Karoline Sonneck

Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Vienna, Austria

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Publications (33)171.04 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In most patients with systemic mastocytosis (SM), including aggressive SM (ASM) and mast cell (MC) leukemia (MCL), neoplastic cells express the oncogenic KIT mutation D816V, which confers resistance to imatinib. Cladribine (2CdA) is a nucleoside analog that has been introduced as a promising agent for treatment of advanced SM. We examined the in vitro effects of 2CdA on growth of neoplastic MC, and the in vivo effects of 2CdA (0.13 mg/kg/day intravenously, days 1-5; three to eight cycles) in seven patients with advanced SM. Cladribine was found to inhibit growth of primary MC and the MC line HMC-1 in a dose-dependent manner, with lower IC(50) values recorded in HMC-1.2 cells harboring KIT D816V (IC(50): 10 ng/mL) compared to HMC-1.1 cells lacking KIT D816V (IC(50): 300 ng/mL). In two patients with progressive smoldering SM, 2CdA produced a long-lasting response with a sustained decrease in serum tryptase levels, whereas in patients with progressive ASM or MCL, 2CdA showed little if any effects. The drug was well-tolerated in most cases. However, one patient developed a massive generalized purulent long-lasting skin rash. The antiproliferative effects of 2CdA on MC were found to be associated with morphologic signs of apoptosis and caspase cleavage. Cladribine did not counteract the kinase activity of KIT D816V or KIT-downstream signaling molecules. Cladribine may be a promising agent for treatment of progressive smoldering KIT D816V(+) SM. In rapidly progressing ASM or MCL, additional or alternative drugs are required to induce long-lasting antineoplastic effects.
    Experimental hematology 09/2010; 38(9):744-55. · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent data suggest that the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)5 contributes to differentiation and growth of mast cells. It has also been described that constitutively phosphorylated STAT5 (pSTAT5) plays a pro-oncogenic role in various myeloid neoplasms. We examined the expression of pSTAT5 in neoplastic mast cells in systemic mastocytosis and asked whether the disease-related oncoprotein KIT D816V is involved in STAT5 activation. As assessed by immunohistochemistry using the anti-pSTAT5 antibody AX1, neoplastic mast cells were found to display pSTAT5 in all SM patients examined (n = 40). Expression of pSTAT5 was also demonstrable in the KIT D816V-positive mast cell leukemia cell line HMC-1. Using various staining-protocols, pSTAT5 was found to be located in both the cytoplasmic and nuclear compartment of mast cells. To define the functional role of KIT D816V in STAT5-activation, Ba/F3 cells with doxycycline-inducible expression of KIT D816V were used. In these cells, induction of KIT D816V resulted in an increased expression of pSTAT5 without substantial increase in total STAT5. Moreover, the KIT D816V-targeting kinase-inhibitor PKC412 was found to counteract expression of pSTAT5 in HMC-1 cells as well as doxycycline-induced expression of pSTAT5 in Ba/F3 cells. Finally, a dominant negative STAT5-construct was found to inhibit growth of HMC-1 cells. Together, our data show that neoplastic mast cells express cytoplasmic and nuclear pSTAT5, that KIT D816V promotes STAT5-activation, and that STAT5-activation contributes to growth of neoplastic mast cells.
    American Journal Of Pathology 11/2009; 175(6):2416-29. · 4.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has recently been implicated in leukaemic cell growth, tumour-associated angiogenesis and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We examined whether mTOR plays a role as regulator of growth and VEGF-expression in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Three mTOR-targeting drugs, rapamycin, everolimus (RAD001) and CCI-779, were applied. The effects of these drugs on growth, survival, apoptosis and VEGF expression in primary AML cells and various AML cell lines were examined. Growth of AML cells and AML-derived cell lines was assessed by (3)H-thymidine incorporation, survival was examined by light- and electron microscopy, by Tunel assay and by AnnexinV-staining, and the expression of VEGF by Northern blotting, RT-PCR and ELISA. Rapamycin was found to counteract growth in the AML cell lines U937 and KG1a as well as in primary AML cells in 14/18 patients examined. The effects of rapamycin and its derivatives were dose-dependent (IC(50): 10 pM-100 nM). It was also found that exposure to mTOR-targeting drugs resulted in apoptosis and in decreased expression of VEGF in leukaemic cells. mTOR-targeting drugs exert antileukaemic effects on AML cells in vitro through multiple actions, including direct inhibition of proliferation, induction of apoptosis and suppression of VEGF. Based on this study and other studies, mTOR can be regarded as a potential drug target in AML.
