F Svec

Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center New Orleans, Shreveport, LA, United States

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Publications (92)309.21 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The cachexia-anorexia syndrome, in which patients suffering from chronic illness lack the desire to eat and experience weight loss, creates a serious clinical problem when patients are attempting to overcome the disease process. Endotoxin (ET) has many actions in the brain and peripheral injections can affect regulation of monoamines in brain areas as diverse as the olfactory lobes and the locus coeruleus. Certainly, ET is involved in the febrile process and it plays a prominent role in the regulation of food intake and maintenance of body weight during chronic illnesses. Monoamine neurotransmitters in specific regions of the hypothalamus also participate in the regulation of food intake and body weight and have been well characterized. In this regard, the hypothalamic perifornical nucleus (PFN) is of interest to our lab due to its role in drug-induced anorexia caused by amphetamines. It is also the most sensitive site in the hypothalamic monoaminergic system that involves dopamine (DA) and epinephrine (EPI). DA antagonist, stereotaxically placed in this site, can stimulate feeding, and specific injections of DA or EPI can result in a 70-90% decrease in food intake, even in food-deprived animals. We have shown in our studies that ET in a dose (0.2 mg/kg of lipopolysaccharide) that does not induce noticeable ambulatory (lack of movement) effects (related to malaise) can cause a significant decrease in food intake in lean Zucker rats. We hypothesize that exogenous ET causes an increase in the extracellular concentrations of monoamines in the perifornical hypothalamus, which in turn can mediate the decrease in food intake. Microdialysis was utilized to measure extracellular concentrations of EPI, norepinephrine, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, DA, and serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine. These measurements were taken at a post-ET time period that coincides with an ET-induced decrease (4x) in food intake. Extracellular DA and EPI both significantly increased in the PFN in response to injection of ET. Increases in extracellular DA were dose related and were significant (p < 0.05) compared to zero baseline and saline at both doses of ET. No statistically significant differences were found in 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, norepinephrine, and serotonin in microdialysates of this part of the hypothalamus. The present data suggest that catecholamines, namely DA and EPI which are known to decrease food intake, in the PFN may be involved in the regulation of decreases in food intake caused by peripherally administered ET. This does not rule out a role for locally produced inflammatory molecules in the brain in this process.
    Neuroendocrinology 11/2009; 91(1):48-55. · 3.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To radiographically assess the extent of periodontal bone loss induced by ligatures and Porphyromonas gingivalis in female pregnant Sprague Dawley rats. Methods: In 7 rats, a 5.0 silk thread was tied adjacent to the gingival sulcus of the upper second and the lower first molars in all four quadrants (Group A), 5 had ligatures and P. gingivalis (strain ATCC 53977) (Group B) and 7 served as controls (Group C). Rats were sacrificed on the 18th day of pregnancy. The jaws were dissected and digital radiographs were taken. Using an image analysis program (ImageJ), linear measurements were taken in the radiographs. Tooth Height was the total length of the tooth, while Bone Height was defined as the distance from the most apical part of the root to the most coronal part of the adjacent bone. The ratio of Bone Height over Tooth Height was used to express the remaining bone. ANOVA was used to compare the three groups, at a level of significance of p=0.05. Two additional groups of pregnant rats with either ligatures alone or ligatures plus P. gingivalis were allowed to go to term. Results: Alveolar bone height was significantly reduced in animals with ligatures (group A) over untreated controls (group C). Combination of ligatures and P. gingivalis (group B) resulted in further significant decrease of bone height over both groups A and C. In this model, periodontal disease in pregnant Sprague Dawley rats did not affect the birth outcomes. Conclusion: Alveolar bone loss in Sprague Dawley rat molars can be consistently induced by silk ligatures, and P. gingivalis enhances this bone loss. Radiographic evaluation of rat jaws is a simple and reliable method to evaluate periodontal bone loss. Supported in Part by Research Grant No. 21-FY05-1251 from the March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation.
    IADR General Session 2009; 04/2009
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have demonstrated that neuropeptide Y (NPY) reduced the neural production of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in frog hypothalamic explants. The objective of this study was to assess if DHEA can block the NPY induced increase in food intake in lean and obese Zucker rats. Rats were given one of the following four treatments: sterile water/dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), NPY/DMSO, water/DHEA, and NPY/DHEA. Immediately after administration of their respective treatment, rats were exposed to macronutrients for 4 h and food intake was monitored. NPY caused a significant increase in total calories consumed compared to control. Co-administration of DHEA along with NPY blocked this NPY dependent effect. These results suggest that DHEA blocks the over-eating in satiated rats induced by NPY. Measurement of changes in regional hypothalamic and raphe monoamine neurotransmitters known to affect food intake suggested a possible role of serotonin fluctuations in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) guiding this behaviour.
