L L Dugan

University of California, San Diego, San Diego, California, United States

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Publications (72)398.31 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objective: We evaluated the efficacy of the potent antioxidant C3 to salvage nigrostriatal neuronal function after MPTP exposure in nonhuman primates. C3 is a first-in-class functionalized water-soluble fullerene which reduces oxygen radical species associated with neurodegeneration in in vitro studies. However, C3 has not been evaluated as a neuroprotective agent in a Parkinson model in vivo. Methods: Macaque fascicularis monkeys were used in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study design. MPTP-lesioned primates were given systemic C3 (n = 8) or placebo (n = 7) for two months starting one week after MPTP. Outcomes included in vivo behavioral measures of motor parkinsonism using a validated non-human primate rating scale, kinematic analyses of peak upper extremity velocity, PET imaging of 6-[18F]fluorodopa (FD, reflects dopa decarboxylase) and [11C]dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ; reflects vesicular monoamine transporter type 2), as well as ex vivo quantification of striatal dopamine (DA) and stereologic counts of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunostained neurons in substantia nigra. Results: After two months, C3 treated monkeys had significantly improved parkinsonian motor ratings, greater striatal FD and DTBZ uptake, and higher striatal dopamine levels. None of the C3 treated animals developed any toxicity. Interpretation: Systemic treatment with C3 reduced striatal injury and improved motor function despite administration after the MPTP injury process had begun. These data strongly support further development of C3 as a promising therapeutic agent for PD. ANN NEUROL 2014. © 2014 American Neurological Association
    Annals of Neurology 07/2014; · 11.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide range of human disease states and drug toxicities, but development of imaging tools to study ROS biology in vivo remains a challenge. Here we synthesized and validated a novel PET tracer () and its (18)F radiolabeled version [(18)F] to allow PET (positron emission tomography) imaging of superoxide in vivo. Initial analysis of ROS reaction kinetics found that compound was rapidly and selectively oxidized by superoxide, but not other ROS. Cell culture studies in EMT6 cells exposed to the cancer chemotherapeutic agent Doxorubicin (DOX), which activates the superoxide-generating enzyme, NADPH oxidase, showed that compound was a sensitive and specific probe for superoxide in cells. The microPET imaging of heart in mice with DOX-induced cardiac inflammation observed 2-fold greater oxidation of [(18)F] in the DOX-treated mice compared to controls (p = 0.02), the results were confirmed by distribution studies on organs subsequently removed from the mice and HPLC analysis of [(18)F] radioactivity compounds. These data indicate that compound is a useful PET tracer to imaging ROS in vivo.
    Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry 05/2014; · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetic microvascular complications have been considered to be mediated by a glucose-driven increase in mitochondrial superoxide anion production. Here, we report that superoxide production was reduced in the kidneys of a steptozotocin-induced mouse model of type 1 diabetes, as assessed by in vivo real-time transcutaneous fluorescence, confocal microscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance analysis. Reduction of mitochondrial biogenesis and phosphorylation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) were observed in kidneys from diabetic mice. These observations were consistent with an overall reduction of mitochondrial glucose oxidation. Activity of AMPK, the major energy-sensing enzyme, was reduced in kidneys from both diabetic mice and humans. Mitochondrial biogenesis, PDH activity, and mitochondrial complex activity were rescued by treatment with the AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR). AICAR treatment induced superoxide production and was linked with glomerular matrix and albuminuria reduction in the diabetic kidney. Furthermore, diabetic heterozygous superoxide dismutase 2 (Sod2+/-) mice had no evidence of increased renal disease, and Ampka2-/- mice had increased albuminuria that was not reduced with AICAR treatment. Reduction of mitochondrial superoxide production with rotenone was sufficient to reduce AMPK phosphorylation in mouse kidneys. Taken together, these results demonstrate that diabetic kidneys have reduced superoxide and mitochondrial biogenesis and activation of AMPK enhances superoxide production and mitochondrial function while reducing disease activity.