    European Journal of Clinical Investigation 04/2009; 39(5):395-405. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The major timothy grass pollen allergen, Phl p 1, resembles the allergenic epitopes of natural group I grass pollen allergens and is recognized by more than 95% of grass-pollen-allergic patients. Our objective was the construction, purification and immunologic characterization of a genetically modified derivative of the major timothy grass pollen allergen, Phl p 1 for immunotherapy of grass pollen allergy. A mosaic protein was generated by PCR-based re-assembly and expression of four cDNAs coding for Phl p 1 fragments and compared to the Phl p 1 wild-type by circular dichroism analysis, immunoglobulin E (IgE)-binding capacity, basophil activation assays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay competition assays. Immune responses to the derivative were studied in BALB/c mice. Grass-pollen-allergic patients exhibited greater than an 85% reduction in IgE reactivity to the mosaic as compared with the Phl p 1 allergen and basophil activation experiments confirmed the reduced allergenic activity of the mosaic. It also induced less Phl p 1-specific IgE antibodies than Phl p 1 upon immunization of mice. However, immunization of mice and rabbits with the mosaic induced IgG antibodies that inhibited patients' IgE-binding to the wild-type allergen and Phl p 1-induced degranulation of basophils. We have developed a strategy based on rational molecular reassembly to convert one of the clinically most relevant allergens into a hypoallergenic derivative for allergy vaccination.
    Allergy 03/2009; 64(4):569-80. · 5.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The D816V-mutated variant of Kit triggers multiple signaling pathways and is considered essential for malignant transformation in mast cell (MC) neoplasms. We here describe that constitutive activation of the Stat5-PI3K-Akt-cascade controls neoplastic MC development. Retrovirally transduced active Stat5 (cS5(F)) was found to trigger PI3K and Akt activation, and to transform murine bone marrow progenitors into tissue-infiltrating MCs. Primary neoplastic Kit D816V(+) MCs in patients with mastocytosis also displayed activated Stat5, which was found to localize to the cytoplasm and to form a signaling complex with PI3K, with consecutive Akt activation. Finally, the knock-down of either Stat5 or Akt activity resulted in growth inhibition of neoplastic Kit D816V(+) MCs. These data suggest that a downstream Stat5-PI3K-Akt signaling cascade is essential for Kit D816V-mediated growth and survival of neoplastic MCs.
    Blood 07/2008; 112(6):2463-73. · 9.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Basophilic crisis and eosinophilia are well recognized features of advanced chronic myeloid leukaemia. In other myeloid neoplasms, however, transformation with marked basophilia and eosinophilia is considered unusual. We examined the long-term follow-up of 322 patients with de novo myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) to define the frequency of basophilic, eosinophilic and mixed lineage (basophilic and eosinophilic) transformation. Of all patients, only one developed mixed lineage crisis (>or= 20% basophils and >or= 20% eosinophils). In this patient, who initially suffered from chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia, basophils increased to 48% and eosinophils up to 31% at the time of progression. Mixed lineage crisis was not accompanied by an increase in blast cells or organomegaly. The presence of BCR/ABL and other relevant fusion gene products (FIP1L1/PDGFRA, AML1/ETO, PML/RAR alpha, CBF beta/MYH11) were excluded by PCR. Myelomastocytic transformation/myelomastocytic leukaemia and primary mast cell disease were excluded by histology, KIT mutation analysis, electron microscopy and immunophenotyping. Basophils were thus found to be CD123+, CD203c+, BB1+, KIT- cells, and to express a functional IgE-receptor. Among the other patients with MDS examined, 4(1.2%) were found to have marked basophilia (>or= 20%) and 7(2.1%) were found to have massive eosinophilia ( >or= 20%), whereas mixed-lineage crisis was detected in none of them. Mixed basophil/eosinophil crisis may develop in patients with MDS but is an extremely rare event.
