[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bootstrapping is a popular and computationally demanding resampling method
used for measuring the accuracy of sample estimates and assisting with
statistical inference. R is a freely available language and environment for
statistical computing popular with biostatisticians for genomic data analyses.
A survey of such R users highlighted its implementation of bootstrapping as a
prime candidate for parallelization to overcome computational bottlenecks. The
Simple Parallel R Interface (SPRINT) is a package that allows R users to
exploit high performance computing in multi-core desktops and supercomputers
without expert knowledge of such systems. This paper describes the
parallelization of bootstrapping for inclusion in the SPRINT R package.
Depending on the complexity of the bootstrap statistic and the number of
resamples, this implementation has close to optimal speed up on up to 16 nodes
of a supercomputer and close to 100 on 512 nodes. This performance in a
multi-node setting compares favourably with an existing parallelization option
in the native R implementation of bootstrapping.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vaccinia virus (VACV) is a large, cytoplasmic, double-stranded DNA virus that requires complex interactions with host proteins in order to replicate. To explore these interactions a functional high throughput small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen targeting 6719 druggable cellular genes was undertaken to identify host factors (HF) influencing the replication and spread of an eGFP-tagged VACV. The experimental design incorporated a low multiplicity of infection, thereby enhancing detection of cellular proteins involved in cell-to-cell spread of VACV. The screen revealed 153 pro- and 149 anti-viral HFs that strongly influenced VACV replication. These HFs were investigated further by comparisons with transcriptional profiling data sets and HFs identified in RNAi screens of other viruses. In addition, functional and pathway analysis of the entire screen was carried out to highlight cellular mechanisms involved in VACV replication. This revealed, as anticipated, that many pro-viral HFs are involved in translation of mRNA and, unexpectedly, suggested that a range of proteins involved in cellular transcriptional processes and several DNA repair pathways possess anti-viral activity. Multiple components of the AMPK complex were found to act as pro-viral HFs, while several septins, a group of highly conserved GTP binding proteins with a role in sequestering intracellular bacteria, were identified as strong anti-viral VACV HFs. This screen has identified novel and previously unexplored roles for cellular factors in poxvirus replication. This advancement in our understanding of the VACV life cycle provides a reliable knowledge base for the improvement of poxvirus-based vaccine vectors and development of anti-viral theraputics.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(6):e98431. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An MRSA assay requiring neither labeling nor amplification of target DNA has been developed. Sequence specific binding of fragments of bacterial genomic DNA is detected at femtomolar concentrations using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). This has been achieved using systematic optimisation of probe chemistry (PNA self-assembled monolayer film on gold electrode), electrode film structure (the size and nature of the chemical spacer) and DNA fragmentation, as these are found to play an important role in assay performance. These sensitivity improvements allow the elimination of the PCR step and DNA labeling and facilitate the development of a simple and rapid point of care test for MRSA. Assay performance is then evaluated and specific direct detection of the MRSA diagnostic mecA gene from genomic DNA, extracted directly from bacteria without further treatment is demonstrated for bacteria spiked into saline (10(6) cells per mL) on gold macrodisc electrodes and into human wound fluid (10(4) cells per mL) on screen printed gold electrodes. The latter detection level is particularly relevant to clinical requirements and point of care testing where the general threshold for considering a wound to be infected is 10(5) cells per mL. By eliminating the PCR step typically employed in nucleic acid assays, using screen printed electrodes and achieving sequence specific discrimination under ambient conditions, the test is extremely simple to design and engineer. In combination with a time to result of a few minutes this means the assay is well placed for use in point of care testing.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Uterine NK cells (uNK) play a role in the regulation of placentation, but their functions in nonpregnant endometrium are not understood. We have previously reported suppression of endometrial bleeding and alteration of spiral artery morphology in women exposed to asoprisnil, a progesterone receptor modulator. We now compare global endometrial gene expression in asoprisnil-treated versus control women, and we demonstrate a statistically significant reduction of genes in the IL-15 pathway, known to play a key role in uNK development and function. Suppression of IL-15 by asoprisnil was also observed at mRNA level (p < 0.05), and immunostaining for NK cell marker CD56 revealed a striking reduction of uNK in asoprisnil-treated endometrium (p < 0.001). IL-15 levels in normal endometrium are progesterone-responsive. Progesterone receptor (PR) positive stromal cells transcribe both IL-15 and IL-15RA. Thus, the response of stromal cells to progesterone will be to increase IL-15 trans-presentation to uNK, supporting their expansion and differentiation. In asoprisnil-treated endometrium, there is a marked downregulation of stromal PR expression and virtual absence of uNK. These novel findings indicate that the IL-15 pathway provides a missing link in the complex interplay among endometrial stromal cells, uNK, and spiral arteries affecting physiologic and pathologic endometrial bleeding.