    The Journal of clinical investigation 10/2013; · 15.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative condition characterized by severe neuronal loss in the cortex and striatum that leads to motor and behavioral deficits. Excitotoxicity is thought to be involved in HD and several studies have indicated that NMDA receptor (NMDAR) overactivation can play a role in the selective neuronal loss found in HD. Interestingly, a small subset of striatal neurons (less than 1% of the overall population) is found to be spared in post-mortem HD brains. These neurons are medium-sized aspiny interneurons that highly express the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Intriguingly, neurons expressing large amounts of nNOS [hereafter indicated as nNOS(+) neurons] show reduced vulnerability to NMDAR-mediated excitotoxicity. Mechanisms underlying this reduced vulnerability are still largely unknown and may shed some light on pathogenic mechanisms involved in HD. One untested possibility is that nNOS(+) neurons possess fewer or less functioning NMDARs. Employing single cell calcium imaging we challenged this hypothesis and found that cultured striatal nNOS(+) neurons show NMDAR-evoked responses that are identical to the ones observed in the overall population of neurons that express lower levels of nNOS [nNOS(-) neurons]. NMDAR-dependent deregulation of intraneuronal Ca(2+) is known to generate high levels of reactive oxygen species of mitochondrial origin (mt-ROS), a crucial step in the excitotoxic cascade. With confocal imaging and dihydrorhodamine (DHR; a ROS-sensitive probe) we compared mt-ROS levels generated by NMDAR activation in nNOS(+) and (-) cultured striatal neurons. DHR experiments revealed that nNOS(+) neurons failed to produce significant amounts of mt-ROS in response to NMDA exposure, thereby providing a potential mechanism for their reduced vulnerability to excitotoxicity and decreased vulnerability in HD.
    Frontiers in Physiology 01/2013; 4:112.
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    ABSTRACT: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Mitochondria act to connect genes and environment by regulating gene-encoded metabolic networks according to changes in the chemistry of the cell and its environment. Mitochondrial ATP and other metabolites are mitokines-signaling molecules made in mitochondria-that undergo regulated release from cells to communicate cellular health and danger to neighboring cells via purinergic signaling. The role of purinergic signaling has not yet been explored in autism spectrum disorders. We used the maternal immune activation (MIA) mouse model of gestational poly(IC) exposure and treatment with the non-selective purinergic antagonist suramin to test the role of purinergic signaling in C57BL/6J mice. We found that antipurinergic therapy (APT) corrected 16 multisystem abnormalities that defined the ASD-like phenotype in this model. These included correction of the core social deficits and sensorimotor coordination abnormalities, prevention of cerebellar Purkinje cell loss, correction of the ultrastructural synaptic dysmorphology, and correction of the hypothermia, metabolic, mitochondrial, P2Y2 and P2X7 purinergic receptor expression, and ERK1/2 and CAMKII signal transduction abnormalities. Hyperpurinergia is a fundamental and treatable feature of the multisystem abnormalities in the poly(IC) mouse model of autism spectrum disorders. Antipurinergic therapy provides a new tool for refining current concepts of pathogenesis in autism and related spectrum disorders, and represents a fresh path forward for new drug development.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(3):e57380. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • T. -S. Lin, L. L. Dugan, T. -Y. Luh
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    ABSTRACT: Carboxyfullerene is a class of water-soluble buckminsterfullerene with three malonic acids. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) experiments are performed to examine the capacity of carboxyfullerenes to scavenge reactive oxygen species, methyl radicals and peroxyl radicals. Three types of reactions are reported: (1) reactions of⋅OH and⋅O 2 − with carboxyfullerenes with 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide as the trapping agent, (2) reaction of⋅CH3 with scavenging agents, and (3) reactions of lipid alkyl/peroxyl radicals with carboxyfullerenes. The study enables one to evaluate the efficacy of carboxyfullerene as a free-radical scavenger and an antioxidatant.