    Nutritional Neuroscience 01/2006; 9(5-6):225-32. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Leptin is considered to act as a signal relating somatic energetic status to the reproductive system. However, the nature of that signal and its relationship with male reproductive function across nonhuman primate species are unclear. We suggest that species-specific differences in leptin physiology may be related to the degree of environmental variation and variation in the importance of energy stores for male reproduction. In order to test the role of seasonality in species differences among nonhuman primates, we compared leptin, testosterone, and body composition in male rhesus (n = 69) and pig-tailed (n = 43) macaques. Despite having larger abdominal fat deposits, the rhesus macaques did not exhibit significantly higher leptin levels (rhesus, 2.21 +/- 0.43 ng/ml; pig-tailed, 2.12 +/- 0.39 ng/ml). Both species showed increases in leptin across adolescent, subadult, and adult age-groups (P = 0.036 for rhesus; P = 0.0003 for pig-tailed by ANCOVA). Testosterone was not significantly associated with leptin in either the rhesus (r = 0.039; P = 0.754) or pig-tailed (r = 0.2862; P = 0.066) samples. Comparison of leptin levels across the two species using univariate modeling procedures showed no significant age-group by abdominal fat interaction. These findings suggest little difference in leptin production between these two closely related species, despite the difference in breeding seasonality.
    American Journal of Physical Anthropology 08/2005; 127(3):335-41. · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The 5 HT(1A) receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)-tetraline (8-OH-DPAT) increases the food intake of satiated Zucker rats, both lean and obese. Associated with this increased intake are changes in the hypothalamic content of serotonin and its metabolite, 5-HIAA (5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid); serotonin is increased while the level of 5-HIAA is decreased. Analysis of individual 5-HIAA/5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) ratios, a measure of serotonin turnover indicate that 8-OH DPAT affected serotonin turnover equally and dramatically in both phenotypes. This would be an expected physiological action of an autofeedback mechanism by a 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) at doses as low as 10 mg/kg blocks the 8-OH-DPAT-induced increase in food intake but does not alter food intake of control satiated Zucker rats. The mechanism of DHEA's action was investigated by monitoring the steroid's effect on hypothalamic neurotransmitters in this satiated model. DHEA by itself induced some change in 5-HIAA in the obese satiated model but not the lean. 8-OH-DPAT, by itself, dramatically decreased serotonin turnover in either lean or obese rats, and DHEA combined with 8-OH-DPAT did not further change serotonin turnover, suggesting DHEA may work through mechanisms other than monoamines to cause its inhibition of 8-OH-DPAT-induced behavioral effects at such low doses.
    AJP Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 05/2005; 288(4):R928-35. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is a chronic condition, and long-term treatment will most likely be needed. Approved prescription medications for weight loss appear to have similar efficacy in controlled studies. No predictors of responsiveness in an individual patient or class of patients have been established. The choice of a medication is based on the underlying medical indication or contraindication of a particular drug, concurrent medication, age of the patient, need for monitoring, anticipation of the length of therapy, and the preference of a patient. Behavioral and dieting interventions, and increased physical activity are considered the primary means to promote and maintain weight loss. Weight-loss medications should be considered only as an adjunct for patients who are at substantial risk because of their obesity and in whom non-pharmacologic treatments have not resulted in sufficient weight loss to improve health or to prevent weight regain.
    The Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: official organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society 02/2005; 157 Spec No 1:S56-64.
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    ABSTRACT: Morphometric and hormonal measures were collected from 21 captive savanna baboons (Papio cynocephalus) maintained at the Tulane National Primate Research Center in order to determine age-related patterns in leptin levels over the life course as well as their relationships to body composition and adrenal and gonadal steroids. Comparison of leptin levels between peri-pubertal, adolescent, young adult, and fully mature males show lower levels among adolescent as compared with young adult males (P = 0.05 by Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA). In addition, abdominal fat varied among age groups (P = 0.003 by Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA) with the peri-pubertal animals lower than the adolescents, young adults, and prime adults. However leptin was not related to any measure of body composition, including abdominal fat, or to adrenal hormones (dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, and cortisol) or gonadal hormones (testosterone and estradiol). Age-related changes in leptin appear similar to those reported for captive rhesus macaques, while the failure to find an association between leptin and abdominal fat is interestingly different. These results confirm elevated levels of leptin in captive baboons compared with their wild counterparts and suggest that they result from changes in fetal development.
