Joanne M Bartkus

University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States

Are you Joanne M Bartkus?

Claim your profile

Publications (19)72.68 Total impact

  • Source
    Dataset: 1241-09
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A new species of parvovirus, tentatively named human bocavirus 4 (HBoV4), was genetically characterized. Among 641 feces samples obtained from children and adults, the most commonly detected bocavirus species were, in descending order, HBoV2, HBoV3, HBoV4, and HBoV1, with an HBoV2 prevalence of 21% and 26% in Nigerian and Tunisian children, respectively. HBoV3 or HBoV4 species were found in 12 of 192 patients with non-polio acute flaccid paralysis in Tunisia and Nigeria and 0 of 96 healthy Tunisian contacts (P = .01). Evidence of extensive recombination at the NP1 and VP1 gene boundary between and within bocavirus species was found. The high degree of genetic diversity seen among the human bocaviruses found in feces specimens, relative to the highly homogeneous HBoV1, suggest that this worldwide-distributed respiratory pathogen may have recently evolved from an enteric bocavirus after acquiring an expanded tropism favoring the respiratory tract. Elucidating the possible role of the newly identified enteric bocaviruses in human diseases, including acute flaccid paralysis and diarrhea, will require further epidemiological studies.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 06/2010; 201(11):1633-43. · 5.85 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A new species of parvovirus, tentatively named human bocavirus 4 (HBoV4), was genetically characterized. Among 641 feces samples obtained from children and adults, the most commonly detected bocavirus species were, in descending order, HBoV2, HBoV3, HBoV4, and HBoV1, with an HBoV2 prevalence of 21% and 26% in Nigerian and Tunisian children, respectively. HBoV3 or HBoV4 species were found in 12 of 192 patients with non-polio acute flaccid paralysis in Tunisia and Nigeria and 0 of 96 healthy Tunisian contacts (P p). Evidence of extensive recombination at the NP1 and VP1 gene boundary between and within bocavirus .01 species was found. The high degree of genetic diversity seen among the human bocaviruses found in feces specimens, relative to the highly homogeneous HBoV1, suggest that this worldwide-distributed respiratory pathogen may have recently evolved from an enteric bocavirus after acquiring an expanded tropism favoring the respiratory tract. Elucidating the possible role of the newly identified enteric bocaviruses in human diseases, including acute flaccid paralysis and diarrhea, will require further epidemiological studies.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 06/2010; 201(11):1633-1643. · 5.85 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Circoviruses are known to infect birds and pigs and can cause a wide range of severe symptoms with significant economic impact. Using viral metagenomics, we identified circovirus-like DNA sequences and characterized 15 circular viral DNA genomes in stool samples from humans in Pakistan, Nigeria, Tunisia, and the United States and from wild chimpanzees. Distinct genomic features and phylogenetic analysis indicate that some viral genomes were part of a previously unrecognized genus in the Circoviridae family we tentatively named "Cyclovirus" whose genetic diversity is comparable to that of all the known species in the Circovirus genus. Circoviridae detection in the stools of U.S. adults was limited to porcine circoviruses which were also found in most U.S. pork products. To determine whether the divergent cycloviruses found in non-U.S. human stools were of dietary origin, we genetically compared them to the cycloviruses in muscle tissue samples of commonly eaten farm animals in Pakistan and Nigeria. Limited genetic overlap between cycloviruses in human stool samples and local cow, goat, sheep, camel, and chicken meat samples indicated that the majority of the 25 Cyclovirus species identified might be human viruses. We show that the genetic diversity of small circular DNA viral genomes in various mammals, including humans, is significantly larger than previously recognized, and frequent exposure through meat consumption and contact with animal or human feces provides ample opportunities for cyclovirus transmission. Determining the role of cycloviruses, found in 7 to 17% of non-U.S. human stools and 3 to 55% of non-U.S. meat samples tested, in both human and animal diseases is now facilitated by knowledge of their genomes.
    Journal of Virology 12/2009; 84(4):1674-82. · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A novel picornavirus genome was sequenced, showing 42.6%, 35.2%, and 44.6% of deduced amino acid identities corresponding to the P1, P2, and P3 regions, respectively, of the Aichi virus. Divergent strains of this new virus,which we named salivirus, were detected in 18 stool samples from Nigeria, Tunisia, Nepal, and the United States. A statistical association was seen between virus shedding and unexplained cases of gastroenteritis in Nepal (P =0.0056). Viruses with approximately 90% nucleotide similarity, named klassevirus, were also recently reported in three cases of unexplained diarrhea from the United States and Australia and in sewage from Spain, reflecting a global distribution and supporting a pathogenic role for this new group of picornaviruses.
