.22159 · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the association between life events stressors during pregnancy and low birth weight (LBW) among African Americans and Whites, while systematically controlling for potential confounders including individual characteristics and city-level variations and clustering. We analyzed data from 4970 women with singleton births who participated in the 2007 and 2010 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby Surveys. Multilevel logistic regression was used to assess the association between emotional, financial, spousal and traumatic stressors and LBW among African Americans and Whites. Potential confounders included were: the city-level Economic Hardship Index, maternal demographics, pre-pregnancy conditions, insurance, behavioral risk factors and social support. African Americans were significantly more likely to experience any domain of stressors during their pregnancy, compared to Whites (p < 0.001). Only the association between financial stressors and LBW was significantly different between African Americans and Whites (p for interaction = 0.015). Experience of financial stressors during pregnancy was significantly associated with LBW among African Americans (adjusted odds ratio = 1.49; 95 % confidence interval = 1.01-2.22) but not Whites. Differential impact of financial stressors during pregnancy may contribute to racial disparities in LBW between African Americans and Whites. We showed that financial life event stressors, but not other domains of stressors, were more likely to impact LBW among African Americans than Whites. Initiatives aimed at mitigating the negative impacts of financial stress during pregnancy may contribute to reducing disparities in birth outcomes between African Americans and Whites.
    Maternal and Child Health Journal 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10995-015-1734-x · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Injection drug use, infectious disease, and incarceration are inextricably linked in Russia. We aimed to identify factors associated with time to relapse (first opioid injection after release from prison) and using a non-sterile, previously used syringe at relapse in a sample of people who inject drugs in St. Petersburg. We collected data on time from release to relapse among individuals with a history of incarceration, a subsample of a larger study among people who inject drugs. Proportional hazards and logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with time to relapse and injection with a non-sterile previously used syringe at relapse, respectively. The median time to relapse after release was 30 days. Factors that were independently associated with relapsing sooner were being a native of St. Petersburg compared to not being native (AHR: 1.64; 95% CI 1.15-2.33), unemployed at relapse compared to employed (AHR: 4.49; 95% CI 2.96-6.82) and receiving a previous diagnosis of HBV and HCV compared to no previous diagnosis (AHR: 1.49; 95% CI 1.03-2.14). Unemployment at relapse was also significant in modeling injection with a non-sterile, previously used syringe at relapse compared to those who were employed (AOR: 6.80; 95% CI 1.96-23.59). Unemployment was an important correlate for both resuming opioid injection after release and using a non-sterile previously used syringe at relapse. Linkage to medical, harm reduction, and employment services should be developed for incarcerated Russian people who inject drugs prior to release. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Drug and Alcohol Dependence 12/2014; 147. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.11.021 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: We examined the association between financial life events stressors during pregnancy and low birth weight (LBW) among African Americans and Whites, while systematically controlling for potential confounders including individual characteristics and city-level variations and clustering. Methods: We analyzed data from 4970 women with singleton births from the 2007 and 2010 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby Surveys. Having experienced financial stressors was defined as having experienced at least one of the following life events during pregnancy: lost job, husband lost job, and had a lot of bills she could not pay. Multilevel logistic regression was used to assess the association between financial stressors and LBW among African Americans and Whites. Potential confounders included were: city-level economic hardship index, maternal demographics, pre-pregnancy conditions, insurance, behavioral risk factors and social support. Results: Significantly higher proportion of African Americans experienced one or more financial stressors during their pregnancy, compared to Whites (p<0.001). The association between financial stressors and LBW was significantly different between African Americans and Whites (P for interaction=0.033). Experience of financial stressors during pregnancy was significantly associated with LBW among African Americans (adjusted Odds Ratio=1.49; 95% Confident Interval=1.01, 2.20) but not whites. Conclusions: The three financial life event stressors examined in this study were more likely to impact African Americans than Whites. Differential impact of financial stressors during pregnancy may contribute to racial disparities in LBW among African Americans and Whites. Financial stress during pregnancy is an important area for public health to address to improve birth outcomes among African Americans.
