[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Members of the secreted phospholipase A2 (PLA2) protein family can inhibit HIV-1 virus replication in vitro. To evaluate the impact of PLA2 gene polymorphisms on AIDS disease development, we studied 12 family members using SNPlextrade mark technology that permitted simultaneous typing of 70 tagging Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (tagSNPs). The study utilized HIV-1 seropositive donors with slow progressor (n=168) or rapid progressor (n=54) status, plus 355 control subjects. All donors were Caucasian (total 577 individuals). Genetic associations yielded mainly 0.01<p<0.05, but lower p-values were obtained for four tagSNPs and seven haplotype alleles. These stronger associations corresponded to both secreted (PLA2G2A, PLA2G2D and PLA2G3) and cytosolic (PLA2G4A and PLA2G6) PLA2 genes, including three (PLA2G2A, PLA2G2D and PLA2G4A) implicated in the pathogenesis of other diseases. Our results suggest that the PLA2 gene family may represent genes of interest for a larger study targeting all the known tagSNPs in the PLA2 genes. The data presented in this study will have to be confirmed in other AIDS cohorts and will also be useful for studies undertaken on the PLA2 gene family in other disease cohorts.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemokines and their receptors are key factors in the onset and progression of AIDS. Among them, accumulating evidence strongly indicates the involvement of IL-8 and its receptors, CXCR1 and CXCR2, in AIDS-related conditions. Through extensive investigation of genetic variations of the human CXCR1-CXCR2 locus, we identified a haplotype of the CXCR1 gene (CXCR1-Ha) carrying two nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms, CXCR1_300 (Met to Arg) in the N terminus extracellular domain and CXCR1_142 (Arg to Cys) in the C terminus intracellular domain. Transfection experiments with CXCR1 cDNAs corresponding to the CXCR1-Ha and the alternative CXCR1-HA haplotype showed reduced expression of CD4 and CXCR4 in CXCR1-Ha cells in human osteosarcoma cells as well as in Jurkat and CEM human T lymphocytes. Furthermore, the efficiency of X4-tropic HIV-1(NL4-3) infection was significantly lower in CXCR1-Ha cells than in CXCR1-HA cells. The results were further confirmed by a series of experiments using six HIV-1 clinical isolates from AIDS patients. A genetic association study was performed by using an HIV-1(+) patient cohort consisting of two subpopulations of AIDS with extreme phenotypes of rapid and slow progression of the disease. The frequency of the CXCR1-Ha allele is markedly less frequent in patients with rapid disease onset than those with slow progression (P = 0.0003). These results provide strong evidence of a protective role of the CXCR1-Ha allele on disease progression in AIDS, probably acting through modulation of CD4 and CXCR4 expression.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2007; 104(9):3354-9. DOI:10.1073/pnas.0611670104 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin (IL)-1 family members are key players in inflammatory processes but have been the subject of few studies of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). To better evaluate the impact of the IL-1 family on AIDS development, we genotyped the IL1 alpha , IL1 beta , IL1Ra, and IL1R1 genes in 245 slow progressor (SP) and 82 rapid progressor (RP) human immunodeficiency virus type 1-seropositive patients as well as in 446 control subjects, all of whom were of white ethnicity. One hundred sixteen frequent polymorphisms were identified, of which 23 were newly characterized by our study. Many putative associations were found between single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) or haplotype alleles and the extreme profiles of progression. Most of them corresponded to weak associations (.01<P<.05); however, the SNP IL1Ra_2134 exhibited a consistent association, found at the level of the SNP, haplotypes, and haploblocks, when the SP and control populations were compared (P=.0002). The IL-1-dependent inflammatory response is, thus, likely to play a role in AIDS progression via the regulation of IL-1Ra expression. This association will need to be confirmed in other AIDS cohorts, and experiments will also have to be performed to unravel the biological mechanisms at work. The data presented here will be useful for future genomic studies of the IL-1 family members in other infectious and chronic inflammatory diseases.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 12/2006; 194(11):1492-504. DOI:10.1086/508545 · 6.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have undertaken a systematic genomic approach in order to explore the role of the interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) pathway in AIDS disease development. As it is very difficult to genotype the IFN-alpha gene itself since it has many pseudo-genes, we have focused our interest on the genetic polymorphisms of the IFN-alpha receptor 1 (IFNAR1). We genotyped the Genetics of Resistance to Immunodeficiency Virus (GRIV) cohort composed of patients with extreme profiles of progression to AIDS, slow progressors (SP) and rapid progressors (RP), as well as seronegative controls (CTR). We identified 19 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with a minor allele frequency (MAF) greater than 1% among which two were newly characterized by our study. We found putative associations with AIDS disease development for four SNP alleles and for three haplotypes. The most interesting signals were found for two SNPs in linkage disequilibrium, the SNP IFNAR1_18339 