[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dysferlin deficiency compromises the repair of injured muscle, but the underlying cellular mechanism remains elusive. To study this phenomenon, we have developed mouse and human myoblast models for dysferlinopathy. These dysferlinopathic myoblasts undergo normal differentiation but have a deficit in their ability to repair focal injury to their cell membrane. Imaging cells undergoing repair showed that dysferlin-deficit decreased the number of lysosomes present at the cell membrane, resulting in a delay and reduction in injury-triggered lysosomal exocytosis. We find repair of injured cells does not involve formation of intracellular membrane patch through lysosome-lysosome fusion; instead, individual lysosomes fuse with the injured cell membrane, releasing acid sphingomyelinase (ASM). ASM secretion was reduced in injured dysferlinopathic cells, and acute treatment with sphingomyelinase restored the repair ability of dysferlinopathic myoblasts and myofibers. Our results provide the mechanism for dysferlin-mediated repair of skeletal muscle sarcolemma and identify ASM as a potential therapy for dysferlinopathy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anoctaminopathy is a new muscular dystrophy caused by mutations in the ANO5 gene. ANO5 mutations cause distal and proximal phenotypes. We report here a follow-up muscle MRI study on five patients affected by distal form of anoctaminopathy. T1 weighted scans showed subsequent involvement of gastrocnemius medialis and soleus, hip adductors, hamstrings, gastrocnemius lateralis and quadriceps muscles, and later on tensor fascia lata, gluteus minimus and biceps brachii muscles, respectively. The STIR weighted images showed in the early stages widely distributed hyperintense signals, myoedema, in the adductors, hamstrings, and quadriceps muscles, which at that time have normal T1 signals. All patients showed asymmetry of muscle involvement both clinically and on muscle imaging. The progression of muscle involvement was relatively slow. We conclude that the pattern of muscle involvement seen in patients with distal myopathy with anoctamin 5 mutations (MMD3) is typical and can thus be useful during the differential diagnosis process allowing for a more targeted molecular approach.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in the dysferlin gene are the cause of Limb-girdle Muscular Dystrophy type 2B and Miyoshi Myopathy. The dysferlin protein has been implicated in sarcolemmal resealing, leading to the idea that the pathophysiology of dysferlin deficiencies is due to a deficit in membrane repair. Here, we show using two different approaches that fulfilling membrane repair as asseyed by laser wounding assay is not sufficient for alleviating the dysferlin deficient pathology. First, we generated a transgenic mouse overexpressing myoferlin to test the hypothesis that myoferlin, which is homologous to dysferlin, can compensate for the absence of dysferlin. The myoferlin overexpressors show no skeletal muscle abnormalities, and crossing them with a dysferlin-deficient model rescues the membrane fusion defect present in dysferlin-deficient mice in vitro. However, myoferlin overexpression does not correct muscle histology in vivo. Second, we report that AAV-mediated transfer of a minidysferlin, previously shown to correct the membrane repair deficit in vitro, also fails to improve muscle histology. Furthermore, neither myoferlin nor the minidysferlin prevented myofiber degeneration following eccentric exercise. Our data suggest that the pathogenicity of dysferlin deficiency is not solely related to impairment in sarcolemmal repair and highlight the care needed in selecting assays to assess potential therapies for dysferlinopathies.