    Applied Magnetic Resonance 05/2012; 18(3):321-331. · 0.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The currently accepted scheme for reactive oxygen species production during ischemia/reperfusion injury is characterized by a deleterious mitochondria-derived burst of radical generation during reperfusion; however, recent examination of the penumbra suggests a central role for NADPH-oxidase (Nox)-mediated radical generation during the ischemic period. Therefore, we utilized a novel in vitro model of the penumbra to examine the free radical profile of ischemic murine hippocampal neurons using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, and also the role of Nox in this generation and in cell fate. We report that free radical production increased ~75% at 2 h of ischemia, and this increase was abolished by: (1) scavenging of extracellular free radicals with superoxide dismutase (SOD), (2) a general anion channel antagonist, or (3) the Nox inhibitor apocynin. Similarly, at 24 h of ischemia, [ATP] decreased >95% and vital dye uptake increased 6-fold relative to controls; whereas apocynin, the Cl(-) channel antagonist 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoate (NPPB), or the free radical scavenger N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) each provided moderate neuroprotection, ameliorating 13-32% of [ATP]-depletion and 19-56% of vital dye uptake at 24 h. Our results support a cytotoxic role for Nox-mediated free radical production from penumbral neurons during the ischemic period.
    Brain research 03/2012; 1452:165-72. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Through long-term laboratory selection, we have generated a Drosophila melanogaster population that tolerates severe, normally lethal, level of hypoxia. This strain lives perpetually under severe hypoxic conditions (4% O(2)). In order to shed light on the mechanisms involved in this adaptation, we studied the respiratory function of isolated mitochondria from the thorax of hypoxia-adapted flies (AF) using polarographic oxygen consumption while monitoring superoxide generation by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques. AF mitochondria exhibited a significant 30% decrease in respiratory rate during state 3, while enhancing the resting respiratory rate during State 4-oligo by 220%. The activity of individual electron transport complexes I, II and III were 107%, 65%, and 120% in AF mitochondria as compared to those isolated from control flies. The sharp decrease in complex II activity and modest increase in complexes I and III resulted in >60% reduction in superoxide leakage from AF mitochondria during both NAD(+)-linked state 3 and State 4-oligo respirations. These results provide evidence that flies with mitochondria exhibiting decreased succinate dehydrogenase activity and reduced superoxide leakage give flies an advantage for survival in long-term hypoxia.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(5):e36801. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Superoxide is the single-electron reduction product of molecular oxygen generated by mitochondria and the innate immune enzyme complex, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (Nox), and its isoforms. Initially identified as critical to the host defense against infection, superoxide has recently emerged as an important signaling molecule and as a proposed mediator of central nervous system injury in stroke, neurodegenerative conditions, and aging itself. Complete understanding of superoxide in central nervous system disease has been hampered by lack of noninvasive imaging techniques to evaluate this highly reactive, short-lived molecule in vivo. Here we describe a novel optical imaging technique to monitor superoxide real time in intact animals using a fluorescent probe compound and fluorescence lifetime contrast-based unmixing. Specificity for superoxide was confirmed using validated mouse models with enhanced or attenuated brain superoxide production. Application of fluorescence lifetime unmixing removed autofluorescence, further enhanced sensitivity and specificity of the technique, permitted visualization of physiologically relevant levels of superoxide, and allowed superoxide in specific brain regions (e.g., hippocampus) to be mapped. Lifetime contrast-based unmixing permitted disease model-specific and brain region-specific differences in superoxide levels to be observed, suggesting this approach may provide valuable information on the role of mitochondrial and Nox-derived superoxide in both normal function and pathologic conditions in the central nervous system.
    Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism: official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 08/2011; 32(1):23-32. · 5.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Unregulated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a marker of cellular and organismal aging linked to cognitive decline in humans and rodents. The sources of elevated ROS contributing to cognitive decline are unknown. Because NADPH oxidase (Nox) inhibition may prevent memory decline with age, we hypothesized that Nox and not mitochondrial sources of synaptic ROS production are linked to individual variance in cognitive performance in aged mice. Young (8 months) and aged (26 months) mice were tested in the novel object recognition task (NORT). Mitochondrial and Nox ROS production was assayed in isolated synaptosomes using spin trapping electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Aged mice exhibited variance in NORT performance, with some performing similar to young mice while others exhibited poorer short-term memory. EPR studies indicated that Nox rather than mitochondria was the major ROS source at the synapse, and Nox-induced but not mitochondrial-induced ROS levels correlated with NORT performance in aged mice. Our findings support the hypothesis that variance in Nox-specific synaptic ROS production may predict short-term memory deficits with age.