    Journal of Virology 09/2009; 83(22):12002-12006. · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A novel picornavirus genome was sequenced, showing 42.6%, 35.2%, and 44.6% of deduced amino acid identities corresponding to the P1, P2, and P3 regions, respectively, of the Aichi virus. Divergent strains of this new virus, which we named salivirus, were detected in 18 stool samples from Nigeria, Tunisia, Nepal, and the United States. A statistical association was seen between virus shedding and unexplained cases of gastroenteritis in Nepal (P = 0.0056). Viruses with approximately 90% nucleotide similarity, named klassevirus, were also recently reported in three cases of unexplained diarrhea from the United States and Australia and in sewage from Spain, reflecting a global distribution and supporting a pathogenic role for this new group of picornaviruses.
    Journal of Virology 09/2009; 83(22):12002-6. · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To investigate the genetic diversity among S. Enteritidis isolates from different geographic regions to evaluate the relationship between phage types (PTs) and variable number tandem repeat analysis (VNTR) loci. We performed multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and phage typing on 245 S. Enteritidis isolates collected from sporadic human clinical cases in Michigan, Minnesota, New York, and Washington states between 2000 and 2007. Ninety-four MLVA types and 22 different PTs were identified. Specific PTs were associated with a predominant allele for certain VNTR loci. Cluster analysis using a minimum-spanning tree demonstrated two major clusters (I, II) and one minor cluster of isolates. PTs 8, 13a, 13 and 34 were significantly associated with MLVA cluster I. Phage types 1, 4, 6a, and 18 were significantly associated with MLVA cluster II. We found significant association between MLVA-based clusters and PTs. Certain VNTR loci were associated with specific PTs and could serve as useful molecular markers for S. Enteritidis in epidemiological investigations. MLVA genotyping in combination with phage typing can be used for effective characterization of S. Enteritidis isolates. It can also be useful for tracing possible sources during investigations of sporadic and outbreak cases of S. Enteritidis.
    Journal of Applied Microbiology 08/2009; 108(3):859-67. · 2.20 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is a zoonotic pathogen, which can be found in many sources including animals and the environment. However, little is known about the molecular relatedness among S. Enteritidis isolates from different sources. We have applied multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) to study the genetic diversity of S. Enteritidis isolates from human and non-human sources. We identified 38 unique MLVA types using nine VNTR loci markers for discrimination between 145 S. Enteritidis isolates from different sources including humans (n = 41), chickens (n = 45), and eggs (n = 40). There were 20 distinct MLVA types identified from human isolates, 17 distinct MLVA types from chicken isolates, and 5 from egg isolates. We compared allele distribution and frequency for each VNTR marker and measured allelic polymorphism within each VNTR locus of S. Enteritidis isolates from the sources using Nei's diversity index (D). Differences in allele distribution and frequency were detected in most loci of study isolates. Different genetic diversity for certain loci was identified in isolates from different sources. The average of genetic diversity (D) was lower in egg isolates (0.16) compared to human (0.41) and chicken (0.30). However, for loci SE3, SE7, and SE9, human isolates showed significantly higher diversity than both chicken and egg isolates. Whereas for loci SE5 and SE10, chicken isolates had significantly higher diversity than both human and egg isolates. Minimum-spanning tree (MST) comprised one major cluster, a minor cluster, and four clonal expansions. MLVA application enabled a cluster analysis by the MST of the S. Enteritidis isolates by sources, which allows a great insight into the genetic relatedness and the possible flow of these organisms between different reservoirs and humans. Differences in allele distribution and genetic diversity of VNTR loci in S. Enteritidis isolates from different sources were found. Polymorphism in most of the VNTR loci was more frequent among human S. Enteritidis isolates than isolates from chickens or eggs. Therefore, VNTR profiles of S. Enteritidis isolates from a specific source should be further evaluated as potential markers in epidemiologic investigations to trace S. Enteritidis to their probable source.