The Journal of Immunology 08/2013; · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a neurotropic virus causing vesicular oral or genital skin lesions, meningitis and other diseases particularly harmful in immunocompromised individuals. To comprehensively investigate the complex interaction between HSV-1 and its host we combined two genome-scale screens for host factors (HFs) involved in virus replication. A yeast two-hybrid screen for protein interactions and a RNA interference (RNAi) screen with a druggable genome small interfering RNA (siRNA) library confirmed existing and identified novel HFs which functionally influence HSV-1 infection. Bioinformatic analyses found the 358 HFs were enriched for several pathways and multi-protein complexes. Of particular interest was the identification of Med23 as a strongly anti-viral component of the largely pro-viral Mediator complex, which links specific transcription factors to RNA polymerase II. The anti-viral effect of Med23 on HSV-1 replication was confirmed in gain-of-function gene overexpression experiments, and this inhibitory effect was specific to HSV-1, as a range of other viruses including Vaccinia virus and Semliki Forest virus were unaffected by Med23 depletion. We found Med23 significantly upregulated expression of the type III interferon family (IFN-λ) at the mRNA and protein level by directly interacting with the transcription factor IRF7. The synergistic effect of Med23 and IRF7 on IFN-λ induction suggests this is the major transcription factor for IFN-λ expression. Genotypic analysis of patients suffering recurrent orofacial HSV-1 outbreaks, previously shown to be deficient in IFN-λ secretion, found a significant correlation with a single nucleotide polymorphism in the IFN-λ3 (IL28b) promoter strongly linked to Hepatitis C disease and treatment outcome. This paper describes a link between Med23 and IFN-λ, provides evidence for the crucial role of IFN-λ in HSV-1 immune control, and highlights the power of integrative genome-scale approaches to identify HFs critical for disease progression and outcome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interferons (IFN) play a pivotal role in innate immunity, orchestrating a cell-intrinsic anti-pathogenic state and stimulating adaptive immune responses. The complex interplay between the primary response to IFNs and its modulation by positive and negative feedback loops is incompletely understood. Here, we implement the combination of high-resolution gene-expression profiling of nascent RNA with translational inhibition of secondary feedback by cycloheximide. Unexpectedly, this approach revealed a prominent role of negative feedback mechanisms during the immediate (≤60 min) IFNα response. In contrast, a more complex picture involving both negative and positive feedback loops was observed on IFNγ treatment. IFNγ-induced repression of genes associated with regulation of gene expression, cellular development, apoptosis and cell growth resulted from cycloheximide-resistant primary IFNγ signalling. In silico promoter analysis revealed significant overrepresentation of SP1/SP3-binding sites and/or GC-rich stretches. Although signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1)-binding sites were not overrepresented, repression was lost in absence of STAT1. Interestingly, basal expression of the majority of these IFNγ-repressed genes was dependent on STAT1 in IFN-naïve fibroblasts. Finally, IFNγ-mediated repression was also found to be evident in primary murine macrophages. IFN-repressed genes include negative regulators of innate and stress response, and their decrease may thus aid the establishment of a signalling perceptive milieu.