    Brain research 11/2010; 1368:65-70. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Temperature (T) reduction increases lifespan, but the mechanisms are not understood. Because reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to aging, we hypothesized that lowering T might decrease mitochondrial ROS production. We measured respiratory response and ROS production in isolated mitochondria at 32, 35, and 37 °C. Lowering T decreased the rates of resting (state 4) and phosphorylating (state 3) respiration phases. Surprisingly, this respiratory slowdown was associated with an increase of ROS production and hydrogen peroxide release and with elevation of the mitochondrial membrane potential, ΔΨ(m). We also found that at lower T mitochondria produced more carbon-centered lipid radicals, a species known to activate uncoupling proteins. These data indicate that reduced mitochondrial ROS production is not one of the mechanisms mediating lifespan extension at lower T. They suggest instead that increased ROS leakage may mediate mitochondrial responses to hypothermia.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2010; 285(42):32522-8. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Breathing-disordered states, such as in obstructive sleep apnea, which are cyclical in nature, have been postulated to induce neurocognitive morbidity in both pediatric and adult populations. The oscillatory nature of intermittent hypoxia, especially when chronic, may mimic the paradigm of ischemia-reperfusion in that tissues and cells are exposed to episodes of low and high O(2) and this may lead to oxidant stress. Therefore, we decided to explore the potential contribution of oxidant stress in our intermittent hypoxia/hypercapnia animal model and the role that mitochondria might play in this stress. Neonatal mice were exposed to intermittent hypoxia/hypercapnia for 10 days and 2 wk. Combined intermittent hypoxia/hypercapnia led to a marked increase in apoptotic cell death in the cerebral cortex. Oxygen consumption studies in isolated mitochondria from intermittent hypoxia/hypercapnia-exposed brains demonstrated significant reductions in both state 4 and state 3 respiratory activities by approximately 60% and 75%, respectively. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy registered a significant increase in superoxide production during nonphosphorylating state 4 by 37%, although superoxide leakage during state 3 did not increase upon treatment. Neuronal superoxide-specific dihydroethidium oxidation was also greater in exposed animals. These studies indicate that intermittent hypoxia/hypercapnia leads to oxidative stress due to mitochondrial response within the mouse central nervous system.
    AJP Cell Physiology 03/2010; 298(6):C1594-602. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    David J. Hall, Sung-Ho Han, Laura Dugan
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    ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are believed to be involved in many diseases and injuries to the brain, but the molecular processes are not well understood due to a lack of in vivo imaging techniques to evaluate ROS. The fluorescent oxidation products of dihydroethidium (DHE) can monitor ROS production in vivo. Here we demonstrate the novel optical imaging of brain in live mice to measure ROS production via generation of fluorescent DHE oxidation products (ox-DHE) by ROS. We show that in Sod2+/- mice, which have partial loss of a key antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase-2, that ox-DHE fluorescence intensity was significantly higher than in hSOD1 mice, which have four-fold overexpression of superoxide dismutase-1 activity, which had almost no ox-DHE fluorescence, confirming specificity of ox-DHE to ROS production. The DHE oxidation products were also confirmed by detecting a characteristic fluorescence lifetime of the oxidation product, which was validated with ex vivo measurements.
    Proc SPIE 02/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple studies have shown that plasma levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) are elevated in patients with important and prevalent adverse health conditions, including atherosclerosis, diabetes, obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, hypertension, and frailty. Higher plasma levels of IL-6, in turn, increase the risk of many conditions associated with aging including age-related cognitive decline. However, the mechanisms underlying this association between IL-6 and cognitive vulnerability remain unclear. We investigated the role of IL-6 in brain aging in young (4 mo) and aged (24 mo) wild-type C57BL6 and genetically-matched IL-6(-/-) mice, and determined that IL-6 was necessary and sufficient for increased neuronal expression of the superoxide-producing immune enzyme, NADPH-oxidase, and this was mediated by non-canonical NFkappaB signaling. Furthermore, superoxide production by NADPH-oxidase was directly responsible for age-related loss of parvalbumin (PV)-expressing GABAergic interneurons, neurons essential for normal information processing, encoding, and retrieval in hippocampus and cortex. Targeted deletion of IL-6 or elimination of superoxide by chronic treatment with a superoxide-dismutase mimetic prevented age-related loss of PV-interneurons and reversed age-related cognitive deficits on three standard tests of spatial learning and recall. Present results indicate that IL-6 mediates age-related loss of critical PV-expressing GABAergic interneurons through increased neuronal NADPH-oxidase-derived superoxide production, and that rescue of these interneurons preserves cognitive performance in aging mice, suggesting that elevated peripheral IL-6 levels may be directly and mechanistically linked to long-lasting cognitive deficits in even normal older individuals. Further, because PV-interneurons are also selectively affected by commonly used anesthetic agents and drugs, our findings imply that IL-6 levels may predict adverse CNS effects in older patients exposed to these compounds through specific derangements in inhibitory interneurons, and that therapies directed at lowering IL-6 may have cognitive benefits clinically.