    European Journal of Clinical Investigation 07/2008; 38(6):447-55. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The major allergen of the house-dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Der p 2, is recognized by approximately 90% of mite-allergic patients. We have produced two recombinant fragments of Der p 2 comprising aa 1-53 and aa 54-129 and a hybrid molecule (aa 54-129+1-53), combining the two fragments in inverse order, by genetic engineering. The recombinant Der p 2 derivatives were expressed in E. coli and purified to homogeneity. rDer p 2 derivatives (fragments and hybrid) showed a considerably reduced beta sheet structure and IgE reactivity compared to the Der p 2 wild-type allergen. The allergenic activity of the Der p 2 derivatives was reduced more than tenfold as evaluated in vitro in basophil activation assays and in vivo by skin prick testing of mite-allergic patients. Immunization of mice and rabbits with rDer p 2 derivatives induced Der p 2-specific IgG antibodies, which inhibited the binding of allergic patients' IgE to Der p 2. Immunization of mice with rDer p 2 derivatives induced less allergenic IgE responses than immunization with rDer p 2. Thus the rDer p 2 derivatives exhibited less in vivo allergenic activity and allergenicity than the Der p 2 allergen but preserved immunogenicity and may hence represent candidates for specific immunotherapy of house-dust mite allergy.
    Molecular Immunology 06/2008; 45(9):2486-98. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Systemic mastocytosis (SM) is a clonal myeloid disorder characterized by abnormal accumulation and growth of mast cells (MC) in internal organs. In most cases, the bone marrow is involved. Expression of CD25 in bone marrow MC, with or without coexpression of CD2, is an important minor SM criterion. So far, most studies have examined CD25-expression on MC by flow cytometry. We examined the expression of CD25 in MC in patients with SM (n = 25) by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and compared these data with results obtained by flow cytometric assessment of CD25-expression. In addition, we compared CD25-staining results with that obtained with an antibody against CD2. In a majority of all patients (> 80%), CD25 was detectable by both staining techniques. However, in one patient, CD25 was only detectable on MC by IHC, but not by flow cytometry, and in two patients in whom IHC could not be applied because of lack of compact MC infiltrates, flow cytometry revealed aberrant expression of CD25. The antibody against CD2 produced diagnostic staining results in a smaller group of patients (flow cytometry: 65%; IHC: 28% of SM cases) compared to CD25 (> 80%). CD25-IHC is equally diagnostic and sensitive in SM compared to flow cytometry and thus can be recommended as a diagnostic test. Our data also suggest that the diagnostic value of CD25 exceeds that of CD2, and that optimal assessment of CD25-expression in neoplastic MC in all patients requires the application of both techniques, flow cytometry and IHC.
    European Journal of Clinical Investigation 05/2008; 38(5):326-35. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ectoenzyme E-NPP3 (CD203c) has recently been identified as a novel activation-linked cell surface antigen on basophils. In the present study, we examined expression of CD203c on normal mast cells (MC)and bone marrow (bm) MC derived from 85 patients with systemic mastocytosis (SM), including cases with indolent SM (ISM, n=72), SM with associated clonal hematologic non-MC-lineage disease (SM-AHNMD, n=6), aggressive SM (ASM, n=3), and mast cell leukemia (MCL, n=4). Surface expression of CD203c was analyzed by multicolor flow cytometry. In patients with SM, bm MC expressed significantly higher amounts of CD203c compared to normal bm MC (median MFI in controls: 260 versus median MFI in SM: 516, p<0.05). Slightly lower amounts of CD203c were detected on MC in SM-AHNMD and ASM compared to ISM. To demonstrate CD203c expression in MC at the mRNA level, neoplastic MC were highly enriched by cell sorting, and were found to express CD203c mRNA in RT-PCR analysis. Cross-linking of the IgE receptor on MC resulted in a substantial upregulation of CD203c, whereas the KIT-ligand stem cell factor (SCF) showed no significant effects. In conclusion, CD203c is a novel activation-linked surface antigen on MC that is upregulated in response to IgE receptor cross-linking and is overexpressed on neoplastic MC in patients with SM.