Nucleic Acids Research 07/2013; · 8.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Electrodeposition of platinum metal from a chloride-based platinum electroplating bath at 35 °C onto high quality titanium nitride electrodes produced by standard microfabrication techniques has been demonstrated and characterised using electrochemical methods and scanning electron microscopy. When using a relatively simple two potential step electroplating procedure, it is possible to produce good quality deposits which are both adherent and metallic in appearance, without the need for electrode pre-treatment. Cyclic voltammetric analysis of these electrodeposited Pt/TiN films in dilute sulfuric acid yields voltammograms with features characteristic of bulk polycrystalline platinum electrodes. Voltammetry in potassium ferricyanide yields reversible voltammograms, indicating the good electrical conductivity of and connectivity between the deposited Pt and the TiN substrate and hence the absence of any significant resistive surface titanium dioxide or oxynitride film. This process is compatible with the production of platinum array electrodes, which can be integrated with silicon based microelectronic circuitry to produce array based sensors and biosensors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cholesterol biosynthesis serves as a central metabolic hub for numerous biological processes in health and disease. A detailed, integrative single-view description of how the cholesterol pathway is structured and how it interacts with other pathway systems is lacking in the existing literature. Here we provide a systematic review of the existing literature and present a detailed pathway diagram that describes the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway (the mevalonate, the Kandutch-Russell and the Bloch pathway) and shunt pathway that leads to 24(S),25-epoxycholesterol synthesis. The diagram has been produced using the Systems Biology Graphical Notation (SBGN) and is available in the SBGN-ML format, a human readable and machine semantically parsable open community file format.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is much that we do not understand about the immune mechanisms whereby vaccines exert their specific and non-specific effects. Most studies take the reductionist approach of examining vaccine responses at the humoral or cellular level. Whole human transcriptional profiling is becoming more accessible, and provides a picture of the entire immune response to vaccination in a single 'snapshot'. The potential uses of such information are enormous, and the data mining tools are becoming more sophisticated to handle the complex data generated. We now face the exciting prospect of gaining in depth knowledge as to exactly what vaccines do to the immune system as a whole, and identifying molecular signatures and biomarkers that can predict immediate and long term outcomes of vaccination. The challenge now is to carry out the studies and generate the much needed data.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanisms that enable viruses to harness cellular machinery for their own survival are primarily studied in cell lines cultured in two-dimensional (2-D) environments. However, there are increasing reports of biological differences between cells cultured in 2-D versus three-dimensional (3-D) environments. Here we report differences in host-virus interactions based on differences in culture environment. Using ultrashort pulse microscopy (UPM), a form of two-photon microscopy that utilizes sub-10-fs pulses to efficiently excite fluorophores, we have shown that de novo development of extra-chromosomal virus replication compartments (VRCs) upon murine cytomegalovirus (mCMV) infection is markedly enhanced when host cells are cultured in 3-D collagen gels versus 2-D monolayers. In addition, time-lapse imaging revealed that mCMV-induced VRCs have the capacity to grow by coalescence. This work supports the future potential of 3-D culture as a useful bridge between traditional monolayer cultures and animal models to study host-virus interactions in a more physiologically relevant environment for the development of effective anti-viral therapeutics. These advances will require broader adoption of modalities, such as UPM, to image deep within scattering tissues.
Journal of Biomedical Optics 03/2013; 18(3):31111. · 2.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sepsis is a serious complication in preterm and term infants, yet our understanding of how neonates respond to infection remains poorly defined. RECENT FINDINGS: We describe our current clinical, cellular and molecular understanding of the neonatal host systemic response to infection. We find that host resilience essentially relies on innate immune mechanisms despite there being a complete repertoire of cellular components of the adaptive immune arm. The functional interplay between metabolism, immunity and microbiome further suggests that neonatal vulnerability to infection is not simply due to immaturity of the immune system but how immune homeostasis is regulated. Further research is required for exploring regulatory homeostatic mechanisms between innate and adaptive responses and microbiome colonization at birth, but which can impart an adverse trajectory to infection. SUMMARY: The vulnerability and resilience against infection in neonates, including extreme preterm infants, still remains poorly understood. We advance the view that greater consideration should be given to understanding the set point in the regulation of homeostatic control of innate and adaptive immunity and its interplay with metabolism and the newly acquired microbiome.
Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 02/2013; · 4.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Severe infectious disease in children may be a manifestation of primary immunodeficiency. These genetic disorders represent important experiments of nature with the capacity to elucidate nonredundant mechanisms of human immunity. We hypothesized that a primary defect of innate antiviral immunity was responsible for unusually severe viral illness in two siblings; the proband developed disseminated vaccine strain measles following routine immunization, whereas an infant brother died after a 2-d febrile illness from an unknown viral infection. Patient fibroblasts were indeed abnormally permissive for viral replication in vitro, associated with profound failure of type I IFN signaling and absence of STAT2 protein. Sequencing of genomic DNA and RNA revealed a homozygous mutation in intron 4 of STAT2 that prevented correct splicing in patient cells. Subsequently, other family members were identified with the same genetic lesion. Despite documented infection by known viral pathogens, some of which have been more severe than normal, surviving STAT2-deficient individuals have remained generally healthy, with no obvious defects in their adaptive immunity or developmental abnormalities. These findings imply that type I IFN signaling [through interferon-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3)] is surprisingly not essential for host defense against the majority of common childhood viral infections.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2013; · 9.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This chapter discusses the use of systems biology towards understanding the combinatorially complex set of molecular interactions that underpin the infection process by CMV. A hallmark of systems biology is the elucidation of pathways rather than single gene or protein activities. This generally involves the use of bioinformatics and computational modelling to analyse unbiased high throughput data such as those derived from whole genome sequencing, genome-wide transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics. The emerging studies in the area of CMV systems biology have to date underscored the requirement for host-dependencies on transcription factor networks, cell signalling, metabolism and cellular trafficking. Here we consider at the systems pathway level the importance of host-dependency and host-protection pathways in regulating the CMV transcription-replication cycle.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies suggest that the sterol metabolic network participates in the interferon (IFN) antiviral response. However, the molecular mechanisms linking IFN with the sterol network and the identity of sterol mediators remain unknown. Here we report a cellular antiviral role for macrophage production of 25-hydroxycholesterol (cholest-5-en-3β,25-diol, 25HC) as a component of the sterol metabolic network linked to the IFN response via Stat1. By utilizing quantitative metabolome profiling of all naturally occurring oxysterols upon infection or IFN-stimulation, we reveal 25HC as the only macrophage-synthesized and -secreted oxysterol. We show that 25HC can act at multiple levels as a potent paracrine inhibitor of viral infection for a broad range of viruses. We also demonstrate, using transcriptional regulatory-network analyses, genetic interventions and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments that Stat1 directly coupled Ch25h regulation to IFN in macrophages. Our studies describe a physiological role for 25HC as a sterol-lipid effector of an innate immune pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Advances in DNA Microarray devices and next-generation massively parallel DNA sequencing platforms have led to an exponential growth in data availability but the arising opportunities require adequate computing resources. High Performance Computing (HPC) in the Cloud offers an affordable way of meeting this need.Objectives: Bioconductor, a popular tool for high-throughput genomic data analysis, is distributed as add-on modules for the R statistical programming language but R has no native capabilities for exploiting multi-processor architectures. SPRINT is an R package that enables easy access to HPC for genomics researchers. This paper investigates: setting up and running SPRINT-enabled genomic analyses on Amazon's Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), the advantages of submitting applications to EC2 from different parts of the world and, if resource underutilization can improve application performance.Methods: The SPRINT parallel implementations of correlation, permutation testing, partitioning around medoids and the multi-purpose papply have been benchmarked on data sets of various size on Amazon EC2. Jobs have been submitted from both the UK and Thailand to investigate monetary differences.Results: It is possible to obtain good, scalable performance but the level of improvement is dependent upon the nature of the algorithm. Resource underutilization can further improve the time to result. End-user's location impacts on costs due to factors such as local taxation.Conclusions: Although not designed to satisfy HPC requirements, Amazon EC2 and cloud computing in general provides an interesting alternative and provides new possibilities for smaller organisations with limited funds.