PLoS ONE 05/2012; 7(5):e38036. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0038036 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have been following clinically and with muscle MRI for the past 3-decades a Finnish family with two patients with distal muscular dystrophy. Previously we demonstrated the cellular defect in these patients to be defective membrane repair and more recently have identified the causative gene to be anoctamin 5 (ANO5). The disorder seen in these patients is characterized by onset in the third decade. First symptoms were burning sensation on the calves and later on calf tightness during running. Muscle weakness and wasting were asymmetric and early involving the calf muscles, later spread to the thigh muscles. Biceps brachi was later manifestation. Clinical course was slow. CK levels were high. Muscle biopsy showed dystrophic pattern and multifocal disruption of the sarcolemmal membrane but no subsarcolemmal vesicle accumulation nor active inflammation. We conclude that the disease seen in our cases is a new separate clinical, genetic and histopathologic entity to include within the classification of autosomal recessive distal muscular dystrophies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The recently described human anion channel Anoctamin (ANO) protein family comprises at least ten members, many of which have been shown to correspond to calcium-activated chloride channels. To date, the only reported human mutations in this family of genes are dominant mutations in ANO5 (TMEM16E, GDD1) in the rare skeletal disorder gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia. We have identified recessive mutations in ANO5 that result in a proximal limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD2L) in three French Canadian families and in a distal non-dysferlin Miyoshi myopathy (MMD3) in Dutch and Finnish families. These mutations consist of a splice site, one base pair duplication shared by French Canadian and Dutch cases, and two missense mutations. The splice site and the duplication mutations introduce premature-termination codons and consequently trigger nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, suggesting an underlining loss-of-function mechanism. The LGMD2L phenotype is characterized by proximal weakness, with prominent asymmetrical quadriceps femoris and biceps brachii atrophy. The MMD3 phenotype is associated with distal weakness, of calf muscles in particular. With the use of electron microscopy, multifocal sarcolemmal lesions were observed in both phenotypes. The phenotypic heterogeneity associated with ANO5 mutations is reminiscent of that observed with Dysferlin (DYSF) mutations that can cause both LGMD2B and Miyoshi myopathy (MMD1). In one MMD3-affected individual, defective membrane repair was documented on fibroblasts by membrane-resealing ability assays, as observed in dysferlinopathies. Though the function of the ANO5 protein is still unknown, its putative calcium-activated chloride channel function may lead to important insights into the role of deficient skeletal muscle membrane repair in muscular dystrophies.
The American Journal of Human Genetics 02/2010; 86(2):213-21. DOI:10.1016/j.ajhg.2009.12.013 · 10.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in the dysferlin gene cause limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2B (LGMD2B) and Miyoshi myopathy. Dysferlin-deficient cells show abnormalities in vesicular traffic and membrane repair although onset of symptoms is not commonly seen until the late teenage years and is often associated with subacute onset and marked muscle inflammation. To identify molecular networks specific to dysferlin-deficient muscle that might explain disease pathogenesis, muscle mRNA profiles from 10 mutation-positive LGMD2B/MM patients were compared with a disease control [LGMD2I; (n = 9)], and normal muscle samples (n = 11). Query of inflammatory pathways suggested LGMD2B-specific increases in co-stimulatory signaling between dendritic cells and T cells (CD86, CD28, and CTLA4), associated with localized expression of both versican and tenascin. LGMD2B muscle also showed an increase in vesicular trafficking pathway proteins not normally observed in muscle (synaptotagmin-like protein Slp2a/SYTL2 and the small GTPase Rab27A). We propose that Rab27A/Slp2a expression in LGMD2B muscle provides a compensatory vesicular trafficking pathway that is able to repair membrane damage in the absence of dysferlin. However, this same pathway may release endocytotic vesicle contents, resulting in an inflammatory microenvironment. As dysferlin deficiency has been shown to enhance phagocytosis by macrophages, together with our findings of abnormal myofiber endocytosis pathways and dendritic-T cell activation markers, these results suggest a model of immune and inflammatory network over-stimulation that may explain the subacute inflammatory presentation.
American Journal Of Pathology 11/2008; 173(5):1476-87. DOI:10.2353/ajpath.2008.080098 · 4.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in the protein dysferlin, a member of the ferlin family, lead to limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B and Myoshi myopathy. The ferlins are large proteins characterised by multiple C2 domains and a single C-terminal membrane-spanning helix. However, there is sequence conservation in some of the ferlin family in regions outside the C2 domains. In one annotation of the domain structure of these proteins, an unusual internal duplication event has been noted where a putative domain is inserted in between the N- and C-terminal parts of a homologous domain. This domain is known as the DysF domain. Here, we present the solution structure of the inner DysF domain of the dysferlin paralogue myoferlin, which has a unique fold held together by stacking of arginine and tryptophans, mutations that lead to clinical disease in dysferlin.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ferlins are C2 domain proteins involved in membrane fusion events, including membrane repair and synaptic exocytosis, and their deficiency can result in muscular dystrophy and deafness. We have undertaken a structural study of their C2 domains by sequence comparison and homology modelling to understand the function of these poorly characterised proteins and to predict the molecular impact of disease-causing mutations. We observe that non-conservative mutations affecting buried residues tend to result in detrimental phenotypes, likely because of decreased protein stability, whereas most variants with replacements in surface residues do not. The few cases of exposed residues altered in variants known to cause diseases are found in conserved areas of functional importance, including essential calcium-binding regions, as deduced by analogy to other characterised C2 domains. Furthermore, we report distinct features of some C2 domains in the two known ferlin subfamilies that correlates with the presence or absence of the DysF domains. Taken altogether, our results highlight potential targets for further experimental analyses to understand the function of ferlin proteins. We believe our modelling data will aid the diagnosis of diseases associated with ferlin mutations and the development of therapeutic strategies.