    International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology 01/2008; 21(4):797-806. · 2.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IgE-dependent activation of basophils is associated with upregulation of several surface molecules. We recently identified the surface enzyme aminopeptidase N (CD13) as a novel activation antigen on human basophils. In the present study, we asked whether CD13 can be employed as a novel marker of allergen-induced activation of basophils in allergic individuals. Patients allergic to major allergens from grass pollen (Phl p 1, Phl p 5), birch pollen (Bet v 1), or house dust mites (Der p 2), were examined. Blood basophils were exposed to various concentrations of recombinant allergens for 15 minutes, and examined for expression of CD13 by multicolor flow cytometry. The allergen-induced upregulation of CD13 was compared with allergen-dependent increases in expression of CD63 and CD203c. Exposure to recombinant allergens resulted in an increase in expression of CD13 on basophils in all sensitized individuals, whereas no increase in CD13 was seen in healthy controls. The effects of the recombinant allergens on CD13-expression were dose- and time-dependent, were not observed in the absence of extracellular calcium, and were counteracted by preincubation of basophils with the PI3-kinase-targeting drugs staurosporin and LY294002. There was a good correlation between allergen-induced upregulation of CD13, CD63, and CD203c on basophils. In aggregate, our data show that recombinant allergens promote expression of CD13 on basophils in sensitized individuals. The functional significance and diagnostic implications of this observation remain to be determined.
    International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology 01/2008; 21(1):11-21. · 2.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In a majority of all patients with systemic mastocytosis (SM) including those with mast cell leukemia (MCL), neoplastic mast cells (MC) display the D816V-mutated variant of KIT. The respective oncoprotein, KIT D816V, exhibits constitutive tyrosine kinase (TK) activity and has been implicated in malignant cell growth. Therefore, several attempts have been made to identify KIT D816V-targeting drugs. We examined the effects of the novel TK-inhibitor dasatinib alone and in combination with other targeted drugs on growth of neoplastic MC. Confirming previous studies, dasatinib was found to inhibit the TK activity of wild type (wt) KIT and KIT-D816V as well as growth and survival of neoplastic MC and of the MCL cell line, HMC-1. The growth-inhibitory effects of dasatinib in HMC-1 cells were found to be associated with a decrease in expression of CD2 and CD63. In addition, we found that dasatinib blocks KIT D816V-induced cluster-formation and viability in Ba/F3 cells. In drug combination experiments, dasatinib was found to co-operate with PKC412, AMN107, imatinib, and 2CdA in producing growth-inhibition and apoptosis in neoplastic MC. In HMC-1.1 cells lacking KIT D816V, all drug interactions were found to be synergistic in nature. By contrast, in HMC-1.2 cells exhibiting KIT D816V, only the combinations dasatinib+PKC412 and dasatinib+2CdA were found to produce synergistic effects. Combinations of targeted drugs may represent an interesting pharmacologic approach for the treatment of aggressive SM or MCL.
    Haematologica 12/2007; 92(11):1451-9. · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aggressive mast cell (MC) tumors are hematopoietic neoplasms characterized by uncontrolled growth of MC and resistance to conventional drugs. In most cases, the tyrosine kinase (TK) receptor KIT is involved in malignant cell growth. Therefore, several KIT TK-targeting drugs are currently being tested for their ability to block growth of neoplastic MC. We examined the effects of four TK inhibitors (imatinib, midostaurin, nilotinib, and dasatinib) on C2 canine mastocytoma cells, as well as primary neoplastic canine MC. As assessed by (3)H-thymidine incorporation experiments, all TK inhibitors produced dose-dependent inhibition of proliferation in C2 cells with the following IC(50) values: imatinib: 269 +/- 180 nM, midostaurin: 157 +/- 35 nM, nilotinib: 55 +/- 24 nM, dasatinib: 12 +/- 3 nM. Growth-inhibitory effects of TK inhibitors were also observed in primary neoplastic mast cells, although IC(50) values for each drug varied from patient to patient, with midostaurin being the most potent agent in all samples tested. In consecutive experiments, we were able to show that TK inhibitors cooperate with each other in producing growth inhibition in C2 cells with synergistic effects observed with most drug combinations. In flow cytometry and TUNEL assay experiments, growth-inhibitory effects of TK inhibitors were found to be associated with cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. Together, these data show that several TK-targeting drugs induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation in canine mastocytoma cells in vitro, and that synergistic drug interactions can be obtained. Clinical trials are now warranted to explore whether these TK inhibitors also counteract growth of neoplastic cells in vivo in patients with aggressive MC tumors.
