Richard S Larson

University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States

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Publications (74)295.74 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: As new magnetic nanoparticle-based technologies are developed and new target cells are identified, there is a critical need to understand the features important for magnetic isolation of specific cells in fluids, an increasingly important tool in disease research and diagnosis. To investigate magnetic cell collection, cell-sized spherical microparticles, coated with superparamagnetic nanoparticles, were suspended in (1) glycerine–water solutions, chosen to approximate the range of viscosities of bone marrow, and (2) water in which 3, 5, 10 and 100% of the total suspended microspheres are coated with magnetic nanoparticles, to model collection of rare magnetic nanoparticle-coated cells from a mixture of cells in a fluid. The magnetic microspheres were collected on a magnetic needle, and we demonstrate that the collection efficiency versus time can be modeled using a simple, heuristically-derived function, with three physically-significant parameters. The function enables experimentally-obtained collection efficiencies to be scaled to extract the effective drag of the suspending medium. The results of this analysis demonstrate that the effective drag scales linearly with fluid viscosity, as expected. Surprisingly, increasing the number of non-magnetic microspheres in the suspending fluid results increases the collection of magnetic microspheres, corresponding to a decrease in the effective drag of the medium.
    Physics in Medicine and Biology 05/2014; 59(13):3319. · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), multidrug resistance is often mediated by ATPase Binding Cassette (ABC) proteins, which principally involve ABCB1 (multidrug resistance 1, MDR1) and ABCC1 (multidrug resistance protein 1, MRP1). However, direct comparisons between the differential effects of ABCB1 and ABCC1 have been difficult, since identical cell lines with differential expression of these transporters have not been developed. In this study, we developed and compared the biological profiles of Jurkat cell lines that selectively over-expressed ABCB1 and ABCC1. Vincristine (VCR) plays an important role in the treatment of T-lineage ALL (T-ALL), and is often the first drug given to newly-diagnosed patients. Because of its importance in treatment, we provided escalating, sub-lethal doses of VCR to Jurkat cells, and extended our observations to expression profiling of newly diagnosed patients with T-ALL. We found that VCR-resistant cells over-expressed ABCC1 nearly 30-fold. The calcein AM assay confirmed that VCR-resistant cells actively extruded VCR, and that ABCC1-mediated drug resistance conferred a different spectrum of multidrug resistance than other T-ALL induction agents. siRNA experiments that blocked ABCC1 export confirmed that VCR resistance could be reversed in vitro. Analyses of T-lymphoblasts obtained from 92 newly diagnosed T-ALL patients treated on Children's Oncology Group Phase III studies 8704/9404 showed that induction failure could be explained in all but one case by the over-expression of ABCB1 or ABCC1. Taken together, these results suggest that over-expression of ABC transporters plays a contributing role in mediating treatment failure in T-ALL, and underscore the need to employ alternate treatment approaches in patients for whom induction failed or for those with relapsed disease.
    Health 05/2013; 5(5A). · 2.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Disaster events can create situations in which blood donations can save lives. However, in emergency situations and when resources are depleted, on site blood donations require the rapid and accurate detection of blood borne pathogens, including the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2). Techniques such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and antibody capture by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for HIV-1 and HIV-2, are precise but time consuming and require sophisticated equipment that is not compatible with emergency point-of-care requirements. We describe here a prototype biosensor based on piezoelectric materials functionalized with specific antibodies against HIV-1 and HIV-2. We show the rapid and accurate detection of HIV-1 and HIV-2 in both simple and complex solutions, including human serum, and in the presence of cross-confounding virus. We report detection limits of 12 TCID50 for HIV-1 and 87 TCID50 for HIV-2. Accuracy, precision measurements, and the operation of the prototype biosensor showed a favorable comparison to nucleic acid amplification. We conclude that the biosensor has significant promise as a successful point-of-care diagnostic device for using in emergency field applications requiring rapid and reliable testing for blood borne pathogens.
