Myron Chang

University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States

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Publications (15)90.26 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background Optimal therapy for children and adolescents with advanced stage anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is unknown. ANHL0131 examined whether a maintenance regimen including vinblastine compared to the standard APO (doxorubicin, prednisone, vincristine, methotrexate, 6-mercaptopurine) regimen would result in superior event-free survival.ProcedureOne hundred and twenty five eligible patients were enrolled. Induction was identical for both arms. Post induction patients were randomized to receive APO with vincristine every 3 weeks or a regimen that substituted vincristine with weekly vinblastine (APV).ResultsThere was no difference between the patients randomized to the APO versus APV arms in either event free survival (EFS) or overall survival (OS) (three year EFS 74% vs. 79%, P = 0.68 and three years OS of 84% vs. 86%, P = 0.87, respectively). Patients in the APV arm required dose reduction secondary to myelosuppression and had a higher incidence of neutropenia as well as infection with neutropenia compared to those in the APO arm (P < 0.001, P = 0.019, respectively).Conclusions Treatment with weekly vinblastine instead of every three week vincristine as part of multi-agent maintenance therapy did not result in improvement in EFS or OS. Weekly vinblastine was associated with increased toxicity. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00059839) Pediatr Blood Cancer © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Pediatric Blood & Cancer 12/2014; 61(12). DOI:10.1002/pbc.25187 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Relapse remains the leading cause of death in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Relatively few new chemotherapy agents have been proven to be effective in this population. We report on a Phase 2 clinical trial using the novel combination of 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine (2-CDA) (8 mg/m² per d x 5 d) plus idarubicin (Ida) (10 mg/m² per d x 3 d). The study involved 109 paediatric patients with AML at first relapse, of whom 104 were available for analysis. The overall response rate was 51% (complete response [CR] + partial response) with a CR rate of 46%. 2-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 20% and 26%. The only significant variable in determining response, EFS and OS was duration of initial remission, with patients who had an initial remission >1 year having much worse outcomes overall (response rate 74% vs. 25%, EFS 8% vs. 37% and OS of 16% vs. 39%, P < 0.01 for all). There was an acceptable toxicity profile with one neurological event and no cardiac events observed. The most common grade 3-4 toxicities observed were neutropenia (59%) and thrombocytopenia (68%). This study demonstrated that the novel combination of 2-CDA/Ida was effective and should be considered for incorporation in front line therapy for children with AML.
    British Journal of Haematology 03/2012; 156(5):649-55. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2141.2011.08976.x · 4.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PurposeTo determine the efficacy of imatinib in children with newly diagnosed chronic phase (CP) chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML).Methods This was an open label, multi-center phase II clinical trial. Courses were defined as consecutive 28-day intervals. Oral imatinib was administered daily at 340 mg/m2 without interruption in the absence of toxicity.ResultsFifty-one children received 978 28-day courses of imatinib. The most common toxicities encountered were hematologic. Forty-one patients (80%) achieved a complete hematologic response by the end of course 2. Nineteen children (38%) obtained a complete cytogenetic response (CCyR) at the end of course 3. Overall, 72% achieved CCyR at a median time of 5.6 months. The rate of complete molecular response (>3 log reduction) was 27%. Progression-free and overall survival at 3 years were 72% ± 6.4% and 92% ± 3.9%, respectively.Conclusions Daily oral imatinib at a dose of 340 mg/m2 is well tolerated in children. In addition, imatinib therapy is effective in inducing a high percent of hematologic, cytogenetic and molecular responses, comparable to adults with CML. (This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under identifier NCT00030394.). Pediatr Blood Cancer 2011;57:56–62. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Pediatric Blood & Cancer 07/2011; 57(1):56 - 62. DOI:10.1002/pbc.23031 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously demonstrated that outcome of pediatric 11q23/MLL-rearranged AML depends on the translocation partner (TP). In this multicenter international study on 733 children with 11q23/MLL-rearranged AML, we further analyzed which additional cytogenetic aberrations (ACA) had prognostic significance. ACAs occurred in 344 (47%) of 733 and were associated with unfavorable outcome (5-year overall survival [OS] 47% vs 62%, P < .001). Trisomy 8, the most frequent specific ACA (n = 130/344, 38%), independently predicted favorable outcome within the ACAs group (OS 61% vs 39%, P = .003; Cox model for OS hazard ratio (HR) 0.54, P = .03), on the basis of reduced relapse rate (26% vs 49%, P < .001). Trisomy 19 (n = 37/344, 11%) independently predicted poor prognosis in ACAs cases, which was partly caused by refractory disease (remission rate 74% vs 89%, P = .04; OS 24% vs 50%, P < .001; HR 1.77, P = .01). Structural ACAs had independent adverse prognostic value for event-free survival (HR 1.36, P = .01). Complex karyotype, defined as ≥ 3 abnormalities, was present in 26% (n = 192/733) and showed worse outcome than those without complex karyotype (OS 45% vs 59%, P = .003) in univariate analysis only. In conclusion, like TP, specific ACAs have independent prognostic significance in pediatric 11q23/MLL-rearranged AML, and the mechanism underlying these prognostic differences should be studied.
