Anastasia Kralli

The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, United States

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Publications (41)333.5 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Intramuscular creatine plays a crucial role in maintaining skeletal muscle energy homeostasis, and its entry into the cell is dependent upon the sodium chloride dependent Creatine Transporter (CrT; Slc6a8). CrT activity is regulated by a number of factors including extra- and intracellular creatine concentrations, hormones, changes in sodium concentration, and kinase activity, however very little is known about the regulation of CrT gene expression. The present study aimed to investigate how Creatine Transporter (CrT) gene expression is regulated in skeletal muscle. Within the first intron of the CrT gene, we identified a conserved sequence that includes the motif recognized by the Estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα), also known as an Estrogen-related receptor response element (ERRE). Additional ERREs confirming to the known consensus sequence were also identified in the region upstream of the promoter. When partnered with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator-1alpha (PGC-1α) or beta (PGC-1β), ERRα induces the expression of many genes important for cellular bioenergetics. We therefore hypothesized that PGC-1 and ERRα could also regulate CrT gene expression and creatine uptake in skeletal muscle. Here we show that adenoviral overexpression of PGC-1α or PGC-1β in L6 myotubes increased CrT mRNA (2.1 and 1.7-fold, P<0.0125) and creatine uptake (1.8 and 1.6-fold, P<0.0125), and this effect was inhibited with co-expression of shRNA for ERRα. Overexpression of a constitutively active ERRα (VP16-ERRα) increased CrT mRNA approximately 8-fold (P<0.05), resulting in a 2.2-fold (P<0.05) increase in creatine uptake. Lastly, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that PGC-1α and ERRα directly interact with the CrT gene and increase CrT gene expression.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research 08/2014; · 5.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1 α (PGC-1α) is widely considered a central transcriptional regulator of adaptive thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). However, mice lacking PGC-1α specifically in adipose tissue have only mild thermogenic defects, suggesting the presence of additional regulators. Using the activity of estrogen-related receptors (ERRs), downstream effectors of PGC-1α, as read-out in a high-throughput genome-wide cDNA screen, we identify here growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible protein 45 γ (GADD45γ) as a cold-induced activator of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and oxidative capacity in BAT. Mice lacking Gadd45γ have defects in Ucp1 induction and the thermogenic response to cold. GADD45γ works by activating MAPK p38, which is a potent activator of ERRβ and ERRγ transcriptional function. GADD45γ activates ERRγ independently of PGC-1 coactivators, yet synergizes with PGC-1α to induce the thermogenic program. Our findings elucidate a previously unidentified GADD45γ/p38/ERRγ pathway that regulates BAT thermogenesis and may enable new approaches for the stimulation of energy expenditure. Our study also implicates GADD45 proteins as general metabolic regulators.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2014; · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The stress-responsive, tumor suppressor N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (Ndrg2) is highly expressed in striated muscle with no ascribed function to date. In response to anabolic and catabolic signals, Ndrg2 is suppressed and induced, respectively, in C2C12 myotubes. However, little is known about the mechanisms regulating Ndrg2 expression in muscle, as well as the biological role for NDRG2 in differentiated myotubes. Here, we show that Ndrg2 is a target of a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRα) transcriptional program and is induced in response to endurance exercise, a physiological stress known also to increase PGC-1α/ERRα activity. Analyses of global gene and protein expression profiles in myotubes with reduced levels of NDRG2, suggest that NDRG2 affects muscle growth, contractile properties, MAPK signaling, ion and vesicle transport and oxidative phosphorylation. Indeed, suppression of NDRG2 in myotubes increased protein synthesis and the expression of fast glycolytic myosin heavy chain isoforms, while reducing the expression of embryonic myosin, Myh3, other contractile-associated genes and the MAPK p90 RSK1. Conversely, enhanced expression of NDRG2 reduced protein synthesis, and furthermore, partially blocked the increased protein synthesis rates elicited by a constitutively active form of ERRα. In contrast, suppressing or increasing levels of NDRG2 did not affect mRNA expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis that are regulated by PGC-1α or ERRα. This study shows that in C2C12 myotubes Ndrg2 is a novel PGC-1α/ERRα transcriptional target, which influences protein turnover and the regulation of genes involved in muscle contraction and function.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 09/2013; · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorγ coactivators (PGC-1α and PGC-1β) play important roles in the transcriptional regulation of intermediary metabolism. To evaluate the effects of overexpressing PGC-1α or PGC-1β at physiologic levels in liver, we generated transgenic mice with inducible overexpression of PGC-1α or PGC-1β. Gene expression array profiling revealed that whereas both PGC-1 family proteins induced mitochondrial oxidative enzymes, the expression of several genes involved in converting glucose to fatty acid was induced by PGC-1β, but not PGC-1α. The increased expression of enzymes involved in carbohydrate utilization and de novo lipogenesis by PGC-1β required carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP). The interaction between PGC-1β and ChREBP, as well as PGC-1β occupancy of the liver-type pyruvate kinase promoter, was influenced by glucose concentration and liver-specific PGC-1β(-/-) hepatocytes were refractory to the lipogenic response to high glucose conditions. These data suggest that PGC-1β-mediated coactivation of ChREBP is involved in the lipogenic response to hyperglycemia.
