Christopher A Lipinski

Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, Scottsdale, AZ, United States

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Publications (10)47.18 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Despite widespread use of anti-CD20 antibodies as therapeutic agents for oncologic and autoimmune indications, precise descriptions of killing mechanisms remain incomplete. Complement-dependent cytolysis and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity are indicated as modes of target cell depletion; however, the importance of apoptosis induction is controversial. Studies showing that the therapeutic anti-CD20 antibody rituximab (Rituxan) mediates apoptosis of tumor cell targets in vitro after cross-linking by anti-Fc reagents suggest that enhancement strategies applied to Fc-independent activities for anti-CD20 antibodies could improve therapeutic efficacy. An anti-CD20 antibody designated DXL625, with autophilic properties such as increased binding avidity, is shown here to independently induce caspase-mediated apoptosis of an established B-cell lymphoma line in vitro. Depletion of membrane cholesterol or chelation of extracellular calcium abrogated the pro-apoptotic activity of DXL625, indicating that intact lipid rafts and calcium are required for this activity. The Fc-mediated complement-dependent and antibody-dependent cellular killing mechanisms are maintained by DXL625 despite conjugation of the parental Rituxan antibody to the autophilic DXL peptide sequence. This study shows a strategy for improving anti-CD20 immunotherapy by endowing therapeutic antibodies with self-interacting properties.
    Anti-cancer drugs 03/2010; 21(5):532-42. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Olfactory and gustatory hallucinations are not often encountered in the acute care setting but may represent the subtle presenting features of a significant underlying disease process. We describe a patient whose most striking presenting symptoms were of olfactory and gustatory hallucinations and in whom the diagnosis and treatment of a new brain tumor and partial status epilepticus occurred entirely in the emergency department. The lesion was subsequently identified as glioblastoma multiforme involving the hippocampus and amygdala.
    Annals of emergency medicine 03/2010; 56(4):374-7. · 4.33 Impact Factor
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    Christopher A Lipinski, Joseph C Loftus
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    ABSTRACT: The focal adhesion tyrosine kinases FAK and Pyk2 are uniquely situated to act as critical mediators for the activation of signaling pathways that regulate cell migration, proliferation and survival. By coordinating adhesion and cytoskeletal dynamics with survival and growth signaling, FAK and Pyk2 represent molecular therapeutic targets in cancer as malignant cells often exhibit defects in these processes. This review examines the structure and function of the focal adhesion kinase Pyk2 and intends to provide a rationale for the employment of modulating strategies that include both catalytic and extra-catalytic approaches that have been developed in the last 3 - 5 years. Targeting tyrosine kinases in oncology has focused on the ATP binding pocket as means to inhibit catalytic activity and downregulate pathways involved in tumor invasion. This review discusses the available catalytic inhibitors and compares them to the alternative approach of targeting protein-protein interactions that regulate kinase activity. Development of specific catalytic inhibitors of the focal adhesion kinases has improved but significant challenges remain. Thus, approaches that inhibit the effector function of Pyk2 by targeting regulatory modules can increase specificity and will be a welcome asset to the therapeutic arena.
    Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets 01/2010; 14(1):95-108. · 4.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The nonreceptor focal adhesion kinases FAK and Pyk2 play a central role in the regulation of glioma cell proliferation and migration, making them attractive targets to improve clinical outcome. Noncatalytic targeting represents a novel approach to regulate the activity of these tyrosine kinases. A combination of site directed mutagenesis and molecular modeling was used to identify compounds that target the F3 module of the Pyk2 FERM domain. A protein pharmacophore model for the Pyk2 FERM/F3 module, generated utilizing the structural conservation of ligand-bound FERM domains with known 3D structures, was used to search the LeadQuest compound library. Compounds compliant with the model were tested for their ability to inhibit the binding of a monoclonal antibody that maps to a functional site on the F3 module. The highest scoring compound bound directly to the Pyk2 FERM domain, inhibited Pyk2 stimulated glioma migration, and provides the framework for the development of novel therapeutic agents to target the activity of the focal adhesion kinases.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 12/2009; 53(2):669-77. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The invasion of malignant glioma cells into the surrounding normal brain precludes effective clinical treatment. In this report, we investigated the role of the NH(2)-terminal FERM domain in the regulation of the promigratory function of Pyk2. We report that the substitution of residues that constitute a small cleft on the surface of the F3 module of the FERM domain do not significantly alter Pyk2 expression but result in the loss of Pyk2 phosphorylation. A monoclonal antibody, designated 12A10, specifically targeting the Pyk2 FERM domain was generated and recognizes an epitope located on the beta5C-alpha1C surface of the F3 module of the FERM domain. Amino acid substitutions in the F3 module that resulted in the loss of Pyk2 phosphorylation also inhibited the binding of 12A10, suggesting that the 12A10 epitope overlaps a site that plays a role in Pyk2 activity. Conjugation of 12A10 to a membrane transport peptide led to intracellular accumulation and inhibition of glioma cell migration in a concentration-dependent manner. A single chain Fv fragment of 12A10 was stable when expressed in the intracellular environment, interacted directly with Pyk2, reduced Pyk2 phosphorylation, and inhibited glioma cell migration in vitro. Stable intracellular expression of the 12A10 scFv significantly extended survival in a glioma xenograft model. Together, these data substantiate a central role for the FERM domain in regulation of Pyk2 activity and identify the F3 module as a novel target to inhibit Pyk2 activity and inhibit glioma progression.
    Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 07/2009; 8(6):1505-14. · 5.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Disease progression of glioblastoma involves a complex interplay between tumor cells and the peri-tumor microenvironment. The propensity of malignant glioma cells to disperse throughout the brain typifies the disease and portends a poor response to surgical resection, radiotherapy, and current chemotherapeutics. The focal adhesion kinases FAK and Pyk2 function as important signaling effectors in glioma through stimulation of pro-migratory and proliferative signaling pathways. In the current study, we examined the importance of Pyk2 and FAK in the pathobiology of malignant glioma in an intracranial xenograft model. We show that mice with xenografts established with glioma cells with specific knockdown of Pyk2 or FAK expression by RNA interference had significantly increased survival compared to control mice. Furthermore, the effect of inhibition of Pyk2 activity in xenografts was compared to the effect of knockdown of Pyk2 expression. Inhibition of Pyk2 activity by stable expression an autonomous FERM domain in glioma cells slowed disease progression in the intracranial xenograft model. In contrast, expression of a variant FERM domain that does not inhibit Pyk2 activity did not alter survival. These results substantiate the disease relevance of both Pyk2 and FAK in glioma and suggest a novel approach to target Pyk2 for therapeutic benefit.
    Journal of Neuro-Oncology 11/2008; 90(2):181-9. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glial tumors progress to malignant grades by heightened proliferation and relentless dispersion throughout the central nervous system. Understanding genetic and biochemical processes that foster these behaviors is likely to reveal specific and effective targets for therapeutic intervention. Our current report shows that the fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14), a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily, is expressed at high levels in migrating glioma cells in vitro and invading glioma cells in vivo. Forced Fn14 overexpression stimulates glioma cell migration and invasion, and depletion of Rac1 by small interfering RNA inhibits this cellular response. Activation of Fn14 signaling by the ligand TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) stimulates migration and up-regulates expression of Fn14; this TWEAK effect requires Rac1 and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activity. The Fn14 promoter region contains NF-kappaB binding sites, which mediate positive feedback causing sustained overexpression of Fn14 and enduring glioma cell invasion. Furthermore, Fn14 gene expression levels increase with glioma grade and inversely correlate with patient survival. These results show that the Fn14 cascade operates as a positive feedback mechanism for elevated and sustained Fn14 expression. Such a feedback loop argues for aggressive targeting of the Fn14 axis as a unique and specific driver of glioma malignant behavior.
    Cancer Research 11/2006; 66(19):9535-42. · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The strong tendency of malignant glioma cells to invade locally into surrounding normal brain precludes effective surgical resection, reduces the efficacy of radiotherapy, and is associated with increased resistance to chemotherapy regimens. We report that the N-terminal FERM domain of Pyk2 regulates its promigratory function. A 3-dimensional model of the Pyk2 FERM domain was generated and mutagenesis studies identified residues essential for Pyk2 promigratory function. Model-based targeted mutations within the FERM domain decreased Pyk2 phosphorylation and reduced the capacity of Pyk2 to stimulate glioma cell migration but did not significantly alter the intracellular distribution of Pyk2. Expression of autonomous Pyk2 FERM domain fragments containing analogous mutations exhibited reduced capacity to inhibit glioma cell migration and Pyk2 phosphorylation relative to expression of an autonomous wild type FERM domain fragment. These results indicate that the FERM domain plays an important role in regulating the functional competency of Pyk2 as a promigratory factor in glioma.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 11/2006; 349(3):939-47. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma multiforme is extraordinarily aggressive due to the propensity of cells to migrate away from the tumor core into the surrounding normal brain. In this report, we investigated the role of proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) and FAK with regard to influencing glioma cell phenotypes. Expression of Pyk2 stimulated glioma cell migration, whereas expression of FAK inhibited glioma cell migration and stimulated cell cycle progression. Pyk2 autophosphorylation was necessary, but not sufficient, to stimulate cellular migration. The N-terminal domain of Pyk2 is required for stimulation of migration as an N-terminally deleted variant of Pyk2 failed to stimulate migration, whereas expression of an autonomous Pyk2 N-terminal domain inhibited cell migration. Substitution of the C-terminal domain of Pyk2 with the corresponding domain of FAK stimulated cell migration as effectively as wild-type Pyk2; however, substitution of the N-terminal domain of Pyk2 with that of FAK inhibited cell migration, substantiating that the N-terminal domain of Pyk2 was required to stimulate migration. Silencing of Pyk2 expression by RNA interference significantly inhibited glioma migration. Cell migration was restored on re-expression of Pyk2, but expression of FAK in Pyk2 knockdown cells failed to restore migration. We conclude that Pyk2 plays a central role in the migratory behavior of glioblastomas.
    Neoplasia 06/2005; 7(5):435-45. · 5.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The propensity of malignant gliomas to invade surrounding brain tissue contributes to poor clinical outcome. Integrin-mediated adhesion to extracellular matrix regulates the migration and proliferation of many cell types, but its role in glioma progression is undefined. We investigated the role of the cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases FAK and Pyk2, potential integrin effectors, in the phenotypic determination of four different human glioblastoma cell lines. While FAK expression was similar between the four cell lines, increased FAK activity correlated with high proliferation and low migratory rates. In contrast, Pyk2 activity was significantly increased in migratory cell lines and depressed in proliferative cell lines. Overexpression of Pyk2 stimulated migration, whereas FAK overexpression inhibited cell migration and stimulated cellular proliferation. These data suggest that FAK and Pyk2 function as important signaling effectors in gliomas and indicate that their differential regulation may be determining factors in the temporal development of proliferative or migrational phenotypes.
    Molecular Cancer Research 04/2003; 1(5):323-32. · 4.35 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

252 Citations
47.18 Total Impact Points


  • 2010
    • Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
      • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      Scottsdale, AZ, United States
  • 2009
    • Translational Genomics Research Institute
      • Division of Computational Biology
      Phoenix, Arizona, United States
  • 2003–2009
    • Mayo Clinic - Scottsdale
      Scottsdale, Arizona, United States