    142nd APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2014; 11/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Housing instability is an understudied social condition that may be a severe stressor during pregnancy. Aims of this study are to identify correlates of housing instability and to explore the association between housing instability and birth weight among pregnant teens and young mothers. Participants included pregnant women ages 14-21 from seven community hospitals and health centers in New York City (N = 623). Data were collected via structured surveys during the second trimester of pregnancy (14 to 24 weeks gestation, M = 19.35, SD = 3.20). Birth weight was obtained through labor and delivery logs. Housing instability was operationalized as two or more moves within the past year. More than one in four (28.5 %) pregnant teens and young women in this sample reported housing instability. Women who reported housing instability were less likely to be enrolled in school, have parents as main source of financial support, live in a single-family home or apartment, or be food secure; they were more likely to smoke (all p < 0.05). After adjusting for important clinical, behavioral, and demographic factors typically associated with lower birth weight, housing instability remained a significant predictor of lower birth weight (B (SE) = -83.96(35.47), p = 0.018). Results highlight the importance of housing stability during pregnancy for infant health. Future interventions and policies should ensure that women are housing stable before, during, and after pregnancy.
    Journal of Urban Health 10/2014; 92(1). DOI:10.1007/s11524-014-9913-4 · 1.94 Impact Factor
  • Alethea Desrosiers · H. Sipsma · T. Kershaw
    Drug and Alcohol Dependence 07/2014; 140:e50. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.02.156 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The need for parenting and relationship strengthening programs is important among low-income minority parents where the burden of relational and parental stressors contributes to relationship dissolution. We examine these stressors among young parents. Data were collected from four focus groups (N = 35) with young parents. Data were audio-recorded and transcribed. Inductive coding was used to generate themes and codes, and analysis was completed using NVivo. Relationship and parenting challenges, values, and areas of need were the three major themes that emerged. Women's relationship challenges were family interference and unbalanced parenting, and men reported feeling disrespected and having limited finances. Common relationship challenges for women and men were family interference and unbalanced parenting. Both genders valued trust, communication, and honesty in relationships. Areas of need for women and men included: improving communication and understanding the impact of negative relationships on current relationships. Parenting challenges for women were unbalanced parenting, child safety, and feeling unprepared to parent; men reported limited finances. Both genders valued quality time with child to instill family morals. Areas of need for women and men included learning child discipline techniques and increasing knowledge about child development. Finally, women and men have relationship and parenting similarities and differences. Young parents are interested in learning how to improve relationships and co-parent to reduce relationship distress, which could reduce risk behaviors and improve child outcomes.
    Family Process 07/2014; 53(4). DOI:10.1111/famp.12088 · 1.73 Impact Factor
  • Meghan Angley · Anna Divney · Urania Magriples · Trace Kershaw
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    ABSTRACT: Depression is known to mediate the association between low social support and parenting competence in adult mothers, but this relationship is rarely assessed in adolescent mothers and fathers. The primary aim of this study was to identify the association between social support, family functioning and social capital on parenting competence, including self-efficacy and satisfaction in adolescent mothers and their partners. Secondary aims included identifying potential partner effects (e.g. whether a partner's social support influenced the respondent's parenting efficacy). Data was obtained from a subset of participants from a longitudinal study of pregnant adolescent females and their partners. Couples completed individual structured interviews via audio computer-assisted self-interview during pregnancy and at 6 months postpartum. To measure the influence of support on parenting outcomes, multi-level modeling was used to assess the Actor-Partner Interdependence model, which examines responses from both members of a dyad in a single analysis. Greater social support was associated with increased parenting self-efficacy (B = 0.062, p = 0.006) and parenting satisfaction (B = 0.111, p < 0.001). Higher family functioning was also associated with greater parenting satisfaction (B = 0.05, p = 0.035). Greater partner family functioning was associated with higher parenting satisfaction (B = 0.047, p = 0.026). This study found the importance of a strong support structure during pregnancy on perceived parenting competence in the early postpartum period for young mothers and fathers. Both social support and family functioning during pregnancy were associated with a greater sense of parenting competence, and these associations were mediated by parental depression. The results of this study underscore the importance of providing social support for young expectant fathers as well as mothers.