    BMC Microbiology 10/2008; 8:146. · 2.98 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Twenty-three isolates of group A streptococci (GAS) recovered from population-based invasive GAS surveillance in the United States were erythromycin resistant, inducibly clindamycin resistant, and lacked known macrolide resistance determinants. These 23 isolates, representing four different clones, contained a broad-host-range plasmid carrying the erm(T) methylase gene, which has not been detected in GAS previously.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 04/2008; 52(3):1140-3. · 4.57 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Antibiotics are used for both group B streptococcal (GBS) prevention and treatment. Active population-based surveillance for invasive GBS disease was conducted in four states during 1996-2003. Of 3813 case-isolates, 91.0% (3471) were serotyped, 77.1% (2937) had susceptibility testing, and 46.6% (3471) had both. All were sensitive to penicillin, ampicillin, cefazolin, cefotaxime, and vancomycin. Clindamycin and erythromycin resistance was 12.7% and 25.6%, respectively, and associated with serotype V (P < .001). Clindamycin resistance increased from 10.5% to 15.0% (X(2) for trend 12.70; P < .001); inducible clindamycin resistance was associated with the erm genotype. Erythromycin resistance increased from 15.8% to 32.8% (X(2) for trend 55.46; P < .001). While GBS remains susceptible to beta-lactams, resistance to alternative agents such as erythromycin and clindamycin is an increasing concern.
    Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology 01/2008; 2008:727505.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Simplified multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) was developed using one-shot multiplex PCR for seven variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR) markers with high diversity capacity. MLVA, phage typing, and PFGE methods were applied on 34 diverse Salmonella Enteritidis isolates from human and non-human sources. MLVA detected allelic variations that helped to classify the S. Enteritidis isolates into more evenly distributed subtypes than other methods. MLVA-based S. Enteritidis clonal groups were largely associated with sources of the isolates. Nei's diversity indices for polymorphism ranged from 0.25 to 0.70 for seven VNTR loci markers. Based on Simpson's and Shannon's diversity indices, MLVA had a higher discriminatory power than pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), phage typing, or multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. Therefore, MLVA may be used along with PFGE to enhance the effectiveness of the molecular epidemiologic investigation of S. Enteritidis infections.
    FEMS Microbiology Letters 11/2007; 275(1):16-23. · 2.05 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Strain subtyping is an important tool for detection of outbreaks caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis. Current subtyping methods, however, yield less than optimal subtype discrimination. In this study, we describe the development and evaluation of a multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) method for subtyping Salmonella serotype Enteritidis. The discrimination ability and epidemiological concordance of MLVA were compared with those of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and phage typing. MLVA provided greater discrimination among non-epidemiologically linked isolates than did PFGE or phage typing. Epidemiologic concordance was evaluated by typing 40 isolates from four food-borne disease outbreaks. MLVA, PFGE, and, to a lesser extent, phage typing exhibited consistent subtypes within an outbreak. MLVA was better able to differentiate isolates between the individual outbreaks than either PFGE or phage typing. The reproducibility of MLVA was evaluated by subtyping sequential isolates from an infected individual and by testing isolates following multiple passages and freeze-thaw cycles. PFGE and MLVA patterns were reproducible for isolates that were frozen and passaged multiple times. However, 2 of 12 sequential isolates obtained from an individual over the course of 36 days had an MLVA type that differed at one locus and one isolate had a different phage type. Overall, MLVA typing of Salmonella serotype Enteritidis had enhanced resolution, good reproducibility, and good epidemiological concordance. These results indicate that MLVA may be a useful tool for detection and investigation of outbreaks caused by Salmonella serotype Enteritidis.