Methods of Information in Medicine 12/2012; 52(1). · 1.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The statistical language R is favoured by many biostatisticians for processing microarray data. In recent times, the quantity of data that can be obtained in experiments has risen significantly, making previously fast analyses time consuming or even not possible at all with the existing software infrastructure. High performance computing (HPC) systems offer a solution to these problems but at the expense of increased complexity for the end user. The Simple Parallel R Interface is a library for R that aims to reduce the complexity of using HPC systems by providing biostatisticians with drop-in parallelised replacements of existing R functions. In this paper we describe parallel implementations of two popular techniques: exploratory clustering analyses using the random forest classifier and feature selection through identification of differentially expressed genes using the rank product method.
Concurrency and Computation Practice and Experience 09/2012; · 0.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little is known about the role of viral genes in modulating host cytokine responses. Here we report a new functional role of the viral encoded IE1 protein of the murine cytomegalovirus in sculpting the inflammatory response in an acute infection. In time course experiments of infected primary macrophages (MΦs) measuring cytokine production levels, genetic ablation of the immediate-early 1 (ie1) gene results in a significant increase in TNFα production. Intracellular staining for cytokine production and viral early gene expression shows that TNFα production is highly associated with the productively infected MΦ population of cells. The ie1- dependent phenotype of enhanced MΦ TNFα production occurs at both protein and RNA levels. Noticeably, we show in a series of in vivo infection experiments that in multiple organs the presence of ie1 potently inhibits the pro-inflammatory cytokine response. From these experiments, levels of TNFα, and to a lesser extent IFNβ, but not the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL10, are moderated in the presence of ie1. The ie1- mediated inhibition of TNFα production has a similar quantitative phenotype profile in infection of susceptible (BALB/c) and resistant (C57BL/6) mouse strains as well as in a severe immuno-ablative model of infection. In vitro experiments with infected macrophages reveal that deletion of ie1 results in increased sensitivity of viral replication to TNFα inhibition. However, in vivo infection studies show that genetic ablation of TNFα or TNFRp55 receptor is not sufficient to rescue the restricted replication phenotype of the ie1 mutant virus. These results provide, for the first time, evidence for a role of IE1 as a regulator of the pro-inflammatory response and demonstrate a specific pathogen gene capable of moderating the host production of TNFα in vivo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cholesterol biosynthesis pathway has recently been shown to play an important role in the innate immune response to viral infection with host protection occurring through a coordinate down regulation of the enzymes catalysing each metabolic step. In contrast, statin based drugs, which form the principle pharmaceutical agents for decreasing the activity of this pathway, target a single enzyme. Here, we build an ordinary differential equation model of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway in order to investigate how the two regulatory strategies impact upon the behaviour of the pathway. We employ a modest set of assumptions: that the pathway operates away from saturation, that each metabolite is involved in multiple cellular interactions and that mRNA levels reflect enzyme concentrations. Using data taken from primary bone marrow derived macrophage cells infected with murine cytomegalovirus or treated with IFNγ, we show that, under these assumptions, coordinate down-regulation of enzyme activity imparts a graduated reduction in flux along the pathway. In contrast, modelling a statin-like treatment that achieves the same degree of down-regulation in cholesterol production, we show that this delivers a step change in flux along the pathway. The graduated reduction mediated by physiological coordinate regulation of multiple enzymes supports a mechanism that allows a greater level of specificity, altering cholesterol levels with less impact upon interactions branching from the pathway, than pharmacological step reductions. We argue that coordinate regulation is likely to show a long-term evolutionary advantage over single enzyme regulation. Finally, the results from our models have implications for future pharmaceutical therapies intended to target cholesterol production with greater specificity and fewer off target effects, suggesting that this can be achieved by mimicking the coordinated down-regulation observed in immunological responses.