    Journal of Medical Primatology 01/2004; 32(6):320-4. · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Zucker rats, lean and obese, treated with low dose intraperitoneal injections of streptozocin become hyperglycemic within 24h. Insulin levels fall, although the obese animal remains hyperinsulinemic. Associated with these changes in glucose and insulin there are transient decreases in caloric intake. Macronutrient selection studies show that protein consumption decreases. There is a trend for fat intake to decrease. The levels of hypothalamic neurotransmitters in the lean animals are not altered by streptozocin. The levels of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid increases in the streptozocin-treated obese animal in the paraventricular region, ventromedial region and the raphe. Serotonin is also significantly increased in the paraventricular region of the obese rat. These results suggest that acutely, treatment with streptozocin injures pancreatic islets, causing, in turn, decreases in insulin levels so that hyperglycemia ensues in both phenotypes. Associated with these perturbations are decreases in caloric intake. The magnitude of change in insulin levels is much greater in the obese rat. It is hypothesized that in the obese Zucker rat decrements in food intake are mediated by increase in serotonin turnover in the hypothalamus and these changes are related to changes of insulin levels. These data support the concept that circulating insulin affects hypothalamic neurotransmitters.
    Nutritional Neuroscience 01/2004; 7(5-6):317-24. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT:   Morphometric and hormonal measures were collected from 21 captive savanna baboons (Papio cynocephalus) maintained at the Tulane National Primate Research Center in order to determine age-related patterns in leptin levels over the life course as well as their relationships to body composition and adrenal and gonadal steroids. Comparison of leptin levels between peri-pubertal, adolescent, young adult, and fully mature males show lower levels among adolescent as compared with young adult males (P = 0.05 by Kruskal–Wallis ANOVA). In addition, abdominal fat varied among age groups (P = 0.003 by Kruskal–Wallis ANOVA) with the peri-pubertal animals lower than the adolescents, young adults, and prime adults. However leptin was not related to any measure of body composition, including abdominal fat, or to adrenal hormones (dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, and cortisol) or gonadal hormones (testosterone and estradiol). Age-related changes in leptin appear similar to those reported for captive rhesus macaques, while the failure to find an association between leptin and abdominal fat is interestingly different. These results confirm elevated levels of leptin in captive baboons compared with their wild counterparts and suggest that they result from changes in fetal development.
    Journal of Medical Primatology 11/2003; 32(6):320 - 324. · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Numerous studies have suggested important and varying roles for dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) in primate physiological functions. Despite these numerous claims, specific actions and significance of DHEA and DHEA-S are still equivocal. A decline of these hormones in adult humans may have functional significance, yet there is no clear relationship between functional impairments of aging and the decline in DHEA or DHEA-S levels. This current study attempts to address the natural history of adrenal hormones by presenting non-human primate evidence of the endocrinology of aging; the age-related patterns of adrenal hormone decline in three species of the subfamily Cercopithecinae, Macaca mulatta, Macaca nemestrina, and Papio cynocephalus are compared. It is concluded that DHEA-S and cortisol represent lineage specific markers of senescence among primates and that parallel age-related patterns of DHEA-S and cortisol likely reflect lineage specific effects, or rather, phylogenetic similarities of endocrine senescence. The use of relative adrenal hormone levels to approximate species' life expectancies is discussed.
    Experimental Gerontology 11/2003; 38(10):1077-85. · 3.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Though baboons have been considered an appropriate non-human primate model for studying human reproductive and endocrine development, the overall similarity of reproductive maturation between the two species is unclear. This paper examines the role of testicular and adrenal hormones for pubertal changes in a cross-sectional sample of 21 captive male savanna baboons. Morphometric and hormonal indices demonstrate changes in size and gonadal function, but not adrenal function, during pubertal maturation among baboons. Results also indicate that gonadal, but not adrenal, androgens are related to morphometric variables. We conclude that savanna baboons do not make an appropriate evolutionary model of human pubertal maturation.