    Journal of Clinical Microbiology 03/2007; 45(2):536-43. · 4.07 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Kingella kingae often colonizes the oropharyngeal and respiratory tracts of children but infrequently causes invasive disease. In mid-October 2003, 2 confirmed and 1 probable case of K kingae osteomyelitis/septic arthritis occurred among children in the same 16- to 24-month-old toddler classroom of a child care center. The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of K kingae colonization and invasive disease among child care attendees. Staff at the center were interviewed, and a site visit was performed. Oropharyngeal cultures were obtained from the staff and children aged 0 to 5 years to assess the prevalence of Kingella colonization. Bacterial isolates were subtyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and DNA sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was performed. A telephone survey inquiring about potential risk factors and the general health of each child was also conducted. All children and staff in the affected toddler classroom were given rifampin prophylaxis and recultured 10 to 14 days later. For epidemiologic and microbiologic comparison, oropharyngeal cultures were obtained from a cohort of children at a control child care center with similar demographics and were analyzed using the same laboratory methods. The main outcome measures were prevalence and risk factors for colonization and invasive disease and comparison of bacterial isolates by molecular subtyping and DNA sequencing. The 2 confirmed case patients required hospitalization, surgical debridement, and intravenous antibiotic therapy. The probable case patient was initially misdiagnosed; MRI 16 days later revealed evidence of ankle osteomyelitis. The site visit revealed no obvious outbreak source. Of 122 children in the center, 115 (94%) were cultured. Fifteen (13%) were colonized with K kingae, with the highest prevalence in the affected toddler classroom (9 [45%] of 20 children; all case patients tested negative but had received antibiotics). Six colonized children were distributed among the older classrooms; 2 were siblings of colonized toddlers. No staff (n = 28) or children aged <16 months were colonized. Isolates from the 2 confirmed case patients and from the colonized children had an indistinguishable PFGE pattern. No risk factors for invasive disease or colonization were identified from the telephone survey. Of the 9 colonized toddlers who took rifampin, 3 (33%) remained positive on reculture; an additional toddler, initially negative, was positive on reculture. The children of the control child care center demonstrated a similar degree and distribution of K kingae colonization; of 118 potential subjects, 45 (38%) underwent oropharyngeal culture, and 7 (16%) were colonized with K kingae. The highest prevalence again occurred in the toddler classrooms. All 7 isolates from the control facility had an indistinguishable PFGE pattern; this pattern differed from the PFGE pattern observed from the outbreak center isolates. 16S rRNA gene sequencing demonstrated that the outbreak K kingae strain exhibited >98% homology to the ATCC-type strain, although several sequence deviations were present. Sequencing of the control center strain demonstrated more homology to the outbreak center strain than to the ATCC-type strain. This is the first reported outbreak of invasive K kingae disease. The high prevalence in the affected toddler class and the matching PFGE pattern are consistent with child-to-child transmission within the child care center. Rifampin was modestly effective in eliminating carriage. DNA sequence analysis suggests that there may be considerable variability within the species K kingae and that different K kingae strains may demonstrate varying degrees of pathogenicity.
    PEDIATRICS 08/2005; 116(2):e206-13. · 4.47 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Genetic variation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 poses significant public-health and clinical challenges. In North America, subtype B is most prevalent. HIV-1 subtyping is not integrated into routine HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome surveillance in the United States. In 2003, the Minnesota Department of Health piloted HIV-1 subtyping with routine surveillance to describe the existence and variety of non-subtype B strains. Targeted HIV-1 subtype surveillance was conducted on 98 African-born HIV-infected patients. Sentinel subtype surveillance was conducted in a Minneapolis sexually transmitted disease clinic on 28 newly diagnosed non-African HIV-positive patients. Subtype determination was based on a partial sequence of the gp41 region of the HIV-1 env gene. Subtyping was successful for 87 of 98 samples from African-born HIV-infected patients; 95% were non-B subtypes. The 7 subtypes observed were consistent with strains endemic in patients' birth regions. Subtyping was also completed for samples from 25 of 28 non-African-born patients; all were subtype B. Multiple HIV-1 subtypes are present in Minnesota. Our data suggest that most of the HIV cases in Minnesota among African-born patients are non-B subtypes. Population-based surveillance inclusive of groups at high risk for variant strains is needed to monitor the prevalence and variety of HIV subtypes in the United States.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 08/2005; 192(1):37-45. · 5.85 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Rifampin-resistant meningococcal disease occurred in a child who had completed rifampin chemoprophylaxis for exposure to a sibling with meningococcemia. Susceptibility testing of 331 case isolates found only 1 other case of rifampin-resistant disease in Minnesota, USA, during 11 years of statewide surveillance. Point mutations in the RNA polymerase Beta subunit (rpoB) gene were found in isolates from each rifampin-resistant case-patient.