    PLoS ONE 02/2009; 4(5):e5518. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adult exposure to NMDA receptor antagonists, such as ketamine, produces psychosis in humans, and exacerbates symptoms in schizophrenic patients. We recently showed that ketamine activates the innate immune enzyme NADPH-oxidase in brain, and that the superoxide produced leads to dysfunction of a subset of fast-spiking inhibitory interneurons expressing the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin (PV). Here we show that neuronal production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) is necessary and sufficient for ketamine-mediated activation of NADPH-oxidase in brain. Removal of IL-6 in neuronal cultures by anti-IL-6 blocking antibodies, or in vivo by use of IL-6-deficient mice, prevented the increase in superoxide by ketamine and rescued the interneurons. Accumulating evidence suggests that schizophrenia patients suffer from diminished antioxidant defenses, and a recent clinical trial showed that enhancing these defenses may ameliorate symptoms of the disease. Our results showing that ketamine-induced IL-6 is responsible for the activation of NADPH-oxidase in brain suggest that reducing brain levels of this cytokine may protect the GABAergic phenotype of fast-spiking PV-interneurons and thus attenuate the propsychotic effects of ketamine.
    Journal of Neuroscience 01/2009; 28(51):13957-66. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (stroke) continues to be the third leading cause of death in the USA. Hypoxia in the absence of ischemia, such as that occurs in individuals with sleep apnea, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and a number of other conditions, also represents a major and growing health issue. A great deal has been learned about the processes that contribute to short-term damage and long-term dysfunction of the nervous system after hypoxia or ischemia, and the mechanisms that underlie vulnerability of the brain to hypoxic-ischemic injury. Oxidative stress, due to pathological changes in the homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reflecting abnormal production and/or impaired clearance of ROS, has been implicated as a key mechanism that contributes to tissue damage and functional deficits in hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. This chapter will briefly review prior literature on the sources and molecular targets of ROS in hypoxia-ischemia, and will focus on newer studies implicating inflammatory signaling and redox dysregulation in hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Keywordshypoxia-ischemia-brain injury, stroke-sleep apnea-reactive oxygen species-oxidative stress-mitochondria-NADPH oxidase-inflammation
    12/2008: pages 239-254;
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    Sameh Saad Ali, Joshua I Hardt, Laura L Dugan
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    ABSTRACT: Superoxide radical anion is a biologically important oxidant that has been linked to tissue injury and inflammation in several diseases. Here we carried out a structure-activity study on six different carboxyfullerene superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetics with distinct electronic and biophysical characteristics. Neurotoxicity via N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, which involves intracellular superoxide, was used as a model to evaluate structure-activity relationships between reactivity toward superoxide and neuronal rescue by these drugs. A significant correlation between neuroprotection by carboxyfullerenes and their ki toward superoxide radical was observed. Computer-assisted molecular modeling demonstrated that the reactivity toward superoxide is sensitive to changes in dipole moment, which are dictated not only by the number of carboxyl groups but also by their distribution on the fullerene ball. These results indicate that the SOD activity of these cell-permeable compounds predicts neuroprotection, and establishes a structure-activity relationship to aid in future studies on the biology of superoxide across disciplines.