corresponding to a Val168Leu mutation in the extracellular domain of the protein and the intronic SNP, IFNAR1_30127. The intronic SNP IFNAR1_30127 yielded a strong signal both when comparing SP with CTR (P=0.002) and RP with CTR (P=0.005) while IFNAR1_18339 yielded a smaller signal because less patients were analyzed; these SNPs could thus be involved in AIDS progression or in susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection. Interestingly, two independent studies have previously pointed out the SNP IFNAR1_18339 in susceptibility to multiple sclerosis and to malaria. This is the first work investigating the polymorphisms of the IFNAR1 gene in AIDS. Our results which point out a possible role for the IFN-alpha pathway in susceptibility to HIV-1 infection or progression to AIDS need a necessary confirmation by genomic studies in other AIDS cohorts.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have performed an extensive analysis of Th1/Th2 cytokine receptors IL2Ralpha, IL4Ralpha, IL10Ralpha, and IFNgammaR1 gene polymorphisms to evaluate their impact on AIDS progression. The coding regions and promoters of these genes were sequenced in the genetics of resistance to immunodeficiency virus cohort, composed of 327 HIV-1-positive patients with extreme progression phenotypes, slow and rapid progressors, and of 446 healthy control subjects, all of them of Caucasian descent. Overall, 104 single nucleotide polymorphisms and four insertions/deletions with a minor allelic frequency higher than 1% were identified, 21 of them being newly characterized. We observed weak associations for 13 polymorphisms of IL2Ralpha, IL4Ralpha, IL10Ralpha, and IFNgammaR1, and 11 haplotypes of IL2Ralpha, IL4Ralpha, and IFNgammaR1. However, we could not relate these positive signals to any relevant biological information on the gene function. To affirm these putative associations in AIDS, further confirmation on other AIDS cohorts will be needed. This complete catalog of polymorphisms in IL2Ralpha, IL4Ralpha, IL10Ralpha, and IFNgammaR1 cytokine receptor genes should also be useful for investigating associations in other immune-related diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Large-scale genomic studies in cohorts have been made possible for the last few years thanks to the progress of molecular biology and bioinformatics. This systematic approach allows a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of disease development and as a consequence can contribute to the rational design of new diagnostic and therapeutic tools. We present here the exhaustive genotyping of a candidate gene, tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1), in the genetic of resistance to immunodeficiency virus (GRIV) AIDS cohort. This gene was chosen because it is likely to be involved in the apoptosis pathways of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells during human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection. Seven frequent polymorphisms were characterized in 319 HIV-1 seropositive patients from the GRIV cohort with extreme disease progression phenotypes, slow progression or rapid progression, and in 427 healthy controls. The TNFR1 gene locus does not appear to be part of any haploblock and contains only a small haploblock of two successive SNPs. One promoter SNP (TNFR1_17444594, position -581) and one intronic SNP (TNFR1_27223241, position +11511) gave weak positive signals of association (resp. P=0.03 and P=0.04) as well as two haplotypes. To our knowledge, this is the first genetic association study dealing with the TNFR1 gene in AIDS and the putative associations identified will need to be validated through other AIDS cohort analyses or by further biological experimentation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CEM15 (or APOBEC3G) has recently been identified as an inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in vitro. To evaluate the impact of its genetic variations on the progression of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), we have performed an extensive genetic analysis of CEM15. We have sequenced CEM15 in a cohort of 327 HIV-1-seropositive patients with extreme disease progression phenotypes--either slow progression or rapid progression--and in 446 healthy control subjects, all of white descent. We have identified 29 polymorphisms with allele frequencies >1%, 14 of which were newly characterized. There were no significant associations between the polymorphisms or haplotypes of CEM15 and a disease progression phenotype in our cohort.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 02/2005; 191(2):159-63. DOI:10.1086/426826 · 6.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apoptosis has been suggested as a major mechanism for the CD4(+) T-lymphocyte depletion observed in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1). To evaluate the impact of genetic variations to apoptosis during progression of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), we have performed an extensive genetic analysis of Fas and Fas ligand ( FasL) genes. The coding regions and promoters of these genes were resequenced in a cohort of 212 HIV-1-seropositive patients presenting extreme disease phenotypes and 155 healthy controls of Caucasian origin. Overall, 33 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with an allele frequency >1% were identified and evaluated for their association with disease progression. Among them, 14 polymorphisms were newly characterized. We did not find any statistically significant association of Fas and FasL polymorphisms and haplotypes with AIDS progression.