Laurens F Tops

Leiden University, Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands

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Publications (62)499.26 Total impact

  • Laurens F Tops · Martin J Schalij ·

    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 06/2014; 311(22):2335. DOI:10.1001/jama.2014.5184 · 35.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Right ventricular apical (RVA) pacing may induce left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony. The long-term prognostic implications of induction of LV dyssynchrony were retrospectively evaluated in a cohort of patients who underwent RVA pacing. A total of 169 patients (62±13 years, 69% male) with high RVA pacing burden were included. Echocardiographic evaluation of LV volumes, ejection fraction and dyssynchrony were performed before and after device implantation. LV dyssynchrony was assessed by 2-dimensional radial strain speckle tracking echocardiography. Based on the median LV dyssynchrony value after RVA pacing, the patient population was dichotomized (induced and noninduced LV dyssynchrony groups) and was followed-up for the occurrence of all-cause mortality and heart failure (HF) hospitalization. Baseline mean LV ejection fraction was 51±11%. Median LV dyssynchrony value was 40 ms (12-85 ms) before RVA pacing and increased to 91ms (81-138 ms) after a median of 13 months (3-26 months) after RVA pacing. Median follow-up duration was 70 months (interquartile range 42-96 months). Patients with induced LV dyssynchrony, defined as LV dyssynchrony value superior to the median at follow-up (≥91ms), showed higher mortality rates (5% and 27% vs. 1% and 3% at 3 and 5 years follow-up; log-rank P = 0.003) and HF hospitalization rates (18% and 24% vs. 3% and 4% at 3 and 5 years follow-up; log-rank P<0.001) than patients with LV dyssynchrony <91ms after RVA pacing. A multivariate model was developed to identify independent associates of a combined endpoint of all-cause mortality or HF hospitalization. Induction of LV dyssynchrony was independently associated with increased risk of combined endpoint (HR [95%-CI]: 3.369 [1.732-6.553], P<0.001). Induction of LV dyssynchrony by RVA pacing is associated with worse long-term mortality and increased HF hospitalization rates. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology 02/2014; 25(6). DOI:10.1111/jce.12397 · 2.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Total atrial activation time has been identified as an independent predictor of new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF). Echocardiographic assessment of PA-TDI duration provides an estimation of total atrial conduction time. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of total atrial conduction time to predict AF recurrence after radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA). In 213 patients undergoing RFCA for symptomatic drug-refractory paroxysmal AF, the total atrial conduction time was estimated by measuring the time delay between the onset of the P-wave in lead II of the surface electrocardiogram and the peak A'-wave on the tissue Doppler tracing of the left atrial (LA) lateral wall (PA-TDI duration). After RFCA, all patients were evaluated on a systematic basis at the outpatient clinic. After a mean follow-up of 13 ± 3 months, 74 patients (35%) had recurrent AF whereas 139 patients (65%) maintained sinus rhythm. Left atrial maximum volume index and PA-TDI duration were identified as independent predictors of AF recurrence after RFCA. However, receiver operator characteristics curve analyses demonstrated that PA-TDI duration had a superior accuracy to predict AF recurrence compared with LA maximum volume index (area under the curve 0.765 vs. 0.561, respectively). Assessment of total atrial conduction time using tissue Doppler imaging can be used to predict AF recurrence after RFCA.