    Journal of clinical microbiology 03/2013; · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ATP binding cassette (ABC)3 transmembrane efflux pumps such as P-glycoprotein (ABCB1), multidrug resistance protein 1 (ABCC1), and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) play an important role in anticancer drug resistance. A large number of structurally and functionally diverse compounds act as substrates or modulators of these pumps. In vitro assessment of the affinity of drug candidates for multidrug resistance proteins is central to predict in vivo pharmacokinetics and drug-drug interactions. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize new substrates for these transporters. As part of a collaborative project with Life Technologies™, 102 fluorescent probes were investigated in a flow cytometric screen of ABC transporters. The primary screen compared substrate efflux activity in parental cell lines to their corresponding highly expressing resistant counterparts. The fluorescent compound library included a range of excitation/emission profiles and required dual laser excitation as well as multiple fluorescence detection channels. A total of 31 substrates with active efflux in one or more pump, and practical fluorescence response ranges were identified and tested for interaction with 8 known inhibitors. This screening approach provides an efficient tool for identification and characterization of new fluorescent substrates for ABCB1, ABCC1, and ABCG2.
    Analytical Biochemistry 03/2013; · 2.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive leukemia with high relapse rates compared to B-lineage ALL. We previously showed that HMGA1a transgenic mice develop aggressive T-ALL, indicating that HMGA1 causes leukemic transformation in vivo. HMGA1 is also highly expressed in embryonic stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells, and diverse, refractory human cancers. Disruption of the CDKN2A tumor suppressor locus occurs in most cases of T-ALL and is thought to contribute to leukemic transformation. To determine if loss of function of CDKN2A cooperates with HMGA1 in T-ALL, we crossed HMGA1a transgenics onto a Cdkn2a null background. We discovered that T-ALL is markedly accelerated in HMGA1a transgenic Cdkn2a null mice. In addition, these mice recapitulate salient clinical and pathologic features of human T-ALL. HMGA1 is also highly overexpressed in human T-ALL. These findings suggest that HMGA1 plays a causative role in T-ALL and could represent a rational therapeutic target.
    Leukemia & lymphoma 01/2013; · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Organ transplantation is a life-saving procedure and the preferred method of treatment for a growing number of disease states. The advent of new immunosuppressants and improved care has led to great advances in both patient and graft survival. However, acute T-cell mediated graft rejection occurs in a significant quantity of recipients and remains a life threatening condition. Acute rejection is associated with decrease in long term graft survival, demonstrating a need to carefully monitor transplant patients. Current diagnostic criteria for transplant rejection rely on invasive tissue biopsies or relatively non-specific clinical features. A non-invasive way is needed to detect, localize and monitor transplant rejection. Capitalizing on advances in targeted contrast agents and magnetic-based detection technology, we developed anti-CD3 antibody-tagged nanoparticles. T cells were found to bind preferentially to antibody-tagged nanoparticles, as identified through light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and confocal microscopy. Using mouse skin graft models, we were also able to demonstrate in vivo vascular delivery of T-cell targeted nanoparticles. We conclude that targeting lymphocytes with magnetic nanoparticles is conducive to developing a novel, noninvasive strategy for identifying transplant rejection.
    Cell Transplantation 10/2012; · 4.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chemotherapeutics tumor resistance is a principal reason for treatment failure, and clinical and experimental data indicate that multidrug transporters such as ATP-binding cassette (ABC) B1 and ABCG2 play a leading role by preventing cytotoxic intracellular drug concentrations. Functional efflux inhibition of existing chemotherapeutics by these pumps continues to present a promising approach for treatment. A contributing factor to the failure of existing inhibitors in clinical applications is limited understanding of specific substrate/inhibitor/pump interactions. We have identified selective efflux inhibitors by profiling multiple ABC transporters against a library of small molecules to find molecular probes to further explore such interactions. In our primary screening protocol using JC-1 as a dual-pump fluorescent reporter substrate, we identified a piperazine-substituted pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine substructure with promise for selective efflux inhibition. As a result of a focused structure-activity relationship (SAR)-driven chemistry effort, we describe compound 1 (CID44640177), an efflux inhibitor with selectivity toward ABCG2 over ABCB1. Compound 1 is also shown to potentiate the activity of mitoxantrone in vitro as well as preliminarily in vivo in an ABCG2-overexpressing tumor model. At least two analogues significantly reduce tumor size in combination with the chemotherapeutic topotecan. To our knowledge, low nanomolar chemoreversal activity coupled with direct evidence of efflux inhibition for ABCG2 is unprecedented.