    Experimental Hematology 11/2007; 35(10):1510-21. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Persistent activation of Stat5 is frequently found in hematologic neoplasms. Studies conducted with constitutively active Stat5 mutants (Stat51*6 and cS5F) have shown that deregulated Stat5 activity promotes leukemogenesis. To investigate the oncogenic properties of these mutants, we used cS5F-expressing bone marrow cells which induce a multilineage leukemia when transplanted into recipient mice. Here, we show by immunocytochemistry that cS5F is localized mainly in the cytoplasmic compartment of leukemic cells, suggesting that the transforming nature of cS5F may be associated with a cytoplasmic function. In support of this hypothesis, we found that cS5F forms a complex with the p85 subunit of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) and the scaffolding adapter Gab2 in leukemic bone marrow cells, resulting in the activation of Akt/PKB, a crucial downstream target of PI3-K. By using transducible TAT-Gab2 or TAT-Akt recombinant proteins, we were able to demonstrate that activation of the PI3-kinase/Akt pathway by cS5F molecules through Gab2 is essential for induction of cell growth. We also found that persistently phosphorylated Stat5 in primary cells from patients with myeloid leukemias has a cytoplasmic localization. These data suggest that oncogenic Stat5 proteins exert dual transforming capabilities not only as transcriptional activators but also as cytoplasmic signaling effectors.
    Blood 03/2007; 109(4):1678-86. · 9.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a major regulator of angiogenesis and a potential autocrine growth factor for neoplastic cells in various malignancies. In the present study, we have investigated expression of VEGF and VEGF receptors in canine mastocytomas and the canine mastocytoma cell line C2. As assessed by immunostaining of tissue sections and cytospin slides, primary neoplastic mast cells (MC) and C2 cells were found to express the VEGF protein. In Northern blot and RT-PCR experiments, C2 cells expressed VEGF mRNA in a constitutive manner. VEGF mRNA expression in C2 cells was counteracted by LY294002 and rapamycin, suggesting involvement of the PI3-kinase/mTOR pathway. Moreover, C2 cells were found to express VEGF receptor-1 (Flt-1) and VEGF receptor-2 (KDR). However, recombinant VEGF failed to promote (3)H-thymidine uptake in C2 cells, and a neutralizing anti-VEGF antibody (bevacizumab) failed to downregulate spontaneous proliferation in these cells. In addition, rapamycin decreased the expression of VEGF in C2 cells at the mRNA and protein level without suppressing their proliferation. Together, canine mastocytoma cells express VEGF as well as VEGF receptors. However, despite co-expression of VEGF and its receptors, VEGF is not utilized as an autocrine growth regulator by canine mastocytoma cells.
    Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 03/2007; 115(3-4):320-33. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mylotarg (gemtuzumab ozogamicin [GO]) has recently been introduced as a novel CD33-targeting drug in clinical hematology. However, despite efficacy, GO produces significant side effects including an infusion syndrome. We have recently shown that mast cells (MCs) and basophils (BAs) express CD33. In the present study, we investigated the effects of GO on growth and mediator secretion in MCs and BAs. Growth-inhibitory effects of GO on neoplastic MCs (HMC-1) and BAs (KU812) as well as cord blood-derived MC and BA progenitor cells were determined by counting cell numbers and the numbers of apoptotic cells. The amount of histamine secreted from primary MCs and BAs was measured by radioimmunoassay after incubation of cells with GO alone or GO together with an anti-immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody. MCs and BAs as well as HMC-1 cells and KU812 cells were found to express CD33 mRNA and the CD33 protein. GO was found to inhibit the growth of HMC-1 cells and KU812 cells as well as stem cell factor-dependent differentiation of MCs and interleukin-3-induced growth of BAs from their cord blood-derived progenitors. The GO-induced inhibition of growth of neoplastic cells was found to be associated with induction of apoptosis. GO neither induced secretion of histamine from MCs or BAs nor upregulated the anti-IgE-induced release of histamine in these cells. GO counteracts growth of normal and neoplastic MCs and BAs without inducing rapid release of histamine. The exact value of GO as a targeted drug for the treatment of high-grade MC or BA neoplasms remains to be determined.
