[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the past twenty years, shear-banding flows have been probed by various
techniques, such as rheometry, velocimetry and flow birefringence. In micellar
solutions, many of the data collected exhibit unexplained spatio-temporal
fluctuations. Recently, it has been suggested that those fluctuations originate
from a purely elastic instability of the flow. In cylindrical Couette geometry,
the instability is reminiscent of the Taylor-like instability observed in
viscoelastic polymer solutions. In this letter, we describe how the criterion
for purely elastic Taylor-Couette instability should be adapted to
shear-banding flows. We derive three categories of shear-banding flows with
curved streamlines, depending on their stability.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Shear-banding is a curious but ubiquitous phenomenon occurring in soft
matter. The phenomenological similarities between the shear-banding transition
and phase transitions has pushed some researchers to adopt a 'thermodynamical'
approach, in opposition to the more classical 'mechanical' approach to fluid
flows. In this heuristic review, we describe why the apparent dichotomy between
those approaches has slowly faded away over the years. To support our
discussion, we give an overview of different interpretations of a single
equation, the diffusive Johnson-Segalman (dJS) equation, in the context of
shear-banding. We restrict ourselves to dJS, but we show that the equation can
be written in various equivalent forms usually associated with opposite
approaches. We first review briefly the origin of the dJS model and its initial
rheological interpretation in the context of shear-banding. Then we describe
the analogy between dJS and reaction-diffusion equations. In the case of
anisotropic diffusion, we show how the dJS governing equations for steady shear
flow are analogous to the equations of the dynamics of a particle in a quartic
potential. Going beyond the existing literature, we then draw on the Lagrangian
formalism to describe how the boundary conditions can have a key impact on the
banding state. Finally, we reinterpret the dJS equation again and we show that
a rigorous effective free energy can be constructed, in the spirit of early
thermodynamic interpretations or in terms of more recent approaches exploiting
the language of irreversible thermodynamics.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We study the dynamics of the Taylor-Couette flow of shear banding wormlike micelles. We focus on the high shear rate branch of the flow curve and show that for sufficiently high Weissenberg numbers, this branch becomes unstable. This instability is strongly subcritical and is associated with a shear stress jump. We find that this increase of the flow resistance is related to the nucleation of turbulence. The flow pattern shows similarities with the elastic turbulence, so far only observed for polymer solutions. The unstable character of this branch led us to propose a scenario that could account for the recent observations of Taylor-like vortices during the shear banding flow of wormlike micelles.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using flow visualizations in Couette geometry, we demonstrate the existence of Taylor-like vortices in the shear-banding flow of a giant micelles system. We show that vortices stacked along the vorticity direction develop concomitantly with interfacial undulations. These cellular structures are mainly localized in the induced band and their dynamics is fully correlated with that of the interface. As the control parameter increases, we observe a transition from a steady vortex flow to a state where pairs of vortices are continuously created and destroyed. Normal stress effects are discussed as potential mechanisms driving the three-dimensional flow.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Considering a gas of self-propelled particles with binary interactions, we derive the hydrodynamic equations governing the density and velocity fields from the microscopic dynamics, in the framework of the associated Boltzmann equation. Explicit expressions for the transport coefficients are given, as a function of the microscopic parameters of the model. We show that the homogeneous state with zero hydrodynamic velocity is unstable above a critical density (which depends on the microscopic parameters), signaling the onset of a collective motion. Comparison with numerical simulations on a standard model of self-propelled particles shows that the phase diagram we obtain is robust, in the sense that it depends only slightly on the precise definition of the model. While the homogeneous flow is found to be stable far from the transition line, it becomes unstable with respect to finite-wavelength perturbations close to the transition, implying a non trivial spatio-temporal structure for the resulting flow. We find solitary wave solutions of the hydrodynamic equations, quite similar to the stripes reported in direct numerical simulations of self-propelled particles. Comment: 33 pages, 11 figures, submitted to J. Phys. A