    Journal of Biomolecular Screening 08/2012; · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Magnetic relaxometry methods have been shown to be very sensitive in detecting cancer cells and other targeted diseases. Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) sensors are one of the primary sensor systems used in this methodology because of their high sensitivity with demonstrated capabilities of detecting fewer than 100,000 magnetically-labeled cancer cells. The emerging technology of atomic magnetometers (AM) represents a new detection method for magnetic relaxometry with high sensitivity and without the requirement for cryogens. We report here on a study of magnetic relaxometry using both AM and SQUID sensors to detect cancer cells that are coated with superparamagnetic nanoparticles through antibody targeting. The AM studies conform closely to SQUID sensor results in the measurement of the magnetic decay characteristics following a magnetization pulse. The AM and SQUID sensor data are well described theoretically for superparamagnetic particles bound to cells and the results can be used to determine the number of cells in a cell culture or tumor. The observed fields and magnetic moments of cancer cells are linear with the number of cells over a very large range. The AM sensor demonstrates very high sensitivity for detecting magnetically labeled cells does not require cryogenic cooling and is relatively inexpensive.
    Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 08/2012; 324(17):2613-2619. · 1.83 Impact Factor
  • Marco Bisoffi, Virginia Severns, Richard Larson
    Clinical and Translational Science 08/2012; 5(4):311-3. · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Both magnetic relaxometry and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to detect and locate targeted magnetic nanoparticles, noninvasively and without ionizing radiation. Magnetic relaxometry offers advantages in terms of its specificity (only nanoparticles are detected) and the linear dependence of the relaxometry signal on the number of nanoparticles present. In this study, detection of single-core iron oxide nanoparticles by superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID)-detected magnetic relaxometry and standard 4.7 T MRI are compared. The nanoparticles were conjugated to a Her2 monoclonal antibody and targeted to Her2-expressing MCF7/Her2-18 (breast cancer cells); binding of the nanoparticles to the cells was assessed by magnetic relaxometry and iron assay. The same nanoparticle-labeled cells, serially diluted, were used to assess the detection limits and MR relaxivities. The detection limit of magnetic relaxometry was 125 000 nanoparticle-labeled cells at 3 cm from the SQUID sensors. T(2)-weighted MRI yielded a detection limit of 15 600 cells in a 150 µl volume, with r(1) = 1.1 mm(-1) s(-1) and r(2) = 166 mm(-1) s(-1). Her2-targeted nanoparticles were directly injected into xenograft MCF7/Her2-18 tumors in nude mice, and magnetic relaxometry imaging and 4.7 T MRI were performed, enabling direct comparison of the two techniques. Co-registration of relaxometry images and MRI of mice resulted in good agreement. A method for obtaining accurate quantification of microgram quantities of iron in the tumors and liver by relaxometry was also demonstrated. These results demonstrate the potential of SQUID-detected magnetic relaxometry imaging for the specific detection of breast cancer and the monitoring of magnetic nanoparticle-based therapies.
    Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging 05/2012; 7(3):308-19. · 2.87 Impact Factor
  • Laurel O Sillerud, Richard S Larson
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    ABSTRACT: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques are widely used in the drug discovery process. The primary feature exploited in these investigations is the large difference in mass between drugs and receptors (usually proteins) and the effect this has on the rotational or translational correlation times for drugs bound to their targets. Many NMR parameters, such as the diffusion coefficient, spin diffusion, nuclear Overhauser enhancement, and transverse and longitudinal relaxation times, are strong functions of either the overall tumbling or translation of molecules in solution. This has led to the development of a wide variety of NMR techniques applicable to the elucidation of protein and nucleic acid structure in solution, the screening of drug candidates for binding to a target of choice, and the study of the conformational changes which occur in a target upon drug binding. High-throughput screening by NMR methods has recently received a boost from the introduction of sophisticated computational techniques for reducing the time needed for the acquisition of the primary NMR data for multidimensional studies.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2012; 910:195-266. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Breast cancer detection using mammography has improved clinical outcomes for many women, because mammography can detect very small (5 mm) tumors early in the course of the disease. However, mammography fails to detect 10 - 25% of tumors, and the results do not distinguish benign and malignant tumors. Reducing the false positive rate, even by a modest 10%, while improving the sensitivity, will lead to improved screening, and is a desirable and attainable goal. The emerging application of magnetic relaxometry, in particular using superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) sensors, is fast and potentially more specific than mammography because it is designed to detect tumor-targeted iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles. Furthermore, magnetic relaxometry is theoretically more specific than MRI detection, because only target-bound nanoparticles are detected. Our group is developing antibody-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles targeted to breast cancer cells that can be detected using magnetic relaxometry. To accomplish this, we identified a series of breast cancer cell lines expressing varying levels of the plasma membrane-expressed human epidermal growth factor-like receptor 2 (Her2) by flow cytometry. Anti-Her2 antibody was then conjugated to superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles using the carbodiimide method. Labeled nanoparticles were incubated with breast cancer cell lines and visualized by confocal microscopy, Prussian blue histochemistry, and magnetic relaxometry. We demonstrated a time- and antigen concentration-dependent increase in the number of antibody-conjugated nanoparticles bound to cells. Next, anti Her2-conjugated nanoparticles injected into highly Her2-expressing tumor xenograft explants yielded a significantly higher SQUID relaxometry signal relative to unconjugated nanoparticles. Finally, labeled cells introduced into breast phantoms were measured by magnetic relaxometry, and as few as 1 million labeled cells were detected at a distance of 4.5 cm using our early prototype system. These results suggest that the antibody-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles are promising reagents to apply to in vivo breast tumor cell detection, and that SQUID-detected magnetic relaxometry is a viable, rapid, and highly sensitive method for in vitro nanoparticle development and eventual in vivo tumor detection.
    Breast cancer research: BCR 11/2011; 13(5):R108. · 5.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ten years ago, we introduced a fluorescent probe that shed light on the inside-out regulation of one of the major leukocyte integrins, very late antigen-4 (VLA-4, CD49d/CD29). Here we describe the regulation of another leukocyte integrin, lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1, CD11a/CD18) using a novel small fluorescent probe in real time on live cells. We found that multiple signaling mechanisms regulate LFA-1 conformation in a manner analogous to VLA-4. LFA-1 can be rapidly activated by Gα(i)-coupled G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and deactivated by Gα(s)-coupled GPCRs. The effects of Gα(s)-coupled GPCR agonists can be reversed in real time by receptor-specific antagonists. The specificity of the fluorescent probe binding has been assessed in a competition assay using the natural LFA-1 ligand ICAM-1 and the LFA-1-specific α I allosteric antagonist BIRT0377. Similar to VLA-4 integrin, modulation of the ligand dissociation rate can be observed for different LFA-1 affinity states. However, we also found a striking difference in the binding of the small fluorescent ligand. In the absence of inside-out activation ligand, binding to LFA-1 is extremely slow, at least 10 times slower than expected for diffusion-limited binding. This implies that an additional structural mechanism prevents ligand binding to inactive LFA-1. We propose that such a mechanism explains the inability of LFA-1 to support cell rolling, where the absence of its rapid engagement by a counterstructure in the inactive state leads to a requirement for a selectin-mediated rolling step.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2011; 286(23):20375-86. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Academia and small business research units are poised to play an increasing role in drug discovery, with drug repurposing as one of the major areas of activity. Here we summarize project status for a number of drugs or classes of drugs: raltegravir, cyclobenzaprine, benzbromarone, mometasone furoate, astemizole, R-naproxen, ketorolac, tolfenamic acid, phenothiazines, methylergonovine maleate and beta-adrenergic receptor drugs, respectively. Based on this multi-year, multi-project experience we discuss strengths and weaknesses of academic-based drug repurposing research. Translational, target and disease foci are strategic advantages fostered by close proximity and frequent interactions between basic and clinical scientists, which often result in discovering new modes of action for approved drugs. On the other hand, lack of integration with pharmaceutical sciences and toxicology, lack of appropriate intellectual coverage and issues related to dosing and safety may lead to significant drawbacks. The development of a more streamlined regulatory process world-wide, and the development of pre-competitive knowledge transfer systems such as a global healthcare database focused on regulatory and scientific information for drugs world-wide, are among the ideas proposed to improve the process of academic drug discovery and repurposing, and to overcome the "valley of death" by bridging basic to clinical sciences.