    Experimental Hematology 02/2007; 35(1):108-16. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We recently identified the ectoenzyme CD203c as a novel basophil activation antigen that is upregulated in response to FcepsilonRI cross-linkage. We investigated the effects of various interleukins (ILs) on expression of CD203c on blood basophils using an antibody against CD203c and flow cytometry. Of all cytokines tested, only IL-3 was found to upregulate expression of CD203c on basophils above baseline levels. The effects of IL-3 were dose- and time-dependent (EC(50): 0.1-1 ng/ml) without differences observed between healthy and allergic donors. Whereas anti-IgE induced maximum upregulation of CD203c within 15 minutes, the IL-3-induced upregulation showed a maximum after 180 minutes. IgE-receptor cross-linking resulted in enhanced expression of both CD63 and CD203c, whereas IL-3 enhanced the levels of CD203c without promoting expression of CD63. The IL-3-induced upregulation of CD203c was also observed in highly enriched basophils and was counteracted by a blocking antibody against the alpha chain of the IL-3 receptor (CD123). The IL-3-induced upregulation of CD203c was also found to depend on the presence of calcium. To analyze signaling pathways involved in IL-3-induced upregulation of CD203c, pharmacologic inhibitors were applied. The PI3-kinase inhibitors, wortmannin and LY294002 counteracted the IL-3-induced expression of CD203c, whereas MEK- and PKC inhibitors showed no effects. In conclusion, IL-3 upregulates expression of CD203c on basophils through a specific receptor and via a PI3-kinase-dependent signaling-pathway. Compared to FcepsilonRI-mediated cell activation, IL-3-induced upregulation of CD203c is a late(r) event and is not accompanied by upregulation of CD63.
    International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology 01/2007; 20(2):267-78. · 2.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with mastocytosis may suffer from severe hypotension after wasp or bee stings. In these patients, no specific IgE is detectable, but they usually have skin lesions and an elevated serum tryptase level. We report on 6 patients who were referred to our department because of severe hypotension following bee or wasp stings without cutaneous lesions. In 3 patients, the baseline serum tryptase level was elevated (26, 36, and 67 ng/ml, respectively), and investigation of their bone marrow revealed systemic mastocytosis (SM). In the remaining 3 patients, serum tryptase levels were <20 ng/ml, and bone marrow histology and tryptase immunohistochemistry did not reveal diagnostic mast cell infiltrates. However, in 1 patient, three minor SM criteria were demonstrable leading to the diagnosis SM, and in the 2nd patient, two minor SM criteria, including an aberrant mast cell phenotype, were found. In the 3rd patient, no minor SM criteria were detected. All patients with unexplained hypotension after hymenoptera stings should undergo a thorough investigation for major and minor SM criteria regardless of the tryptase level or presence of skin lesions, in order to diagnose or exclude SM or a related subdiagnostic condition (1 or 2 minor SM criteria) tentatively termed monoclonal mast cell activation syndrome.