    Molecular metabolism. 08/2013; 2(3):194-204.
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    ABSTRACT: Proper development and function of white adipose tissue (WAT), which are regulated by multiple transcription factors and coregulators, are crucial for glucose homeostasis. WAT is also the main target of thiazolidinediones, which are thought to exert their insulin-sensitizing effects by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis in adipocytes. Besides being expressed in WAT, the role of the coactivator PGC-1β in this tissue has not been addressed. To study its function in WAT, we have generated mice that lack PGC-1β in adipose tissues. Gene expression profiling analysis of WAT reveals that PGC-1β regulates mitochondrial genes involved in oxidative metabolism. Furthermore, lack of PGC-1β prevents the induction of mitochondrial genes by rosiglitazone in WAT without affecting the capacity of thiazolidinediones to enhance insulin sensitivity. Our findings indicate that PGC-1β is important for basal and rosiglitazone-induced mitochondrial function in WAT, and that induction of mitochondrial oxidative capacity is not essential for the insulin-sensitizing effects of thiazolidinediones.
    Molecular metabolism. 08/2013; 2(3):215-26.
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    ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and energy transduction pathways are critical for skeletal and cardiac muscle function. The expression of genes important for mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative metabolism are under the control of members of the Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma Coactivator-1 (PGC-1) family of transcriptional coactivators and the Estrogen Related Receptor (ERR) subfamily of nuclear receptors. Perturbations in PGC-1 and/or ERR activities have been associated with alterations in capacity for endurance exercise, rates of muscle atrophy, and cardiac function. The mechanism(s) by which PGC-1 and ERR proteins regulate muscle-specific transcriptional programs are not fully understood. We show here that PGC-1α and ERRs induce the expression of a so far uncharacterized muscle-specific protein, Perm1 (PGC-1 and ERR-induced Regulator in Muscle 1), which regulates the expression of selective PGC-1/ERR target genes. Perm1 is required for the basal, as well as PGC-1α - enhanced expression of genes with roles in glucose and lipid metabolism, energy transfer, and contractile function. Silencing of Perm1 in cultured myotubes compromises respiratory capacity and diminishes PGC-1α -induced mitochondrial biogenesis. Our findings support a role for Perm1 acting downstream of PGC-1α and ERRs to regulate muscle-specific pathways important for energy metabolism and contractile function. Elucidating the function of Perm1 may lead to the identification of novel approaches for the treatment of disorders with compromised skeletal muscle bioenergetics, such as mitochondrial myopathies, or age-related/disease-associated muscle atrophies.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2013; · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanisms involved in the coordinate regulation of the metabolic and structural programs controlling muscle fitness and endurance are unknown. Recently, the nuclear receptor PPARβ/δ was shown to activate muscle endurance programs in transgenic mice. In contrast, muscle-specific transgenic overexpression of the related nuclear receptor, PPARα, results in reduced capacity for endurance exercise. We took advantage of the divergent actions of PPARβ/δ and PPARα to explore the downstream regulatory circuitry that orchestrates the programs linking muscle fiber type with energy metabolism. Our results indicate that, in addition to the well-established role in transcriptional control of muscle metabolic genes, PPARβ/δ and PPARα participate in programs that exert opposing actions upon the type I fiber program through a distinct muscle microRNA (miRNA) network, dependent on the actions of another nuclear receptor, estrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ). Gain-of-function and loss-of-function strategies in mice, together with assessment of muscle biopsies from humans, demonstrated that type I muscle fiber proportion is increased via the stimulatory actions of ERRγ on the expression of miR-499 and miR-208b. This nuclear receptor/miRNA regulatory circuit shows promise for the identification of therapeutic targets aimed at maintaining muscle fitness in a variety of chronic disease states, such as obesity, skeletal myopathies, and heart failure.