    Drug Discovery Today Therapeutic Strategies 01/2011; 8(3-4):61-69.
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    ABSTRACT: Optimizing the sensitivity of SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) relaxometry for detecting cell-targeted magnetic nanoparticles for in vivo diagnostics requires nanoparticles with a narrow particle size distribution to ensure that the Néel relaxation times fall within the measurement timescale (50 ms-2 s, in this work). To determine the optimum particle size, single-core magnetite nanoparticles (with nominal average diameters 20, 25, 30 and 35 nm) were characterized by SQUID relaxometry, transmission electron microscopy, SQUID susceptometry, dynamic light scattering and zeta potential analysis. The SQUID relaxometry signal (detected magnetic moment/kg) from both the 25 nm and 30 nm particles was an improvement over previously studied multi-core particles. However, the detected moments were an order of magnitude lower than predicted based on a simple model that takes into account the measured size distributions (but neglects dipolar interactions and polydispersity of the anisotropy energy density), indicating that improved control of several different nanoparticle properties (size, shape and coating thickness) will be required to achieve the highest detection sensitivity. Antibody conjugation and cell incubation experiments show that single-core particles enable a higher detected moment per cell, but also demonstrate the need for improved surface treatments to mitigate aggregation and improve specificity.
    Physics in Medicine and Biology 10/2010; 55(19):5985-6003. · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hantaviruses use α(v)β(3) integrins on the surface of human host cells as a gateway to invasion, hence compounds that target this receptor may be used as antiviral agents. To accomplish this aim, new peptidomimetic compounds were selected based on similarity to a cyclic peptide known to bind the α(v)β(3) receptor. This first round of biological screening identified peptidomimetic molecules which were effective hantavirus inhibitors in the low micromolar range, two thousand times more potent than the original cyclic peptide. Pharmacophore models were built to broaden the structural diversity of the second set of compounds screened. Structure-activity relationships (SAR) were drawn from the entire dataset. Further characterization by dose-response studies revealed that three compounds had potency in the nanomolar range. Selectivity assays with a panel of hantaviruses supported the mechanism of inhibition by targeting the α(v)β(3) receptor, through the β(3) integrin.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 09/2010; 20(23):7085-91. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To identify children with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) at high risk of induction chemotherapy failure by using DNA copy number analysis of leukemic cells collected at diagnosis. Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was performed on genomic DNA extracted from diagnostic lymphoblasts from 47 children with T-ALL treated on Children's Oncology Group Study P9404 or Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Protocol 00-01. These samples represented nine patients who did not achieve an initial complete remission, 13 who relapsed, and 25 who became long-term, event-free survivors. The findings were confirmed in an independent cohort of patients by quantitative DNA polymerase chain reaction (DNA-PCR), an assay that is well suited for clinical application. Analysis of the CGH findings in patients in whom induction chemotherapy failed compared with those in whom induction chemotherapy was successful identified the absence of biallelic TCRgamma locus deletion (ABD), a characteristic of early thymocyte precursors before V(D)J recombination, as the most robust predictor of induction failure (P < .001). This feature was also associated with markedly inferior event-free (P = .002) and overall survival (P < .001) rates: 25% versus 58% and 25% versus 72%, respectively. Using a rapid and inexpensive quantitative DNA-PCR assay, we validated ABD as a predictor of a poor response to induction chemotherapy in an independent series of patients. Lymphoblasts from children with T-ALL should be evaluated at diagnosis for deletion within the TCRgamma locus. Patients lacking biallelic deletion, which confers a high probability of induction failure with contemporary therapy, should be assigned to alternative therapy in the context of a prospective clinical trial.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 08/2010; 28(24):3816-23. · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To further unravel the molecular pathogenesis of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), we performed high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization on diagnostic specimens from 47 children with T-ALL and identified monoallelic or biallelic LEF1 microdeletions in 11% (5 of 47) of these primary samples. An additional 7% (3 of 44) of the cases harbored nonsynonymous sequence alterations of LEF1, 2 of which produced premature stop codons. Gene expression microarrays showed increased expression of MYC and MYC targets in cases with LEF1 inactivation, as well as differentiation arrest at an early cortical stage of thymocyte development characterized by expression of CD1B, CD1E, and CD8, with absent CD34 expression. LEF1 inactivation was associated with a younger age at the time of T-ALL diagnosis, as well as activating NOTCH1 mutations, biallelic INK4a/ARF deletions, and PTEN loss-of-function mutations or activating mutations of PI3K or AKT genes. These cases generally lacked overexpression of the TAL1, HOX11, HOX11L2, or the HOXA cluster genes, which have been used to define separate molecular pathways leading to T-ALL. Our findings suggest that LEF1 inactivation is an important step in the molecular pathogenesis of T-ALL in a subset of young children.