    Europace 06/2011; 13(11):1533-40. DOI:10.1093/europace/eur186 · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Accurate aortic root measurements and evaluation of spatial relationships with coronary ostia are crucial in preoperative transcatheter aortic valve implantation assessments. Standardization of measurements may increase intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility to promote procedural success rate and reduce the frequency of procedurally related complications. This study evaluated the accuracy and reproducibility of a novel automated multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) imaging postprocessing software, 3mensio Valves (version 4.1.sp1, Medical Imaging BV, Bilthoven, The Netherlands), in the assessment of patients with severe aortic stenosis candidates for transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Ninety patients with aortic valve disease were evaluated with 64-row and 320-row MDCT. Aortic valve annular size, aortic root dimensions, and height of the coronary ostia relative to the aortic valve annular plane were measured with the 3mensio Valves software. The measurements were compared with those obtained manually by the Vitrea2 software (Vital Images, Minneapolis, MN). Assessment of aortic valve annulus and aortic root dimensions were feasible in all the patients using the automated 3mensio Valves software. There were excellent agreements with minimal bias between automated and manual MDCT measurements as demonstrated by Bland-Altman analysis and intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.97 to 0.99. The automated 3mensio Valves software had better interobserver reproducibility and required less image postprocessing time than manual assessment. Novel automated MDCT postprocessing imaging software (3mensio Valves) permits reliable, reproducible, and automated assessments of the aortic root dimensions and spatial relations with the surrounding structures. This has important clinical implications for preoperative assessments of patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 03/2011; 91(3):716-23. DOI:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2010.09.060 · 3.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Left atrial (LA) dilatation is an important risk factor for recurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) after radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA). However, the clinical applications to select patients eligible for RFCA according to LA size is limited. Additional pre-procedural assessment of LA fibrosis might improve patient selection for RFCA. To investigate the impact of LA size and LA fibrosis on the outcome of RFCA for AF. One hundred and seventy consecutive patients undergoing RFCA for AF were studied. LA size was assessed by measuring maximum LA volume index on echocardiography. LA wall ultrasound reflectivity was assessed by measuring echocardiography-derived calibrated integrated backscatter (IBS) as a surrogate of LA fibrosis. After 12±3 months' follow-up, 103 patients (61%) had maintained sinus rhythm and 67 patients (39%) had recurrence of AF. Univariate Cox analyses identified LA wall ultrasound reflectivity, as well as LA size and type of AF, as predictors of AF recurrence after RFCA. Importantly, multivariate analyses showed that LA wall ultrasound reflectivity remained a strong predictor after correction for LA size and type of AF. Moreover, LA wall ultrasound reflectivity provided an incremental value in predicting outcome of RFCA over LA size and type of AF (increment in global χ(2)=61.6, p<0.001). Assessment of LA fibrosis using two-dimensional echocardiography-derived calibrated IBS can be useful to predict AF recurrence after RFCA. Combined assessment of LA wall ultrasound reflectivity and LA size improves the identification of patients with a high likelihood for a successful ablation.
    Heart (British Cardiac Society) 02/2011; 97(22):1847-51. DOI:10.1136/hrt.2010.215335 · 5.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess left atrial (LA) strain during long-term follow-up after catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation and to find predictors for LA reverse remodeling. The association between LA reverse remodeling and improvement in LA strain after catheter ablation has not been investigated thus far. In 148 patients undergoing catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation, LA volumes and LA strain were assessed with echocardiography at baseline and after a mean of 13.2 ± 6.7 months of follow-up. The study population was divided according to LA reverse remodeling at follow-up: responders were defined as patients who exhibited 15% or more reduction in maximum LA volume at long-term follow-up. Left atrial systolic (LAs) strain was assessed with tissue Doppler imaging. At follow-up, 93 patients (63%) were classified as responders, whereas 55 patients (37%) were nonresponders. At baseline, LAs strain was significantly higher in the responders as compared with the nonresponders (19 ± 8% vs. 14 ± 6%; p = 0.001). Among the responders, a significant increase in LAs strain was noted from baseline to follow-up (from 19 ± 8% to 22 ± 9%; p < 0.05), whereas no change was noted among the nonresponders. LAs strain at baseline was an independent predictor of LA reverse remodeling (odds ratio: 1.813; 95% confidence interval: 1.102 to 2.982; p = 0.019). In the present study, 63% of the patients exhibited LA reverse remodeling after catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation, with a concomitant improvement in LA strain. LA strain at baseline was an independent predictor of LA reverse remodeling.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 01/2011; 57(3):324-31. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2010.05.063 · 16.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multislice computed tomography (MSCT) is commonly acquired before radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) for atrial fibrillation (AF) to plan and guide the procedure. MSCT allows accurate measurement of the left atrial (LA) and pulmonary vein (PV) dimensions and classification of the PV anatomy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of LA dimensions, PV dimensions, and PV anatomy on the outcome of circumferential RFCA for AF. A total of 100 consecutive patients undergoing RFCA for AF (paroxysmal 72%, persistent 28%) were studied. The LA dimensions, PV dimensions, and PV anatomy were evaluated three dimensionally using MSCT. The PV anatomy was classified as normal or atypical according to the absence/presence of a common trunk or additional veins. After a mean follow-up of 11.6 ± 2.8 months, 65 patients (65%) maintained sinus rhythm. The enlargement of the left atrium in the anteroposterior direction on MSCT was related to a greater risk of AF recurrence. No relation was found between the PV dimensions and the outcome of RFCA. In addition, normal right-sided PV anatomy was related to a greater risk of AF recurrence compared to atypical right-sided PV anatomy. Multivariate analysis showed that an anteroposterior LA diameter on MSCT (odds ratio 1.083, p = 0.027) and normal right-sided PV anatomy (odds ratio 6.711, p = 0.006) were independent predictors of AF recurrence after RFCA. In conclusion, enlargement of the anteroposterior LA diameter and the presence of normal anatomy of the right PVs are independent risk factors for AF recurrence. No relation was found between the PV dimensions and outcome of RFCA.