    Maternal and Child Health Journal 05/2014; 19(1). DOI:10.1007/s10995-014-1496-x · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and perpetration and power imbalances in parenting partners may result in poor outcomes for parents and children. Previous work in this area has focused on the maternal experiences, neglecting to examine paternal effects. The present study aimed to elucidate the role of IPV, power, and equity in parenting and child outcomes in an urban sample of adolescent parents. 159 male and 182 female parents in a relationship were recruited through university-affiliated hospitals. Power, equity, and IPV were measured at 6 months post-partum and were used as predictors for parenting and child outcomes 12 months post-partum using general estimating equations. Gender interactions and mediation effects of depression were also assessed. Higher perceived relationship equity was related to better infant temperament (B = 0.052, SE = 0.023, p = 0.02) whereas higher partner power was related to poorer social development (B = -0.201, SE = 0.088, p = 0.02) and fine motor development (B = -0.195, SE = 0.078, p = 0.01). IPV victimization was associated with poor infant temperament (B = -2.925, SE = 1.083, p = 0.007) and lower parenting competence (B = -3.508, SE = 1.142, p = 0.002). Depression mediated the relationship between IPV and parenting and IPV and infant temperament. No gender effects were found. IPV, inequities, and power imbalances were disadvantageous for parenting and child outcomes. Our results suggest that these dynamics may negatively affect both males and females. Interventions to reduce violence in both partners and promote equity in relationships could benefit couples and their children.
    Maternal and Child Health Journal 04/2014; 19(1). DOI:10.1007/s10995-014-1509-9 · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The study assessed the relationship between postpartum intimate partner violence (IPV) and postpartum health risks among young mothers over time. Data were collected from 2001 to 2005 on young women aged 14-25 attending obstetrics and gynecology clinics in two US cities. Postpartum IPV (i.e., emotional, physical, sexual) was assessed at 6 and 12 months after childbirth (n = 734). Four types of postpartum IPV patterns were examined: emerged IPV, dissipated IPV, repeated IPV, and no IPV. Emerged IPV occurred at 12 months postpartum, not 6 months postpartum. Dissipated IPV occurred at 6 months postpartum, not 12 months postpartum. Repeated IPV was reported at 6 months and 12 months postpartum. Postpartum health risks studied at both time points were perceived stress, depression, fear of condom negotiation, condom use, infant sleeping problems, and parental stress. Repeated measures analysis of covariance was used. The proportion of young mothers reporting IPV after childbirth increased from 17.9 % at 6 months postpartum to 25.3 % at 12 months postpartum (P < 0.001). Emerged and/or repeated postpartum IPV were associated with increased perceived stress, depression, fear of condom negotiation, and infant sleeping problems as well as decreased condom use (P < 0.05). Dissipated postpartum IPV was associated with decreased depression (P < 0.05). IPV screening and prevention programs for young mothers may reduce health risks observed in this group during the postpartum period.
    Maternal and Child Health Journal 02/2014; 18(8). DOI:10.1007/s10995-014-1444-9 · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: There is evidence that pregnancy-specific stress is associated with preterm birth. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between change in pregnancy-specific stress over the course of pregnancy and birth outcomes (i.e., preterm birth and gestational age) in an understudied but vulnerable group using a theoretically derived model. Methods: Multivariate linear and logistic regression techniques were used to examine the association between pregnancy-specific stress (measured in second and third trimester) and length of gestation (i.e., preterm birth and gestational age) among a sample of 920 Black and/or Latina adolescent and young women. Results: Second trimester pregnancy-specific stress was not associated with preterm birth or gestational age. Third trimester pregnancy-specific stress was associated with preterm birth but not with gestational age. Change in pregnancy-specific stress between second and third trimester was significantly associated with increased likelihood of preterm delivery and shortened gestational age, even after controlling for important biological, behavioral, psychological, interpersonal, and sociocultural risk factors. Conclusions: Findings emphasize the importance of measuring pregnancy-specific stress across pregnancy, as the longitudinal change from second to third trimester was significantly associated with length of gestation measured both as a dichotomous variable (preterm birth) and a continuous variable (gestational age). Furthermore, this is the first study to observe the association of pregnancy-specific stress with length of gestation in this understudied population-unique in age, race, and ethnicity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
    Health Psychology 01/2014; 33(9). DOI:10.1037/a0034586 · 3.95 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
429.63 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003–2015
    • Yale-New Haven Hospital
      • • Department of Laboratory Medicine
      • • Department of Pathology
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
    • Yale University
      • • Center for Interdisciplinary Research on AIDS (CIRA)
      • • Department of Public Health
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 2014
    • Drexel University
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2013
    • Fenway Institute
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2008–2012
    • Duke University
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Psychology and Neuroscience
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
    • Florida International University
      Miami, Florida, United States
  • 2007
    • University of Connecticut
      • Department of Psychology
      Storrs, Connecticut, United States
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2006
    • Concordia University–Ann Arbor
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      Атланта, Michigan, United States
  • 2002
    • Karmanos Cancer Institute
      Detroit, Michigan, United States
  • 2000
    • Wayne State University
      • College of Nursing
      Detroit, Michigan, United States