Jinglong Chen

Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia

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Publications (7)28.29 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The cytokines, interleukin-3 (IL-3), interleukin-5 (IL-5), and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), exhibit overlapping activities in the regulation of hematopoietic cells. In humans, the common beta (betac) receptor is shared by the three cytokines and functions together with cytokine-specific alpha subunits in signaling. A widely accepted hypothesis is that receptor activation requires heterodisulfide formation between the domain 1 D-E loop disulfide in human betac (hbetac) and unidentified cysteine residues in the N-terminal domains of the alpha receptors. Since the development of this hypothesis, new data have been obtained showing that domain 1 of hbetac is part of the cytokine binding epitope of this receptor and that an IL-3Ralpha isoform lacking the N-terminal Ig-like domain (the "SP2" isoform) is competent for signaling. We therefore investigated whether distortion of the domain 1-domain 4 ligand-binding epitope in hbetac and the related mouse receptor, beta(IL-3), could account for the loss of receptor signaling when the domain 1 D-E loop disulfide is disrupted. Indeed, mutation of the disulfide in hbetac led to both a complete loss of high affinity binding with the human IL-3Ralpha SP2 isoform and of downstream signaling. Mutation of the orthologous residues in the mouse IL-3-specific receptor, beta(IL-3), not only precluded direct binding of mouse IL-3 but also resulted in complete loss of high affinity binding and signaling with the mouse IL-3Ralpha SP2 isoform. Our data are most consistent with a role for the domain 1 D-E loop disulfide of hbetac and beta(IL-3) in maintaining the precise positions of ligand-binding residues necessary for normal high affinity binding and signaling.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2010; 285(32):24759-68. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The cytokines, interleukin-3 (IL-3), interleukin-5 (IL-5), and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), exhibit overlapping activities in the regulation of hematopoietic cells. In humans, the common β (βc) receptor is shared by the three cytokines and functions together with cytokine-specific α subunits in signaling. A widely accepted hypothesis is that receptor activation requires heterodisulfide formation between the domain 1 D-E loop disulfide in human βc (hβc) and unidentified cysteine residues in the N-terminal domains of the α receptors. Since the development of this hypothesis, new data have been obtained showing that domain 1 of hβc is part of the cytokine binding epitope of this receptor and that an IL-3Rα isoform lacking the N-terminal Ig-like domain (the “SP2” isoform) is competent for signaling. We therefore investigated whether distortion of the domain 1-domain 4 ligand-binding epitope in hβc and the related mouse receptor, βIL-3, could account for the loss of receptor signaling when the domain 1 D-E loop disulfide is disrupted. Indeed, mutation of the disulfide in hβc led to both a complete loss of high affinity binding with the human IL-3Rα SP2 isoform and of downstream signaling. Mutation of the orthologous residues in the mouse IL-3-specific receptor, βIL-3, not only precluded direct binding of mouse IL-3 but also resulted in complete loss of high affinity binding and signaling with the mouse IL-3Rα SP2 isoform. Our data are most consistent with a role for the domain 1 D-E loop disulfide of hβc and βIL-3 in maintaining the precise positions of ligand-binding residues necessary for normal high affinity binding and signaling.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2010; 285(32):24759-24768. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The cytokine interleukin-3 (IL-3) is a critical regulator of inflammation and immune responses in mammals. IL-3 exerts its effects on target cells via receptors comprising an IL-3-specific alpha-subunit and common beta-subunit (beta c; shared with IL-5 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor) or a beta-subunit that specifically binds IL-3 (beta(IL-3); present in mice but not humans). We recently identified two splice variants of the alpha-subunit of the IL-3 receptor (IL-3R alpha) that are relevant to hematopoietic progenitor cell differentiation or proliferation: the full length ("SP1" isoform) and a novel isoform (denoted "SP2") lacking the N-terminal Ig-like domain. Although our studies demonstrated that each mouse IL-3 (mIL-3) R alpha isoform can direct mIL-3 binding to two distinct sites on the beta(IL-3) subunit, it has remained unclear which residues in mIL-3 itself are critical to the two modes of beta(IL-3) recognition and whether the human IL-3R alpha SP1 and SP2 orthologs similarly instruct human IL-3 binding to two distinct sites on the human beta c subunit. Herein, we describe the identification of residues clustering around the highly conserved A-helix residue, Glu(23), in the mIL-3 A- and C-helices as critical for receptor binding and growth stimulation via the beta(IL-3) and mIL-3R alpha SP2 subunits, whereas an overlapping cluster was required for binding and activation of beta(IL-3) in the presence of mIL-3R alpha SP1. Similarly, our studies of human IL-3 indicate that two different modes of beta c binding are utilized in the presence of the hIL-3R alpha SP1 or SP2 isoforms, suggesting a possible conserved mechanism by which the relative orientations of receptor subunits are modulated to achieve distinct signaling outcomes.