    The American journal of cardiology 01/2011; 107(2):243-9. DOI:10.1016/j.amjcard.2010.08.069 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: the presence of atrial fibrillation (AF) is related to increased levels of natriuretic peptides. In addition, increased natriuretic peptide levels are predictive of the development of AF. However, the role of natriuretic peptides to predict recurrence of AF after radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) is controversial. the study aimed to investigate the role of natriuretic peptides in the prediction of AF recurrence after RFCA for AF. pre-procedural amino-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (NT-proANP) and amino-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) plasma levels were determined in 87 patients undergoing RFCA for symptomatic drug-refractory AF. In addition, a comprehensive clinical and echocardiographic evaluation was performed at baseline. Left atrial volumes, left ventricular volumes, and function (systolic and diastolic) were assessed. During a 6-month follow-up period, AF recurrence was monitored and defined as any registration of AF on electrocardiogram or an episode of AF longer than 30 seconds on 24-hour Holter monitoring. The role of natriuretic peptide plasma levels to predict AF recurrence after RFCA was studied. During follow-up, 66 patients (76%) maintained sinus rhythm, whereas 21 patients (24%) had AF recurrence. Patients with AF recurrence had higher baseline natriuretic peptide levels than patients who maintained sinus rhythm (NT-proANP 3.19 nmol/L [2.55-4.28] vs 2.52 nmol/L [1.69-3.55], P = .030; NT-proBNP 156.4 pg/mL [64.1-345.3] vs 84.6 pg/mL [43.3-142.7], P = .036). However, NT-proBNP was an independent predictor of AF recurrence, whereas NT-proANP was not. Moreover, NT-proBNP had an incremental value over echocardiographic characteristics to predict AF recurrence after RFCA. baseline NT-proBNP plasma level is an independent predictor of AF recurrence after RFCA.
    American heart journal 01/2011; 161(1):197-203. DOI:10.1016/j.ahj.2010.09.031 · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies demonstrated that ventricular response to stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is frequently abnormal in patients with a systemic right ventricle (RV). However, the clinical implications of these findings remained unknown. We sought to evaluate whether abnormal response to stress CMR predicts adverse outcome in patients with a systemic RV. Thirty-nine adult patients (54% male; mean age 26, range 18-65 years) with a systemic RV underwent stress CMR to determine the response of RV volumes and ejection fraction (EF). During follow-up, cardiac events, defined as hospitalization for heart failure, cardiac surgery, aborted cardiac arrest, or death, were recorded. The prognostic value of an abnormal response to stress, defined as lack of a decrease in RV end-systolic volume (ESV) or lack of an increase in RV EF, was assessed. We frequently observed an abnormal response to stress, as RV ESV did not decrease in 17 patients (44%), and RV EF did not increase in 15 patients (38%). After a mean follow-up period of 8.1 years, 8 (21%) patients had reached the composite end point. The inability to decrease RV ESV during stress was predictive for cardiac events with a hazard ratio of 2.3 (95% CI 1.19-88.72, P = .034), as was the inability to increase RV EF with a hazard ratio of 2.3 (95% CI 1.31-81.59, P = .027). Stress CMR potentially has important prognostic value in patients with a systemic RV. Patients with a systemic RV who show abnormal cardiac response to stress have a substantially higher risk of adverse outcome.