    The Journal of clinical investigation 05/2013; · 15.39 Impact Factor
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    EMBO 2012; 10/2012
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    ABSTRACT: Skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction is believed to play a role in the progression and severity of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The regulation of transcriptional co-activators involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and function in ALS is not well known. When compared with healthy control subjects, patients with ALS, but not neurogenic disease (ND), had lower levels of skeletal muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) mRNA and protein and estrogen-related receptor-α (ERRα) and mitofusin-2 (Mfn2) mRNA. PGC-1β, nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1) and Mfn1 mRNA as well as cytochrome C oxidase subunit IV (COXIV) mRNA and protein were lower in patients with ALS and ND. Both patient groups had reductions in citrate synthase and cytochrome c oxidase activity. Similar observations were made in skeletal muscle from transgenic ALS G93A transgenic mice. In vitro, PGC-1α and PGC-1β regulated Mfn1 and Mfn2 in an ERRα-dependent manner. Compared to healthy controls, miRNA 23a, 29b, 206 and 455 were increased in skeletal muscle of ALS patients. miR-23a repressed PGC-1α translation in a 3' UTR dependent manner. Transgenic mice over expressing miR-23a had a reduction in PGC-1α, cytochome-b and COXIV protein levels. These results show that skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction in ALS patients is associated with a reduction in PGC-1α signalling networks involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and function, as well as increases in several miRNAs potentially implicated in skeletal muscle and neuromuscular junction regeneration. As miR-23a negatively regulates PGC-1α signalling, therapeutic inhibition of miR-23a may be a strategy to rescue PGC-1α activity and ameliorate skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in ALS.
    Neurobiology of Disease 09/2012; 49C:107-117. · 5.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thiazolidinediones, a family of insulin-sensitizing drugs commonly used to treat type 2 diabetes, are thought to exert their effects in part by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis in white adipose tissue through the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α (Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Coactivator-1α). To assess the role of PGC-1α in the control of rosiglitazone-induced mitochondrial biogenesis, we have generated a mouse model that lacks expression of PGC-1α specifically in adipose tissues (PGC-1α-FAT-KO mice). We found that expression of genes encoding for mitochondrial proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation, tricarboxylic acid cycle or fatty acid oxidation, was similar in white adipose tissue of wild type and PGC-1α-FAT-KO mice. Furthermore, the absence of PGC-1α did not prevent the positive effect of rosiglitazone on mitochondrial gene expression or biogenesis, but it precluded the induction by rosiglitazone of UCP1 and other brown fat-specific genes in white adipose tissue. Consistent with the in vivo findings, basal and rosiglitazone-induced mitochondrial gene expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes was unaffected by the knockdown of PGC-1α but it was impaired when PGC-1β expression was knockdown by the use of specific siRNA. These results indicate that in white adipose tissue PGC-1α is dispensable for basal and rosiglitazone-induced mitochondrial biogenesis but required for the rosiglitazone-induced expression of UCP1 and other brown adipocyte-specific markers. Our study suggests that PGC-1α is important for the appearance of brown adipocytes in white adipose tissue. Our findings also provide evidence that PGC-1β and not PGC-1α regulates basal and rosiglitazone-induced mitochondrial gene expression in white adipocytes.