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2010; 285(29):22370-81. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The cytokine interleukin-3 (IL-3) is a critical regulator of inflammation and immune responses in mammals. IL-3 exerts its effects on target cells via receptors comprising an IL-3-specific α-subunit and common β-subunit (βc; shared with IL-5 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor) or a β-subunit that specifically binds IL-3 (βIL-3; present in mice but not humans). We recently identified two splice variants of the α-subunit of the IL-3 receptor (IL-3Rα) that are relevant to hematopoietic progenitor cell differentiation or proliferation: the full length (“SP1” isoform) and a novel isoform (denoted “SP2”) lacking the N-terminal Ig-like domain. Although our studies demonstrated that each mouse IL-3 (mIL-3) Rα isoform can direct mIL-3 binding to two distinct sites on the βIL-3 subunit, it has remained unclear which residues in mIL-3 itself are critical to the two modes of βIL-3 recognition and whether the human IL-3Rα SP1 and SP2 orthologs similarly instruct human IL-3 binding to two distinct sites on the human βc subunit. Herein, we describe the identification of residues clustering around the highly conserved A-helix residue, Glu23, in the mIL-3 A- and C-helices as critical for receptor binding and growth stimulation via the βIL-3 and mIL-3Rα SP2 subunits, whereas an overlapping cluster was required for binding and activation of βIL-3 in the presence of mIL-3Rα SP1. Similarly, our studies of human IL-3 indicate that two different modes of βc binding are utilized in the presence of the hIL-3Rα SP1 or SP2 isoforms, suggesting a possible conserved mechanism by which the relative orientations of receptor subunits are modulated to achieve distinct signaling outcomes.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2010; 285(29):22370-22381. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: GM-CSF (granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor) is an important mediator of inducible haemopoiesis and inflammation, and has a critical role in the function of alveolar macrophages. Its clinical applications include the mobilization of haemopoietic progenitors, and a role as an immune stimulant and vaccine adjuvant in cancer patients. GM-CSF signals via a specific alpha receptor (GM-CSFRalpha) and the shared hbetac (human common beta-subunit). The present study has investigated the role of the Ig-like domain of GM-CSFRalpha in GM-CSF binding and signalling. Deletion of the Ig-like domain abolished direct GM-CSF binding and decreased growth signalling in the presence of hbetac. To locate the specific residues in the Ig-like domain of GM-CSFRalpha involved in GM-CSF binding, a structural alignment was made with a related receptor, IL-13Ralpha1 (interleukin-13 receptor alpha1), whose structure and mode of interaction with its ligand has recently been elucidated. Mutagenesis of candidate residues in the predicted region of interaction identified Val51 and Cys60 as having critical roles in binding to the alpha receptor, with Arg54 and Leu55 also being important. High-affinity binding in the presence of hbetac was strongly affected by mutation of Cys60 and was also reduced by mutation of Val51, Arg54 and Leu55. Of the four key residues, growth signalling was most severely affected by mutation of Cys60. The results indicate a previously unrecognized role for the Ig-like domain, and in particular Cys60, of GM-CSFRalpha in the binding of GM-CSF and subsequent activation of cellular signalling.
    Biochemical Journal 03/2010; 426(3):307-17. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Cytokine 01/2009; 48(1):130-130. · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin (IL)-3 and IL-5 are related cytokines that play key roles in regulating the differentiation, proliferation, survival and activation of myeloid blood cells. The cell surface receptors for these cytokines are composed of cytokine-specific alpha-subunits and a common beta-receptor (betac), a shared subunit that is essential for receptor signaling in response to GM-CSF, IL-3 and IL-5. Previous studies have reached conflicting conclusions as to whether N-glycosylation of the betac-subunit is necessary for functional GM-CSF, IL-3 and IL-5 receptors. We sought to clarify whether betac N-glycosylation plays a role in receptor function, since all structural studies of human betac to date have utilized recombinant protein lacking N-glycosylation at Asn(328). Here, by eliminating individual N-glycans in human betac and the related murine homolog, beta(IL-3), we demonstrate unequivocally that ligand-binding and receptor activation are not critically dependent on individual N-glycosylation sites within the beta-subunit although the data do not preclude the possibility that N-glycans may exert some sort of fine control. These studies support the biological relevance of the X-ray crystal structures of the human betac domain 4 and the complete ectodomain, both of which lack N-glycosylation at Asn(328).
    Cytokine 06/2008; 42(2):234-42. · 2.52 Impact Factor