    American heart journal 11/2010; 160(5):870-6. DOI:10.1016/j.ahj.2010.07.015 · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Atrial fibrillation (AF) has been linked to the presence of underlying coronary artery disease (CAD). However, whether the higher burden of CAD observed in AF patients translates into higher burden of myocardial ischemia is unknown. In 87 patients (71% male, mean age 61 ± 10 years) with paroxysmal or persistent AF and without history of CAD, MSCT coronary angiography and stress testing (exercise ECG test or myocardial perfusion imaging) were performed. CAD was classified as obstructive (≥50% luminal narrowing) or not. Stress tests were classified as normal or abnormal. A population of 122 patients without history of AF, similar to the AF group as to age, gender, symptomatic status and pre-test likelihood, served as a control group. Based on MSCT, 17% of AF patients were classified as having no CAD, whereas 43% showed non-obstructive CAD and the remaining 40% had obstructive CAD. A positive stress test was observed in 49% of AF patients with obstructive CAD. Among non-AF patients, 34% were classified as having no CAD, while 41% showed non-obstructive CAD and 25% had obstructive CAD (P = 0.013 compared to AF patients). A positive stress test was observed in 48% of non-AF patients with obstructive CAD. In conclusion, the higher burden of CAD observed in AF patients is not associated to higher burden of myocardial ischemia.
    The international journal of cardiovascular imaging 10/2010; 27(6):777-85. DOI:10.1007/s10554-010-9725-x · 1.81 Impact Factor
  • Laurens F Tops · Martin J Schalij · Jeroen J Bax ·
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    ABSTRACT: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia, and is associated with an increased risk of cardiac morbidity and mortality. In this review, the role of multimodality imaging in the evaluation and treatment of AF is discussed in two main parts. First, an overview of the initial assessment of an AF patient is provided, including the role of different imaging techniques. Conditions that are associated with AF (coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease, and left ventricular hypertrophy), and the assessment with various imaging modalities, will be reviewed. Furthermore, left atrial size assessment and the screening for thrombus formation are addressed. Secondly, the role of imaging in the invasive treatment of AF with catheter ablation is reviewed. Issues that should be considered before the procedure including contra-indications and pulmonary vein and left atrial anatomy will be discussed. Furthermore, the integration of different imaging modalities during catheter ablation is explored. Finally, an overview of the role of imaging in the follow-up of patients treated with catheter ablation will be provided.
    European Heart Journal 03/2010; 31(5):542-51. DOI:10.1093/eurheartj/ehq005 · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aortic regurgitation after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is one of the most frequent complications. However, the underlying mechanisms of this complication remain unclear. The present evaluation studied the anatomic and morphological features of the aortic valve annulus that may predict aortic regurgitation after TAVI. In 53 patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing TAVI, multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) assessment of the aortic valve apparatus was performed. For aortic valve annulus sizing, two orthogonal diameters were measured (coronal and sagittal). In addition, the extent of valve calcifications was quantified. At 1-month follow-up after procedure, MDCT was repeated to evaluate and correlate the prosthesis deployment to the presence of aortic regurgitation. Successful procedure was achieved in 48 (91%) patients. At baseline, MDCT demonstrated an ellipsoid shape of the aortic valve annulus with significantly larger coronal diameter when compared with sagittal diameter (25.1 +/- 2.4 vs. 22.9 +/- 2.0 mm, P < 0.001). At follow-up, MDCT showed a non-circular deployment of the prosthesis in six (14%) patients. Moderate post-procedural aortic regurgitation was observed in five (11%) patients. These patients showed significantly larger aortic valve annulus (27.3 +/- 1.6 vs. 24.8 +/- 2.4 mm, P = 0.007) and more calcified native valves (4174 +/- 1604 vs. 2444 +/- 1237 HU, P = 0.005) at baseline and less favourable deployment of the prosthesis after TAVI. Multi-detector row computed tomography enables an accurate sizing of the aortic valve annulus and constitutes a valuable imaging tool to evaluate prosthesis location and deployment after TAVI. In addition, MDCT helps to understand the underlying mechanisms of post-procedural aortic regurgitation.