    Blood 04/2010; 115(14):2845-51. · 9.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hantaviruses cause two severe diseases in humans: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS). The lack of vaccines or specific drugs to prevent or treat HFRS and HCPS and the requirement for conducting experiments in a biosafety level 3 laboratory (BSL-3) limit the ability to probe the mechanism of infection and disease pathogenesis. In this study, we developed a generalizable spectroscopic assay to quantify saturable fluorophore sites solubilized in envelope membranes of Sin Nombre virus (SNV) particles. We then used flow cytometry and live cell confocal fluorescence microscopy imaging to show that ultraviolet (UV)-killed SNV particles bind to the cognate receptors of live virions, namely, decay accelerating factor (DAF/CD55) expressed on Tanoue B cells and alpha(v)beta(3) integrins expressed on Vero E6 cells. SNV binding to DAF is multivalent and of high affinity (K(d) approximately 26pM). Self-exchange competition binding assays between fluorescently labeled SNV and unlabeled SNV are used to evaluate an infectious unit-to-particle ratio of approximately 1:14,000. We configured the assay for measuring the binding of fluorescently labeled SNV to Tanoue B suspension cells using a high-throughput flow cytometer. In this way, we established a proof-of-principle high-throughput screening (HTS) assay for binding inhibition. This is a first step toward developing HTS format assays for small molecule inhibitors of viral-cell interactions as well as dissecting the mechanism of infection in a BSL-2 environment.
    Analytical Biochemistry 04/2010; 402(2):151-60. · 2.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To identify and compare the gene expression profiles of actinic keratosis (AK) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and to further clarify critical genetic alterations in the evolution of SCC from normal sun-damaged human skin. Observational study. University practice. Skin biopsy specimens were obtained from 16 patients. The specimens included 14 normal non-sun-exposed skin samples, 14 normal sun-exposed skin samples, 5 AKs, and 15 cutaneous SCCs. Gene expression profiles from normal non-sun-exposed skin, normal sun-exposed skin, AKs, and SCCs. Using a highly astringent shrunken centroid threshold of 6.52 and the prediction analysis of microarrays, we identified 89 unique genes that most likely contribute to the molecular evolution of SCC. Our model was cross-validated using data from a separate study and clearly distinguishes between skin tumors (AK and SCC) and normal skin independent of sun exposure. Genes that were upregulated in AK and SCC were downregulated in normal skin, and genes that were downregulated in AK and SCC were upregulated in normal skin. The finding of similar differentially expressed genes in AK and SCC confirms that AK is a precursor lesion of SCC and indicates that they are closely related genetically. Clear elucidation of these relationships will be critical to improving therapeutic approaches.
    Archives of dermatology 03/2010; 146(3):288-93. · 4.76 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
295.74 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1999–2014
    • University of New Mexico
      • • Department of Pathology
      • • Center for Molecular Discovery
      • • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      • • Department of Dermatology
      • • Cancer Research and Treatment Center
      • • Division of Hematology and Oncology (Department of Pediatrics)
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States
  • 2001–2013
    • University of New Mexico Hospitals
      Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States
  • 2012
    • Sandia National Laboratories
      Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States
    • New Mexico Department of Health
      Santa Fe, New Mexico, United States
  • 2009–2010
    • Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
      • Department of Pediatric Oncology
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2006
    • Columbia University
      • Institute of Cancer Genetics
      New York City, NY, United States
    • Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
      • Department of Radiology
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 2000
    • University of Miami
      • Department of Pathology
      Coral Gables, FL, United States