    Journal of Medical Primatology 10/2003; 30(5):273 - 282. · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Treatments of human and rodent obesity frequently involve administration of amphetamine derivatives, much like phenylpropanolamine, which suppress food intake. The Zucker rat is a commonly employed model of youth-onset obesity in which the homozygous genotype manifests hyperphagia as well as other characteristics that parallel human obesity. Using a macronutrient selection procedure, we examined phenylpropanolamine's differential actions in controlling dietary intake, spontaneous open-field activity, and regional hypothalamic neurotransmitter levels in obese female Zucker rats of varying fat food preference. We hypothesized that phenylpropanolamine would alter hypothalamic monoamine levels differently in low-fat preferring and high-fat preferring Zucker rats, and hence affect feeding behavior and activity differently in these two groups. It was found that in high-fat preferring animals, phenylpropanolamine significantly decreased spontaneous open-field activity, decreased only carbohydrate caloric intake, and increased serotonin and 5-HIAA levels in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). In low-fat preferring animals, phenylpropanolamine decreased carbohydrate, protein, and total caloric intake, had no significant effect of spontaneous activity, and increased serotonin and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid levels in the PVN. Inherent and induced physiological differences of low-fat and high-fat preferring animals are discussed as well as phenylpropanolamine's potential in combination drug therapy for the treatment of human hyperphagic obesity.
    Nutritional Neuroscience 05/2003; 6(2):93-102. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypothalamic neurotransmitter levels were compared between groups of Zucker rats. Animals were grouped by gender, phenotype and preference for dietary fat. Before sacrifice all animals consumed a standard rat chow diet and were fasted overnight. Five rats from each of eight groups were assayed. Hypothalamic regions (lateral, LH; ventromedial, VMH; paraventricular, PVN) and the raphe were isolated and analyzed for dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. A factorial analysis of variance was used to compare the concentrations of these biogenic amines in the four regions across phenotypic, gender and fat preference profiles. No differences were demonstrated between groups based upon fat food preference. Epinephrine and 5-HIAA content varied between lean and obese animals but there were no differences in the content of serotonin, norepinephrine or dopamine. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the obese animal eats more because it releases less of the satiety-inducing neurotransmitter serotonin in the hypothalamus.
    Nutritional Neuroscience 11/2002; 5(5):321-6. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Insulin-resistant muscle tissue contains low proportions of arachidonic acid (AA), and increased proportions of muscle AA correlate with improved insulin sensitivity. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and AA, like the thiazolidinedione drugs that decrease insulin resistance (IR), are peroxisome proliferators. Long-chain fatty acids (FA) have been named the "one true" endogenous ligand for activating the peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor (PPAR), and DHEA has been named a "good candidate" as a naturally occurring indirect activator of PPAR. This study was conducted to determine DHEA's effects on lipid profiles of skeletal and cardiac muscle in lean and obese Zucker rats (ZR), a model of IR, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and obesity. We hypothesize that DHEA may alter long-chain FA profiles in muscle tissue of obese rats such that they more closely resemble that of the lean. In our experiments, we employed a DHEA and a pair-fed (PF) group (n = 6) for 12 lean and 12 obese ZR. For 30 d, the diet of the two DHEA groups was supplemented with 0.6% DHEA; PF groups were given the average daily calories consumed by their corresponding treatment group. Hearts and gastrocnemius muscles were assayed for phospholipid (PL), free FA, and triglyceride (TG) FA profiles. The proportion of PL AA was significantly greater in both muscle types of lean compared to obese rats. Hearts from both DHEA groups had greater PL proportions of AA and less oleic (18:1) acid than their PF controls. Likewise, 18:1 proportions were significantly lower in the gastrocnemius; however, AA proportions were not significantly different. Similar phenotypic profile differences were observed in the TG fraction of both muscle types. There were no DHEA-related TG FA profile alterations.
    Lipids 01/2002; 36(12):1383-6. · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Though baboons have been considered an appropriate non-human primate model for studying human reproductive and endocrine development. the overall similarity of reproductive maturation between the two species is unclear. This paper examines the role of testicular and adrenal hormones for pubertal changes in a cross-sectional sample of 21 captive male savanna baboons. Morphometric and hormonal indices demonstrate changes in size and gonadal function, but not adrenal function, during pubertal maturation among baboons. Results also indicate that gonadal, but not adrenal, androgens are related to morphometric variables. We conclude that savanna baboons do not make an appropriate evolutionary model of human pubertal maturation.