    European Heart Journal 02/2010; 31(9):1114-23. DOI:10.1093/eurheartj/ehq018 · 15.20 Impact Factor

  • Europace 01/2010; 11. · 3.67 Impact Factor

  • Heart (British Cardiac Society) 11/2009; 95(22):1881-90. DOI:10.1136/hrt.2008.151613 · 5.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 3D transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) may provide more accurate aortic annular and left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) dimensions and geometries compared with 2D TEE. We assessed agreements between 2D and 3D TEE measurements with multislice computed tomography (MSCT) and changes in annular/LVOT areas and geometries after transcatheter aortic valve implantations (TAVI). Two-dimensional circular (pixr(2)), 3D circular, and 3D planimetered annular and LVOT areas by TEE were compared with "gold standard" MSCT planimetered areas before TAVI. Mean MSCT planimetered annular area was 4.65+/-0.82 cm(2) before TAVI. Annular areas were underestimated by 2D TEE circular (3.89+/-0.74 cm(2), P<0.001), 3D TEE circular (4.06+/-0.79 cm(2), P<0.001), and 3D TEE planimetered annular areas (4.22+/-0.77 cm(2), P<0.001). Mean MSCT planimetered LVOT area was 4.61+/-1.20 cm(2) before TAVI. LVOT areas were underestimated by 2D TEE circular (3.41+/-0.89 cm(2), P<0.001), 3D TEE circular (3.89+/-0.94 cm(2), P<0.001), and 3D TEE planimetered LVOT areas (4.31+/-1.15 cm(2), P<0.001). Three-dimensional TEE planimetered annular and LVOT areas had the best agreement with respective MSCT planimetered areas. After TAVI, MSCT planimetered (4.65+/-0.82 versus 4.20+/-0.46 cm(2), P<0.001) and 3D TEE planimetered (4.22+/-0.77 versus 3.62+/-0.43 cm(2), P<0.001) annular areas decreased, whereas MSCT planimetered (4.61+/-1.20 versus 4.84+/-1.17 cm(2), P=0.002) and 3D TEE planimetered (4.31+/-1.15 versus 4.55+/-1.21 cm(2), P<0.001) LVOT areas increased. Aortic annulus and LVOT became less elliptical after TAVI. Before TAVI, 2D and 3D TEE aortic annular/LVOT circular geometric assumption underestimated the respective MSCT planimetered areas. After TAVI, 3D TEE and MSCT planimetered annular areas decreased as it assumes the internal dimensions of the prosthetic valve. However, planimetered LVOT areas increased due to a more circular geometry.
    Circulation Cardiovascular Imaging 11/2009; 3(1):94-102. DOI:10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.109.885152 · 5.32 Impact Factor
  • Laurens F Tops · Victoria Delgado · Frank van der Kley · Jeroen J Bax ·

    Heart (British Cardiac Society) 10/2009; 95(18):1538-46. DOI:10.1136/hrt.2008.151498 · 5.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate myocardial multidirectional strain and strain rate (S-and-SR) in severe aortic stenosis (AS) patients with preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF), using two-dimensional speckle-tracking strain imaging (2D-STI). The long-term effect of aortic valve replacement (AVR) on S-and-SR was also evaluated. Changes in LV radial, circumferential, and longitudinal S-and-SR were evaluated in 73 severe AS patients (65 +/- 13 years; aortic valve area 0.8 +/- 0.2 cm2) with preserved LVEF (61 +/- 11%), before and 17 months after AVR. Strain and strain rate data were compared with data from 40 controls (20 healthy individuals and 20 patients with LV hypertrophy) matched by age, gender, body surface area, and LVEF. Compared with controls, severe AS patients had significantly decreased values of LV S-and-SR in the radial (33.1 +/- 14.8%, P = 0.2; 1.7 +/- 0.5 s(-1), P = 0.003), circumferential (-15.2 +/- 5.0%, P = 0.001; -0.9 +/- 0.3 s(-1), P < 0.0001), and longitudinal (-14.6 +/- 4.1%, P < 0.0001; -0.8 +/- 0.2 s(-1), P < 0.0001) directions. At 17 months after AVR, LV S-and-SR significantly improved in all the three directions, whereas LVEF remained unchanged (60 +/- 12%, P = 0.7). In severe AS patients, impaired LV S-and-SR existed although LVEF was preserved. After AVR, a significant S-and-SR improvement in all the three directions was observed. These subtle changes in LV contractility can be detected by 2D-STI.