    Emerging infectious diseases 07/2005; 11(6):977-9. · 5.99 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In August 2000, the Minnesota Department of Health was notified of and investigated an outbreak of febrile respiratory illness among workers at a sugar-beet processing plant. A case was defined as fever and respiratory symptoms occurring in a worker at the sugar-beet plant on or after 31 July 2000. Case patients were interviewed, medical and work records were reviewed, and clinical samples were obtained. The plant was inspected, and environmental samples were collected. Fourteen of 15 case patients performed high-pressure water cleaning in the confined space of an evaporator vessel. Symptoms included fever and chills (100%), chest tightness (93%), cough (80%), and shortness of breath (73%). In case patients, median temperature was 39.4 degrees C, median oxygen saturation was 93%, and median white blood cell count was 12x10(3) cells/ mu L. Four (29%) of 14 case patients showed evidence of Legionella pneumophila exposure, according to serologic testing. Water sources contained up to 10(5) cfu/mL of L. pneumophila and 22,200 endotoxin units/mL. Outbreak features were consistent with Pontiac fever. Respiratory symptoms, which are atypical for Pontiac fever, could be attributed to a high exposure dose of L. pneumophila from confined-space aerosolization or to endotoxin exposure. This outbreak demonstrates the potential occupational hazards for those performing high-pressure cleaning in confined spaces.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 06/2005; 191(9):1530-7. · 5.85 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In recent years, the globalization of the food supply and the development of extensive food distribution networks have increased the risk of foodborne disease outbreaks involving multiple states or countries. In particular, outbreaks associated with fresh produce have emerged as an important public health concern. During July and August 1998, eight restaurant-associated outbreaks of shigellosis caused by a common strain of Shigella sonnei occurred in the United States and Canada. The outbreak strain was characterized by unique pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. Epidemiologic investigation determined that the illness was associated with the ingestion of parsley at four restaurants; at the other four restaurants, the majority of the people who contracted the illness ate parsley. Isolates from patrons in two unrelated restaurant-associated enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) outbreaks in Minnesota shared a common serotype and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern. Parsley was the implicated or suspected source of both ETEC outbreaks. In each of the outbreak-associated restaurants, parsley was chopped, held at room temperature, and used as an ingredient or garnish for multiple dishes. Infected food workers at several restaurants may also have contributed to the propagation of the outbreak. The sources of parsley served in outbreak-associated restaurants were traced, and a 1,600-acre farm in Baja California, Mexico, was identified as a likely source of the parsley implicated in six of the seven Shigella outbreaks and as a possible source of the parsley implicated in the two ETEC outbreaks. Global food supplies and large distribution networks demand strengthened laboratory and epidemiologic capacity to enable state and local public health agencies to conduct foodborne disease surveillance and to promote effective responses to multistate outbreaks.
    Journal of food protection 05/2003; 66(4):535-41. · 1.83 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Erythromycin treatment failures and in vitro resistance of Bordetella pertussis have been reported on several occasions in the past few years, but the mechanism of resistance has not been described. One potential mechanism, genetic modification of the erythromycin-binding site on the 23S rRNA of the 50S ribosomal subunit, has been observed in other bacteria. To explore this possibility, we amplified the portion of the 23S rRNA gene encoding the central loop of domain V. DNA sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism of the PCR products showed that each of the four erythromycin-resistant B. pertussis strains tested contained an A-to-G transition mutation at position 2058 (Escherichia coli numbering) of the 23S rRNA gene. The mutation was not found in seven erythromycin-susceptible isolates tested. Two of the resistant isolates were heterozygous, containing at least one mutant copy and one wild-type copy of the 23S rRNA gene. These results indicate that erythromycin resistance in these strains is likely due to a mutation of the erythromycin-binding site in the 23S rRNA gene. Identification of the resistance mechanism will facilitate development of molecular susceptibility testing methods that can be used directly on clinical specimens in the absence of an isolate.
    Journal of Clinical Microbiology 04/2003; 41(3):1167-72. · 4.07 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In recent years, the globalization of the food supply and the development of extensive food distribution networks have increased the risk of foodborne disease outbreaks involving multiple states or countries. In particular, outbreaks associated with fresh produce have emerged as an important public health concern. During July and August 1998, eight restaurant-associated outbreaks of shigellosis caused by a common strain of Shigella sonnei occurred in the United States and Canada. The outbreak strain was characterized by unique pulsed--eld gel electrophoresis patterns. Epidemiologic investigation determined that the illness was associated with the ingestion of parsley at four restaurants; at the other four restaurants, the majority of the people who contracted the illness ate parsley. Isolates from patrons in two unrelated restaurant-associated enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) outbreaks in Minnesota shared a common serotype and pulsed-eld gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern. Parsley was the implicated or suspected source of both ETEC outbreaks. In each of the outbreak-associated restaurants, parsley was chopped, held at room temperature, and used as an ingredient or garnish for multiple dishes. Infected food workers at several restaurants may also have contributed to the propagation of the outbreak. The sources of parsley served in outbreak-associated restaurants were traced, and a 1,600-acre farm in Baja California, Mexico, was identii ed as a likely source of the parsley implicated in six of the seven Shigella outbreaks and as a possible source of the parsley implicated in the two ETEC outbreaks. Global food supplies and large distribution networks demand strengthened laboratory and epidemiologic capacity to enable state and local public health agencies to conduct foodborne disease surveillance and to promote effective responses to multistate outbreaks.
    Journal of food protection 01/2003; 66:535-541. · 1.83 Impact Factor