    Nanomedicine: nanotechnology, biology, and medicine 12/2008; 4(4):283-94. · 6.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin E is the major lipid-soluble chain-breaking antioxidant in mammals and plays an important role in normal development and physiology. Deficiency (whether dietary or genetic) results in primarily nervous system pathology, including cerebellar neurodegeneration and progressive ataxia (abnormal gait). However, despite the widely acknowledged antioxidant properties of vitamin E, only a few studies have directly correlated levels of reactive oxygen species with vitamin E availability in animal models. We explored the relationship between vitamin E and reactive oxygen species in two mouse models of vitamin E deficiency: dietary deficiency and a genetic model (tocopherol transfer protein, Ttp-/- mice). Both groups of mice developed nearly complete depletion of alpha-tocopherol (the major tocopherol in vitamin E) in most organs, but not in the brain, which was relatively resistant to loss of alpha-tocopherol. F4-neuroprostanes, an index of lipid peroxidation, were unexpectedly lower in brains of deficient mice compared with controls. In vivo oxidation of dihydroethidium by superoxide radical was also significantly lower in brains of deficient animals. Superoxide production by brain mitochondria isolated from vitamin E-deficient and Ttp-/- mice, measured by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, demonstrated a biphasic dependence on exogenously added alpha-tocopherol. At low concentrations, alpha-tocopherol enhanced superoxide flux from mitochondria, a response that was reversed at higher concentrations. Here we propose a mechanism, supported by molecular modeling, to explain decreased superoxide production during alpha-tocopherol deficiency and speculate that this could be a beneficial response under conditions of alpha-tocopherol deficiency.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2008; 283(11):6915-24. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In lower organisms, such as Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila, many genes identified as key regulators of aging are involved in either detoxification of reactive oxygen species or the cellular response to oxidatively-damaged macromolecules. Transgenic mice have been generated to study these genes in mammalian aging, but have not in general exhibited the expected lifespan extension or beneficial behavioral effects, possibly reflecting compensatory changes during development. We administered a small-molecule synthetic enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic to wild-type (i.e. non-transgenic, non-senescence accelerated) mice starting at middle age. Chronic treatment not only reduced age-associated oxidative stress and mitochondrial radical production, but significantly extended lifespan. Treated mice also exhibited improved performance on the Morris water maze learning and memory task. This is to our knowledge the first demonstration that an administered antioxidant with mitochondrial activity and nervous system penetration not only increases lifespan, but rescues age-related cognitive impairment in mammals. SOD mimetics with such characteristics may provide unique complements to genetic strategies to study the contribution of oxidative processes to nervous system aging.
    Neurobiology of aging 02/2008; 29(1):117-28. · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Outside the nervous system, members of the mitochondrial uncoupling protein (UCP) family have been proposed to contribute to control of body temperature and energy metabolism, and regulation of mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the function of brain mitochondrial carrier protein 1 (BMCP1), which is highly expressed in brain, remains to be determined. To study BMCP1 expression and function in the nervous system, a high-affinity antibody to BMCP1 was generated and used to analyze tissue expression of BMCP1 protein in mouse. BMCP1 protein was highly expressed in heart and kidney, but not liver or lung. In the nervous system, BMCP1 was present in cortex, basal ganglia, substantia nigra, cerebellum, and spinal cord. Both BMCP1 mRNA and protein expression was almost exclusively neuronal. To study the effect of BMCP1 expression on mitochondrial function, neuronal (GT1-1) cell lines with stable overexpression of BMCP1 were generated. Transfected cells had higher State 4 respiration and lower mitochondrial membrane potential (ψm), consistent with greater mitochondrial uncoupling. BMCP1 expression also decreased mitochondrial production of ROS. These data suggest that BMCP1 can modify mitochondrial respiratory efficiency and mitochondrial oxidant production, and raise the possibility that BMCP1 might alter the vulnerability of brain to both acute injury and to neurodegenerative conditions.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 01/2008; 79(3):658-668. · 3.97 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
398.31 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2014
    • University of California, San Diego
      • • Department of Radiology
      • • Department of Medicine
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 1994–2012
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • • Department of Neurology
      • • Department of Medicine
      San Luis, Missouri, United States
  • 1994–2008
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Neurology
      Seattle, WA, United States
  • 1995
    • Stanford Medicine
      • Division of Endocrinology, Gerontology and Metabolism
      Stanford, California, United States
  • 1992–1995
    • Stanford University
      • • Department of Anesthesia
      • • Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences
      Palo Alto, CA, United States
  • 1986–1987
    • The Ohio State University
      • College of Medicine
      Columbus, Ohio, United States