    Journal of Medical Primatology 11/2001; 30(5):273-82. · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Elevated levels of serum free fatty acids (FFA) may be the metabolic alteration in obesity that leads to insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). The obese Zucker rat (ZR) is a genetic model of juvenile-onset obesity and type 2 DM. Compared with its lean sibling, the obese ZR is hyperinsulinemic, hypertriglyceridemic, and, beginning at about 6 months, hyperglycemic. The obese ZR demonstrates also IR, hyperphagia, increased lipogenesis, adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia, and increased serum FFA levels. This study was designed to determine if serum FFA levels in lean and obese ZRs correlate with metabolic parameters associated with altered energy metabolism and IR. We hypothesized that serum FFA levels correlate with such serum parameters such as insulin, glucose, triglyceride, and total cholesterol, as well as such tissue parameters as retroperitoneal, perirenal, and epididymal fat pad weights and liver total lipid content. Twenty lean and 20 obese ZR were age/weight matched. For 14 days each rat had ad libitum access to a single bowl diet that was 50% fat, 30% carbohydrate, and 20% protein. Body weights and caloric intakes were measured daily. After 14 days, all animals were fasted overnight and euthanized. Serum and tissue measurements were made and various parameters were correlated with FFA levels. Serum FFA levels were almost 2 times higher in the obese ZR (approximately 1 mmol/L) compared to the lean (approximately 0.6 mmol/L). Each variable measured was significantly (p < or = 0.05) greater in the obese ZR compared to the lean. There were significant correlations between serum FFA levels and certain variables when data from all ZR were plotted against serum and tissue parameters. However, within phenotypes, there were no significant correlations. Serum FFA levels predict serum and tissue parameters that accompany obesity and IR when comparing lean and obese rats. However, FFA do not predict such parameters within one phenotype.
    Life Sciences 10/2001; 69(22):2675-83. · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High levels of serum free fatty acids (FFA) and lower proportions of polyunsaturated (PU) FAs, specifically arachidonic acid (AA), are common in obesity, insulin resistance (IR), and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Dehydrepiandrosterone (DHEA) decreases body fat content, dietary fat consumption, and insulin levels in obese Zucker rats (ZR), a genetic model of human youth onset obesity and type 2 diabetes. This study was conducted to investigate DHEA's effects on lean and obese ZR serum FFA levels and total lipid (TL) FA profiles in heart and soleus muscle. We postulated that DHEA alters serum FFA levels and tissue TL FA profiles of obese ZR so that they resemble the levels and profiles of lean ZR. If so, DHEA may directly or indirectly alter tissue lipids, FFA flux, and perhaps lower IR in obese ZR. Lean and obese male ZR were divided into six groups with 10 animals in each: obese ad libitum control, obese pair-fed, obese DHEA, lean ad libitum control, lean pair-fed, and lean DHEA. All animals had ad libitum access to a diet whose calories were 50% fat, 30% carbohydrate, and 20% protein. Only the diets of the DHEA treatment groups were supplemented with 0.6% DHEA. Pair-fed groups were given the average number of calories per day consumed by their corresponding DHEA group, and ad libitum groups had 24-h access to the DHEA-free diet. Serum FFA levels and heart and soleus TL FA profiles were measured. Serum FFA levels were higher in obese (approximately 1 mmol/L) compared to lean (approximately 0.6 mmol/L) ZR, regardless of group. In hearts, monounsaturated (MU) FA were greater and PU FA were proportionally lower in obese compared to the lean rats. In soleus, saturated and MU FA were greater and PU FA were proportionally lower in the obese compared to the lean rats. DHEA groups displayed significantly increased proportions of TL AA and decreased oleic acid in both muscle types. Mechanisms by which DHEA alters TL FA profiles are a reflection of changes occurring within specific lipid fractions such as FFA, phospholipid, and triglyceride. This study provides initial insights into DHEA's lipid altering effects.