    International Archives of Allergy and Immunology 01/2007; 142(2):158-64. · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Basophil numbers are typically elevated in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and increase during disease progression. Histamine is an essential mediator and marker of basophils and is highly up-regulated in CML. We examined the biochemical basis of histamine synthesis in CML cells. The CML-specific oncoprotein BCR/ABL was found to promote expression of histidine decarboxylase (HDC) and synthesis of histamine in Ba/F3 cells. Moreover, the BCR/ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors imatinib (STI571) and nilotinib (AMN107) decreased histamine levels and HDC mRNA expression in BCR/ABL-transformed Ba/F3 cells, in the CML-derived basophil cell line KU812, and in primary CML cells. Synthesis of histamine was found to be restricted to the basophil compartment of the CML clone and to depend on signaling through the PI3-kinase pathway. CML cells also expressed histamine receptors (HRs), including HR-1, HR-2, HR-4, and histamine-binding CYP450 isoenzymes which also serve as targets of HR antagonists. The HR-1 antagonists loratadine and terfenadine, which bind to CYP450, were found to counteract proliferation of CML cells, whereas no growth inhibition was observed with the HR-1 antagonist fexofenadine which is not targeted or metabolized by CYP450. Moreover, DPPE, an inhibitor of histamine-binding CYP450 isoenzymes, produced growth inhibition in CML cells. Together, these data show that BCR/ABL promotes histamine production in CML cells and that certain HR-targeting drugs exert antileukemic effects on CML cells.
    Blood 12/2006; 108(10):3538-47. · 9.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Basophils (BA) and mast cells (MC) are important effector cells in allergic reactions. Development, growth and effector cell functions are regulated by a network of cytokines, other ligands, and respective cell surface antigens. We examined the expression of novel CD antigens on human BA, lung MC, the BA cell line KU-812, and the MC line HMC-1. Expression of surface antigens was analyzed by monoclonal antibodies (mAb) of the HLDA8 workshop and flow cytometry. Basophils were found to stain positive for CXCR1 (CD181), CCR1 (CD191), CCR2 (CD192), CCR7 (CD197), IL-18Ralpha (CDw218a), IL-18Rbeta (CDw218b), TRAIL-R1 (CD261), TRAIL-R2 (CD262), TACI (CD267), TLR-4 (CD284), LAIR1 (CD305), EMR-2 (CD312), JAM1 (CD321), and JAM2 (CD322). Lung MC were found to react with mAb against EMR-2 (CD312) and JAM1 (CD321). KU-812 cells were found to stain positive for CXCR1 (CD181), TRAIL-R2 (CD262), B7H2 (CD275), TLR-4 (CD284), JAM1 (CD321), and E-Cadherin (CD324). HMC-1 cells were recognized by mAb against TRAIL-R2 (CD262), B7H2 (CD275), LAIR1 (CD305), EMR-2 (CD312), JAM1 (CD321), and Siglec-6 (CDw327). Extensive phenotyping with antibodies against novel CD antigens provides further evidence that BA and MC represent two separate hematopoietic cell lineages with unique phenotypic properties observed in mature cells as well as malignant immature cells. Further studies are required to define the functional role of these CD antigens expressed in BA and MC.
    Allergy 10/2006; 61(9):1054-62. · 5.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A number of autocrine and paracrine growth regulators are considered to be involved in the survival and proliferation of blast cells in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We have recently shown that blast cells in a group of patients with AML produce and secrete the mitogenic enzyme tryptase. In the present study, we examined functional effects of tryptase in the context of AML. As assessed by 3H-thymidine uptake experiments, tryptase-containing serum from patients with AML as well as heparin-complexed recombinant tryptase were found to promote the proliferation of cultured bone marrow- and lung fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner. A neutralizing antibody against human beta-tryptase was found to diminish these growth-stimulatory effects of serum-tryptase in all patients examined. Tryptase also induced the expression of mRNA for GM-CSF and SCF, two cytokines known to promote growth of AML cells, in cultured bone marrow fibroblasts. Neither recombinant tryptase nor tryptase-rich serum of AML patients, showed an effect on the growth of leukemic blast cells irrespective of the FAB category or expression of protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2, a putative molecular target of tryptase. Together, tryptase is secreted from AML blasts as a biologically active molecule that may exhibit paracrine rather than autocrine effects in AML.
    Leukemia and Lymphoma 06/2006; 47(5):897-906. · 2.30 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

926 Citations
171.04 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2010
    • Medical University of Vienna
      • • Universitätsklinik für Innere Medizin I
      • • Institut für Sozialmedizin
      Vienna, Vienna, Austria
  • 2009
    • Vienna General Hospital
      Wien, Vienna, Austria
  • 2007
    • University of Veterinary Medicine in Vienna
      • Department for Companion Animals and Horses
      Vienna, Vienna, Austria