Journal of Physics A Mathematical and Theoretical 07/2009; · 1.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on a non trivial dynamics of the interface between shear bands following a start-up of flow in a semi-dilute wormlike micellar system investigated using a combination of mechanical and optical measurements. During the building of the banding structure, we observed the stages of formation, migration of the interface between bands and finally the destabilization of this interface along the vorticity axis. The mechanical signature of these processes has been indentified in the time series of the shear stress. The interface instability occurs all along the stress plateau, the asymptotic wavelength of the patterns increasing with the control parameter typically from a fraction of the gap width to about four times the gap width. Three main regimes of dynamics are highlighted : a spatially stable oscillating mode approximately at the middle of the coexistence region flanked by two ranges where the dynamics appears more exotic with propagative and chaotic events respectively at low and high shear rates. The distribution of small particles seeded in the solution strongly suggests that the flow is three-dimensional. Finally, we demonstrate that the shear-banding scenario described in this paper is not specific to our system.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present a comprehensive study of Vicsek-style self-propelled particle models in two and three space dimensions. The onset of collective motion in such stochastic models with only local alignment interactions is studied in detail and shown to be discontinuous (first-order-like). The properties of the ordered, collectively moving phase are investigated. In a large domain of parameter space including the transition region, well-defined high-density and high-order propagating solitary structures are shown to dominate the dynamics. Far enough from the transition region, on the other hand, these objects are not present. A statistically homogeneous ordered phase is then observed, which is characterized by anomalously strong density fluctuations, superdiffusion, and strong intermittency.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We study analytically the emergence of spontaneous collective motion within large bidimensional groups of self-propelled particles with noisy local interactions, a schematic model for assemblies of biological organisms. As a central result, we derive from the individual dynamics the hydrodynamic equations for the density and velocity fields, thus giving a microscopic foundation to the phenomenological equations used in previous approaches. A homogeneous spontaneous motion emerges below a transition line in the noise-density plane. Yet, this state is shown to be unstable against spatial perturbations, suggesting that more complicated structures should eventually appear.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We study the onset of collective motion, with and without cohesion, of groups of noisy self-propelled particles interacting locally. We find that this phase transition, in two space dimensions, is always discontinuous, including for the minimal model of Vicsek et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1226 (1995)]] for which a nontrivial critical point was previously advocated. We also show that cohesion is always lost near onset, as a result of the interplay of density, velocity, and shape fluctuations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A microscopic, stochastic, minimal model for collective and cohesive motion of identical self-propelled particles is introduced. Even though the particles interact strictly locally in a very noisy manner, we show that cohesion can be maintained, even in the zero-density limit of an arbitrarily large flock in an infinite space. The phase diagram spanned by the two main parameters of our model, which encode the tendencies for particles to align and to stay together, contains non-moving “gas”, “liquid” and “solid” phases separated from their moving counterparts by the onset of collective motion. The “gas/liquid” and “liquid/solid” are shown to be first-order phase transitions in all cases. In the cohesive phases, we study also the diffusive properties of individuals and their relation to the macroscopic motion and to the shape of the flock.
Physica D Nonlinear Phenomena 07/2003; · 1.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The reverse transition from turbulent to laminar flow is studied in very large aspect ratio plane Couette and Taylor–Couette experiments. We show that laminar-turbulence coexistence dynamics (turbulent spots, spiral turbulence, etc.) can be seen as the ultimate stage of a modulation of the turbulent flows present at higher Reynolds number leading to regular, long-wavelength, inclined stripes. This new type of instability, whose originality is to arise within a macroscopically fluctuating state, can be described in the framework of Ginzburg–Landau equations to which noise is heuristically added to take into account the intrinsic fluctuations of the basic state.
Physica D Nonlinear Phenomena 01/2003; 174:100-113. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We show that turbulent "spirals" and "spots" observed in Taylor-Couette and plane Couette flow correspond to a turbulence-intensity modulated finite-wavelength pattern which in every respect fits the phenomenology of coupled noisy Ginzburg-Landau (amplitude) equations with noise. This suggests the existence of a long-wavelength instability of the homogeneous turbulence regime.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A simple model for the motion of passive particles in a bath of active, self-propelled ones is introduced. It is argued that this approach provides the correct framework within which to cast the recent experimental results obtained by Wu and Libchaber [Phys Rev. Lett. 84, 3017 (2000)] for the diffusive properties of polystyrene beads displaced by bacteria suspended in a two-dimensional fluid film. Our results suggest that superdiffusive behavior should indeed be generically observed in the transition region marking the onset of collective motion.