    Experimental Biology and Medicine 10/2001; 226(8):782-9. · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclo (His-Pro) (CHP) is a gut-brain peptide whose plasma levels in humans are increased after glucose ingestion and preferentially altered by oral glucose ingestion compared to intravenous administration in rats, suggesting a role in the enteroinsular response to nutrient ingestion. We were interested in examining levels of CHP in women of differing weights and comparing these levels to various parameters of insulin secretion. Plasma from 26 fasting, nondiabetic women ranging from 21 to 70 years of age and weighing 43 to 114 kg was assayed for CHP. Insulin and C-peptide levels were measured in 17 of the 26. Fasting CHP levels were elevated in obese compared to nonobese women (2075+/-144 vs. 905+/-187 pg/ml; p < 0.001) and were related by regression analysis to weight (r = 0.668, p < 0.001) and body mass index (r = 0.636, p = 0.001). The fasting C peptide/insulin molar ratio, which may be used as an estimate of hepatic insulin clearance (HIC), was inversely related to CHP levels (r = -0.568, p = 0.017). We conclude CHP levels are increased in obese women and inversely related to their C-peptide/insulin molar ratio. The elevation of CHP in those with a decrease in this estimate of HIC (obese) is interesting as the greater insulin response seen in normal persons after oral glucose compared to intravenous glucose has been postulated to be due to a decrease in HIC by some gut factor. The presence of such a factor in excess in the obese might explain part of their hyperinsulinemia.
    Nutritional Neuroscience 02/2001; 4(6):469-74. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The obese Zucker rat exhibits insulin resistance, develops nephropathy at an early age, and may be a model of diabetic nephropathy. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) may ameliorate many of the factors that contribute to diabetic nephropathy, while angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are known to be effective. One marker of nephropathy is the expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin. We studied the effect of DHEA on the expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin in obese Zucker rats and compared the changes with those in a control group, a group given quinapril, and a group on a low-calorie diet. DHEA (0.6%) added to plain chow, quinapril (0.3 mg/kg) added to drinking water, and a low-calorie diet based on pair-feeding were administered to obese rats from age 4 to 20 weeks. Immunohistochemical expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin, a marker of interstitial and glomerular fibrosis and an early indicator of nephropathy, was measured semiquantitatively in glomeruli, cortical interstitium, and medullary interstitium on a scale of 0 to 4 and was reported as mean +/- SEM. When compared with the obese control group, quinapril exhibited a marked reduction in alpha-smooth muscle actin staining in glomeruli, cortical interstitium, and medullary interstitium (P < 0.0005); DHEA reduced alpha-smooth muscle actin staining in cortical interstitium and medullary interstitium (P < 0. 005), and a low-calorie diet reduced alpha-smooth muscle actin staining in cortical and medullary interstitium (P < 0.005), which was similar to the effects of DHEA. DHEA was similar to a low-calorie diet in reducing the immunohistochemical staining of alpha-smooth muscle actin in obese Zucker rats. However, quinapril exerted a marked protective effect on the development of fibrosis, as indicated by alpha-smooth muscle actin staining, which was significantly less than that of DHEA at the doses studied.
    Kidney International 02/2001; 59(1):37-43. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abnormalities of the production of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), the adrenal androgen, have been linked with disorders such as obesity and psychological disorders such as major depression. Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) is the primary stimulant of DHEA, and cortisol, from the adrenal. We chose to examine the DHEA and DHEA/cortisol response to the novel low-dose ACTH test in healthy subjects and a cohort with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS): this test is useful in assessing subtle irregularities of pituitary-adrenal activity. Nineteen CFS subjects (diagnosed by CDC criteria) and 10 healthy subjects were examined. We demonstrated that 1 microg ACTH significantly elevates DHEA levels, with no difference in output between CFS and healthy subjects. The DHEA/cortisol ratio decreased in response to ACTH stimulation in healthy subjects but not in the CFS cohort. We suggest this divergence of response between the two groups represents an imbalance in the relative synthetic pathways of the CFS group which, if present chronically and if comparable to daily stressors, may manifest itself as an inappropriate response to stress. This difference may be important in either the genesis or propagation of the syndrome.
    Psychiatry Research 01/2001; 97(1):21-8. · 2.68 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

966 Citations
309.21 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1981–2006
    • Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center New Orleans
      • • Center for Neuroscience
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Section of Pediatric Endocrinology
      • • Department of Physiology
      Shreveport, LA, United States
  • 2001–2005
    • Yale University
      • Department of Anthropology
      New Haven, CT, United States
  • 2000–2002
    • Louisiana State University
      Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States
  • 1985–1999
    • LSU Medical Center
      • Department of Medicine
      New Orleans, Louisiana, United States