Journal of the Neurological Sciences 10/2007; 260(1-2):114-23. DOI:10.1016/j.jns.2007.04.016 · 2.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two autosomal recessive muscle diseases, limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B (LGMD2B) and Miyoshi myopathy (MM), are caused by mutations in the dysferlin gene. These mutations result in poor ability to repair cell membrane damage, which is suggested to be the cause for this disease. However, many patients who share clinical features with MM-type muscular dystrophy do not carry mutations in dysferlin gene. To understand the basis of MM that is not due to mutations in dysferlin gene, we analyzed cells from patients in one such family. In these patients, we found no defects in several potential candidates - annexin A2, caveolin-3, myoferlin and the MMD2 locus on chromosome 10p. Similar to dysferlinopathy, these cells also exhibit membrane repair defects and the severity of the defect correlated with severity of their disease. However, unlike dysferlinopathy, none of the conventional membrane repair pathways are defective in these patient cells. These results add to the existing evidence that cell membrane repair defect may be responsible for MM-type muscular dystrophy and indicate that a previously unsuspected genetic lesion that affects cell membrane repair pathway is responsible for the disease in the non-dysferlin MM patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The limb girdle and congenital muscular dystrophies (LGMD and CMD) are characterized by skeletal muscle weakness and dystrophic muscle changes. The onset of symptoms in CMD is within the first few months of life, whereas in LGMD they can occur in late childhood, adolescence or adult life. We have recently demonstrated that the fukutin-related protein gene (FKRP) is mutated in a severe form of CMD (MDC1C), characterized by the inability to walk, leg muscle hypertrophy and a secondary deficiency of laminin 2 and -dystroglycan. Both MDC1C and LGMD2I map to an identical region on chromosome 19q13.3. To investigate whether these are allelic disorders, we undertook mutation analysis of FKRP in 25 potential LGMD2I families, including some with a severe and early onset phenotype. Mutations were identified in individuals from 17 families. A variable reduction of -dystroglycan expression was observed in the skeletal muscle biopsy of all individuals studied. In addition, several cases showed a deficiency of laminin 2 either by immunocytochemistry or western blotting. Unexpectedly, affected individuals from 15 families had an identical C826A (Leu276Ileu) mutation, including five that were homozygous for this change. Linkage analysis identified at least two possible haplotypes in linkage disequilibrium with this mutation. Patients with the C826A change had the clinically less severe LGMD2I phenotype, suggesting that this is a less disruptive FKRP mutation than those found in MDC1C. The spectrum of LGMD2I phenotypes ranged from infants with an early presentation and a Duchenne-like disease course including cardiomyopathy, to milder phenotypes compatible with a favourable long-term outcome.
Human Molecular Genetics 01/2002; b 10(25). · 6.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in the skeletal muscle gene dysferlin cause two autosomal recessive forms of muscular dystrophy: Miyoshi myopathy (MM) and limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B (LGMD2B). The purpose of this study was to define the genomic organization of the dysferlin gene and conduct mutational screening and a survey of clinical features in 21 patients with defined molecular defects in the dysferlin gene.
Genomic organization of the gene was determined by comparing the dysferlin cDNA and genomic sequence in P1-derived artificial chromosomes (PACs) containing the gene. Mutational screening entailed conformational analysis and sequencing of genomic DNA and cDNA. Clinical records of patients with defined dysferlin gene defects were reviewed retrospectively.
The dysferlin gene encompasses 55 exons spanning over 150 kb of genomic DNA. Mutational screening revealed nine novel mutations associated with MM. The range of onset in this patient group was narrow with a mean of 19.0 +/- 3.9 years.
This study confirms that the dysferlin gene is mutated in MM and LGMD2B and extends understanding of the timing of onset of the disease. Knowledge of the genomic organization of the gene will facilitate mutation detection and investigations of the molecular biologic properties of the dysferlin gene.