    PLoS ONE 11/2011; 6(11):e26989. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The striated muscle activator of Rho signalling (STARS) is an actin-binding protein specifically expressed in cardiac, skeletal and smooth muscle. STARS has been suggested to provide an important link between the transduction of external stress signals to intracellular signalling pathways controlling genes involved in the maintenance of muscle function. The aims of this study were firstly, to establish if STARS, as well as members of its downstream signalling pathway, are upregulated following acute endurance cycling exercise; and secondly, to determine if STARS is a transcriptional target of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1-α (PGC-1α) and oestrogen-related receptor-α (ERRα). When measured 3 h post-exercise, STARS mRNA and protein levels as well as MRTF-A and serum response factor (SRF) nuclear protein content, were significantly increased by 140, 40, 40 and 40%, respectively. Known SRF target genes, carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1β (CPT-1β) and jun B proto-oncogene (JUNB), as well as the exercise-responsive genes PGC-1α mRNA and ERRα were increased by 2.3-, 1.8-, 4.5- and 2.7-fold, 3 h post-exercise. Infection of C2C12 myotubes with an adenovirus-expressing human PGC-1α resulted in a 3-fold increase in Stars mRNA, a response that was abolished following the suppression of endogenous ERRα. Over-expression of PGC-1α also increased Cpt-1β, Cox4 and Vegf mRNA by 6.2-, 2.0- and 2.0-fold, respectively. Suppression of endogenous STARS reduced basal Cpt-1β levels by 8.2-fold and inhibited the PGC-1α-induced increase in Cpt-1β mRNA. Our results show for the first time that the STARS signalling pathway is upregulated in response to acute endurance exercise. Additionally, we show in C2C12 myotubes that the STARS gene is a PGC-1α/ERRα transcriptional target. Furthermore, our results suggest a novel role of STARS in the co-ordination of PGC-1α-induced upregulation of the fat oxidative gene, CPT-1β.
    The Journal of Physiology 04/2011; 589(Pt 8):2027-39. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Estrogen-related receptors (ERR), ERR alpha (ERRα) and ERR gamma (ERRγ), are orphan nuclear receptors implicated in breast cancer that function similarly in the regulation of oxidative metabolism genes. Paradoxically, in clinical studies, high levels of ERRα are associated with poor outcomes whereas high levels of ERRγ are associated with a favorable course. Recent studies suggest that ERRα may indeed promote breast tumor growth. The roles of ERRγ in breast cancer progression and how ERRα and ERRγ may differentially affect cancer growth are unclear. In mammary carcinoma cells that do not express endogenous ERRγ, we found that ectopic expression of ERRγ enhanced oxidative metabolism in vitro and inhibited the growth of tumor xenografts in vivo. In contrast, ectopic expression of the ERRα coactivator PGC-1α enhanced oxidative metabolism but did not affect tumor growth. Notably, ERRγ activated expression of a genetic program characteristic of mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET). This program was apparent by changes in cellular morphology, upregulation of epithelial cell markers, downregulation of mesenchymal markers, and decreased cellular invasiveness. We determined that this program was also associated with upregulation of E-cadherin, which is activated directly by ERRγ. In contrast, PGC-1α activated only a subset of genes characteristic of the MET program and, unlike ERRγ, did not upregulate E-cadherin. In conclusion, these results show that ERRγ induces E-cadherin, promotes MET, and suppresses breast cancer growth. Our findings suggest that ERRγ agonists may have applications in the treatment of breast cancer.
    Cancer Research 02/2011; 71(7):2518-28. · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) plays a central role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism and metabolic adaptation to environmental and nutritional stimuli. We recently described a novel, biologically active splice variant of PGC-1alpha (NT-PGC-1alpha, amino acids 1-270) that retains the ability to interact with and transactivate nuclear hormone receptors through its N-terminal transactivation domain. Whereas PGC-1alpha is an unstable nuclear protein sensitive to ubiquitin-mediated targeting to the proteasome, NT-PGC-1alpha is relatively stable and predominantly cytoplasmic, suggesting that its ability to interact with and activate nuclear receptors and transcription factors is dependent upon regulated access to the nucleus. We provide evidence that NT-PGC-1alpha interacts with the nuclear exportin, CRM1, through a specific leucine-rich domain (nuclear export sequence) that regulates its export to the cytoplasm. The nuclear export of NT-PGC-1alpha is inhibited by protein kinase A-dependent phosphorylation of Ser-194, Ser-241, and Thr-256 on NT-PGC-1alpha, which effectively increases its nuclear concentration. Using site-directed mutagenesis to prevent or mimic phosphorylation at these sites, we show that the transcriptional activity of NT-PGC-1alpha is regulated in part through regulation of its subcellular localization. These findings suggest that the function of NT-PGC-1alpha as a transcriptional co-activator is regulated by protein kinase A-dependent inhibition of CRM1-mediated export from the nucleus.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2010; 285(23):18039-50. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The transcriptional co-activator PGC-1alpha regulates functional plasticity in adipose tissue by linking sympathetic input to the transcriptional program of adaptive thermogenesis. We report here a novel truncated form of PGC-1alpha (NT-PGC-1alpha) produced by alternative 3' splicing that introduces an in-frame stop codon into PGC-1alpha mRNA. The expressed protein includes the first 267 amino acids of PGC-1alpha and 3 additional amino acids from the splicing insert. NT-PGC-1alpha contains the transactivation and nuclear receptor interaction domains but is missing key domains involved in nuclear localization, interaction with other transcription factors, and protein degradation. Expression and subcellular localization of NT-PGC-1alpha are dynamically regulated in the context of physiological signals that regulate full-length PGC-1alpha, but the truncated domain structure conveys unique properties with respect to protein-protein interactions, protein stability, and recruitment to target gene promoters. Therefore, NT-PGC-1alpha is a co-expressed, previously unrecognized form of PGC-1alpha with functions that are both unique from and complementary to PGC-1alpha.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2009; 284(47):32813-26. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    M Benjamin Hock, Anastasia Kralli
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    ABSTRACT: Mitochondria play central roles in energy homeostasis, metabolism, signaling, and apoptosis. Accordingly, the abundance, morphology, and functional properties of mitochondria are finely tuned to meet cell-specific energetic, metabolic, and signaling demands. This tuning is largely achieved at the level of transcriptional regulation. A highly interconnected network of transcription factors regulates a broad set of nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins, including those that control replication and transcription of the mitochondrial genome. The same transcriptional network senses cues relaying cellular energy status, nutrient availability, and the physiological state of the organism and enables short- and long-term adaptive responses, resulting in adjustments to mitochondrial function and mitochondrial biogenesis. Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with many human diseases. Characterization of the transcriptional mechanisms that regulate mitochondrial biogenesis and function can offer insights into possible therapeutic interventions aimed at modulating mitochondrial function.
    Annual Review of Physiology 02/2009; 71:177-203. · 19.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nuclear receptors activate or repress target genes depending on the recruitment of coactivators or corepressors. The corepressor RIP140 and the PPAR coactivator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha) both play key roles in the regulated transcription of genes involved in energy homeostasis. We investigated the roles of RIP140 and PGC-1alpha in controlling the expression of CIDEA, an important regulatory factor in adipose cell function and obesity. Ectopically expressed CIDEA surrounded lipid droplets in brown adipocytes and induced the formation of lipid droplets in nonadipogenic cell lines. The expression and promoter activity of CIDEA was repressed by RIP140 and induced by PGC-1alpha, mediated through the binding of estrogen-related receptor alpha and NRF-1 to their cognate binding sites. Importantly, we demonstrate that RIP140 interacts directly with PGC-1alpha and suppresses its activity. The direct antagonism of PGC-1alpha by RIP140 provides a mechanism for regulating target gene transcription via nuclear receptor-dependent and -independent pathways.
    Molecular and Cellular Biology 10/2008; 28(22):6785-95. · 5.04 Impact Factor
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    Josep A Villena, Anastasia Kralli
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    ABSTRACT: Estrogen receptor related receptor (ERR)alpha was one of the first identified (1988) orphan nuclear receptors. Many of the orphan receptors identified after ERRalpha were deorphanized in a timely manner and appreciated as key transcriptional regulators of metabolic pathways. ERRalpha, however, remains an orphan. Nevertheless, recent studies have defined regulatory mechanisms and transcriptional targets of ERRalpha, allowing this receptor to join ranks with other nuclear receptors that control metabolism. Notably, mice lacking ERRalpha show defects when challenged with stressors that require a 'shift of gears' in energy metabolism, such as exposure to cold, cardiac overload or infection. These findings establish the importance of ERRalpha for adaptive energy metabolism, and suggest that strategies targeting ERRalpha may be useful in fighting metabolic diseases.
    Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism 10/2008; 19(8):269-76. · 8.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) is a highly regulated transcriptional coactivator that coordinates energy metabolism in mammals. Misregulation of PGC-1alpha has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several human diseases, including diabetes, obesity, and neurological disorders. We identified SCF(Cdc4) as an E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates PGC-1alpha through ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. PGC-1alpha contains two Cdc4 phosphodegrons that bind Cdc4 when phosphorylated by Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3beta (GSK3beta) and p38 MAPK, leading to SCF(Cdc4)-dependent ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation of PGC-1alpha. Furthermore, SCF(Cdc4) negatively regulates PGC-1alpha-dependent transcription. We demonstrate that RNAi-mediated reduction of Cdc4 in primary neurons results in an increase of endogenous PGC-1alpha protein, while ectopic expression of Cdc4 leads to a reduction of endogenous PGC-1alpha protein. Finally, under conditions of oxidative stress in neurons, Cdc4 levels are decreased, leading to an increase in PGC-1alpha protein and PGC-1alpha-dependent transcription. These results suggest that attenuation of SCF(Cdc4)-dependent proteasomal degradation of PGC-1alpha has a role in mediating the PGC-1alpha-dependent transcriptional response to oxidative stress.