    European Heart Journal 09/2009; 30(24):3037-47. DOI:10.1093/eurheartj/ehp351 · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Detailed information about the absolute temporal occurrence of myocardial motion and deformation events during the cardiac cycle is still lacking. However, the normal time range of these parameters may be of great importance as a reference for detecting and interpreting mechanical dyssynchrony and for identifying a delayed contraction in case of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. The aim of this study was to determine in young healthy subjects and for different LV segments the value of (1) time to peak systolic longitudinal velocity, displacement, strain rate, and strain using tissue Doppler imaging (TDI); (2) time to minimum systolic volume using real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography; and (3) time to maximum thickness using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Twenty 20 young healthy volunteers (13 men, mean age 32 +/- 4 years) underwent cardiac MRI and echocardiographic examination, including TDI and real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography. To define LV ejection time and isovolumic relaxation time, aortic valve closure and opening and mitral valve opening were identified. For all LV segments, longitudinal peak systolic velocity and strain rate were early systolic events. Peak systolic longitudinal displacement and strain in turn occurred in late systole, or in 20% to 30% of LV segments, during isovolumic relaxation time, similarly to minimum systolic volume and maximum myocardial thickness. In conclusion, the present study provides a systematic report of the normal time range of measurements obtained by TDI, real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography, and cardiac MRI. Peak systolic longitudinal velocity and strain rate significantly precede peak longitudinal displacement, strain, minimum systolic volume, and maximum thickness.
    The American journal of cardiology 09/2009; 104(3):440-6. DOI:10.1016/j.amjcard.2009.03.064 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    Laurens F Tops · Martin J Schalij · Jeroen J Bax ·
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac pacing is the only effective treatment for patients with sick sinus syndrome and atrioventricular conduction disorders. In cardiac pacing, the endocardial pacing lead is typically positioned at the right ventricular (RV) apex. At the same time, there is increasing indirect evidence, derived from large pacing mode selection trials and observational studies, that conventional RV apical pacing may have detrimental effects on cardiac structure and left ventricular function, which are associated with the development of heart failure. These detrimental effects may be related to the abnormal electrical and mechanical activation pattern of the ventricles (or ventricular dyssynchrony) caused by RV apical pacing. Still, it remains uncertain if the deterioration of left ventricular function as noted in a proportion of patients receiving RV apical pacing is directly related to acutely induced left ventricular dyssynchrony. The upgrade from RV pacing to cardiac resynchronization therapy may partially reverse the deleterious effects of RV pacing. It has even been suggested that selected patients with a conventional pacemaker indication should receive cardiac resynchronization therapy to avoid the deleterious effects. This review will provide a contemporary overview of the available evidence on the detrimental effects of RV apical pacing. Furthermore, the available alternatives for patients with a standard pacemaker indication will be discussed. In particular, the role of cardiac resynchronization therapy and alternative RV pacing sites in these patients will be reviewed.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 09/2009; 54(9):764-76. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2009.06.006 · 16.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study sought to investigate the prevalence and mechanisms underlying right ventricular (RV) dyssynchrony in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) using tissue Doppler echocardiography (TDE). An ARVD/C is characterized by fibrofatty replacement of RV myocardium and RV dilation. These pathologic changes may result in electromechanical dyssynchrony. Echocardiography, both conventional and TDE, was performed in 52 ARVD/C patients fulfilling Task Force criteria and 25 control subjects. The RV end-diastolic and -systolic areas, right ventricular fractional area change (RVFAC), and left ventricular (LV) volumes and function were assessed. Mechanical synchrony was assessed by measuring differences in time-to-peak systolic velocity (T(SV)) between the RV free wall, ventricular septum, and LV lateral wall. An RV dyssynchrony was defined as the difference in T(SV) between the RV free wall and the ventricular septum, >2 SD above the mean value for control subjects. The mean difference in RV T(SV) was higher in ARVD/C compared with control subjects (55 +/- 34 ms vs. 26 +/- 15 ms, p < 0.001). Significant RV dyssynchrony was not noted in any of the control subjects. Based on a cutoff value of 56 ms, significant RV dyssynchrony was present in 26 ARVD/C patients (50%). Patients with RV dyssynchrony had a larger RV end-diastolic area (22 +/- 5 cm(2) vs. 19 +/- 4 cm(2), p = 0.02), and lower RVFAC (29 +/- 8% vs. 34 +/- 8%, p = 0.03) compared with ARVD/C patients without RV dyssynchrony. No differences in QRS duration, LV volumes, or function were present between the 2 groups. An RV dyssynchrony may occur in up to 50% of ARVD/C patients, and is associated with RV remodeling. This finding may have therapeutic and prognostic implications in ARVD/C.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 08/2009; 54(5):445-51. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2009.04.038 · 16.50 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
499.26 Total Impact Points


  • 2006-2014
    • Leiden University
      Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2005-2011
    • Leiden University Medical Centre
      • Department of Cardiology
      Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2008
    • Johns Hopkins Medicine
      • Division of Cardiology
      Baltimore, MD, United States