    Genes & Development 02/2008; 22(2):252-64. · 12.64 Impact Factor
  • Dieter Kressler, M Benjamin Hock, Anastasia Kralli
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    ABSTRACT: PGC-1beta is a transcriptional coactivator that enhances strongly and in a hormone-dependent manner the activity of the estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) while having only weak effects on similar steroid hormone receptors, such as ERbeta or the glucocorticoid receptor. Notably, PGC-1beta enhances ERalpha transcriptional activity not only in response to agonist ligands, such as estradiol, but also to selective ER modulators, such as tamoxifen. Here, we dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying the ability of PGC-1beta to act selectively on ERalpha and to promote the agonist activity of tamoxifen. We show that receptor selectivity is achieved by PGC-1beta interactions with not just the ligand binding domain (LBD), which is highly conserved among nuclear receptors, but also the N-terminal domain and the hinge/AF-2a region of ERalpha, which are less well conserved. PGC-1beta interacts directly with the hinge/AF-2a and LBD regions but indirectly and via the coactivator SRC-1 with the N-terminal domain. The three ERalpha surfaces and SRC-1 collectively enable efficient coactivation by PGC-1beta. Similar ERalpha surfaces and interactions enable PGC-1beta to coactivate transcription by tamoxifen-bound ERalpha. Surprisingly, PGC-1beta coactivation of tamoxifen-bound ERalpha depends partially on one of the LXXLL motifs of PGC-1beta and on Lys(362) of the ERalpha LBD (i.e. surfaces implicated in agonist-dependent interactions). Our findings suggest that tamoxifen-induced changes in the ERalpha LBD promote interactions with the coactivator PGC-1beta, which then cooperates with SRC-1 to enable tamoxifen agonism.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2007; 282(37):26897-907. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Brain metastases are among the most feared complications in breast cancer, as no therapy exists that prevents or eliminates breast cancer spreading to the brain. New therapeutic strategies depend on specific knowledge of tumor cell properties that allow breast cancer cell growth within the brain tissue. To provide information in this direction, we established a human breast cancer cell model for brain metastasis based on circulating tumor cells from a breast cancer patient and variants of these cells derived from bone or brain lesions in immunodeficient mice. The brain-derived cells showed an increased potential for brain metastasis in vivo and exhibited a unique protein expression profile identified by large-scale proteomic analysis. This protein profile is consistent with either a selection of predisposed cells or bioenergetic adaptation of the tumor cells to the unique energy metabolism of the brain. Increased expression of enzymes involved in glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation pathways suggests that the brain metastatic cells derive energy from glucose oxidation. The cells further showed enhanced activation of the pentose phosphate pathway and the glutathione system, which can minimize production of reactive oxygen species resulting from an enhanced oxidative metabolism. These changes promoted resistance of brain metastatic cells to drugs that affect the cellular redox balance. Importantly, the metabolic alterations are associated with strongly enhanced tumor cell survival and proliferation in the brain microenvironment. Thus, our data support the hypothesis that predisposition or adaptation of the tumor cell energy metabolism is a key element in breast cancer brain metastasis, and raise the possibility of targeting the functional differentiation in breast cancer brain lesions as a novel therapeutic strategy.
    Cancer Research 03/2007; 67(4):1472-86. · 9.28 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
333.50 Total Impact Points


  • 2004–2014
    • The Scripps Research Institute
      • • Department of Chemical Physiology
      • • Department of Cell and Molecular Biology
      La Jolla, California, United States
  • 2011–2013
    • Deakin University
      • • Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research
      • • School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences
      Geelong, Victoria, Australia
  • 2008
    • University Hospital Vall d'Hebron
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 1999–2007
    • Universität Basel
      • Department of Chemical Biology
      Basel, BS, Switzerland
  • 2006
    • Imperial College London
      • Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2005
    • Clinique romande de réadaptation
      Sitten, Valais, Switzerland
  • 1995–2000
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology
      San Francisco, CA, United States
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Chemical Biology Laboratory
      Bethesda, MD, United States