    Blood 05/2011; 117(26):7102-11. DOI:10.1182/blood-2010-12-328302 · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: KIT receptor tyrosine kinase mutations are implicated as a prognostic factor in adults with core binding factor (CBF) acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, their prevalence and prognostic significance in pediatric CBF AML is not well established. We performed KIT mutational analysis (exon 8 and exon 17) on diagnostic specimens from 203 pediatric patients with CBF AML enrolled on 4 pediatric AML protocols. KIT mutations were detected in 38 (19%) of 203 (95% CI, 14%-25%) patient samples of which 20 (52.5%) of 38 (95% CI, 36%-69%) involved exon 8, 17 (45%) of 38 (95% CI, 29%-62%) involved exon 17, and 1 (2.5%; 95% CI, 0%-14%) involved both locations. Patients with KIT mutations had a 5-year event-free survival of 55% (+/- 17%) compared with 59% (+/- 9%) for patients with wild-type KIT (P = .86). Rates of complete remission, overall survival, disease-free survival, or relapse were not significantly different for patients with or without KIT mutations. Location of the KIT mutation and analysis by cytogenetic subtype [t(8;21) vs inv(16)] also lacked prognostic significance. Our study shows that KIT mutations lack prognostic significance in a large series of pediatric patients with CBF AML. This finding, which differs from adult series and a previously published pediatric study, may reflect variations in therapeutic approaches and/or biologic heterogeneity within CBF AML. Two of 4 studies included in this analysis are registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00002798 (CCG-2961) and NCT00070174 (COG AAML03P1).
    Blood 03/2010; 115(12):2372-9. DOI:10.1182/blood-2009-09-241075 · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Translocations involving chromosome 11q23 frequently occur in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and are associated with poor prognosis. In most cases, the MLL gene is involved, and more than 50 translocation partners have been described. Clinical outcome data of the 11q23-rearranged subgroups are scarce because most 11q23 series are too small for meaningful analysis of subgroups, although some studies suggest that patients with t(9;11)(p22;q23) have a more favorable prognosis. We retrospectively collected outcome data of 756 children with 11q23- or MLL-rearranged AML from 11 collaborative groups to identify differences in outcome based on translocation partners. All karyotypes were centrally reviewed before assigning patients to subgroups. The event-free survival of 11q23/MLL-rearranged pediatric AML at 5 years from diagnosis was 44% (+/- 5%), with large differences across subgroups (11% +/- 5% to 92% +/- 5%). Multivariate analysis identified the following subgroups as independent prognostic predictors: t(1;11)(q21;q23) (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.1, P = .004); t(6;11)(q27;q23) (HR = 2.2, P < .001); t(10;11)(p12;q23) (HR = 1.5, P = .005); and t(10;11)(p11.2;q23) (HR = 2.5, P = .005). We could not confirm the favorable prognosis of the t(9;11)(p22;q23) subgroup. We identified large differences in outcome within 11q23/MLL-rearranged pediatric AML and novel subgroups based on translocation partners that independently predict clinical outcome. Screening for these translocation partners is needed for accurate treatment stratification at diagnosis.
    Blood 07/2009; 114(12):2489-96. DOI:10.1182/blood-2009-04-215152 · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To estimate the response rate and therapy related toxicities of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab when combined with chemotherapy including ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide (ICE) in patients with relapsed and refractory B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and mature B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). Patients received rituximab and ICE for 1-3 cycles, depending upon response. Rituximab (375 mg/m(2)) was given on day 1 and 3 of each cycle (day 1 only for cycle 3), with ifosfamide (3,000 mg/m(2)) and etoposide (100 mg/m(2)) given on days 3, 4, and 5 and carboplatin (635 mg/m(2)) given on day 3 only. Twenty-one patients were enrolled, of whom 20 were eligible and evaluable. Although hematologic toxicities were common, only one patient was removed from study due to prolonged myelosuppression. Toxicities related to infusions of rituximab were frequent but manageable. Of the six eligible patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, three achieved complete remission (CR), one had stable disease (SD), and two had progressive disease (PD). Of the 14 eligible patients with Burkitt lymphoma and B-ALL, there were four complete responses (CR), five partial responses (PR), one SD, and four with PD. Thus, the CR/PR rate for the entire group was 12/20 (60%). Following completion of protocol therapy six patients were able to proceed to consolidation with high-dose therapy and stem cell rescue. The combination of rituximab and ICE chemotherapy was associated with an encouraging objective response (OR) rate and an acceptable toxicity profile.
    Pediatric Blood & Cancer 02/2009; 52(2):177-81. DOI:10.1002/pbc.21753 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL) other than anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) are rare in young patients. While a high proportion of adults with PTCL have poor risk disease, pediatric PTCL is not well characterized. This study examines the outcome of localized and advanced PTCL in pediatric patients treated in standardized fashion.ProcedureWe identified 20 pediatric patients diagnosed with PTCL whose tumor cells did not express CD30 and/or ALK, as determined by immunohistochemistry, between 1992 and 2000 on one of two treatment protocols for localized NHL (POG 9219) or advanced stage large cell lymphoma (POG 9315). All cases were centrally reviewed.ResultsThe median age was 12.6 (range 0.7–16.9)—9 male and 11 female. Histological subtypes in the WHO Classification included PTCL, unspecified (12), extra-nodal NK/T-cell lymphoma of nasal type (4), subcutaneous panniculitis-like T cell lymphoma (1) and enteropathy-type T-cell lymphoma (1). Two cases exhibited both T-cell and histiocyte markers and were reclassified as histiocytic sarcoma per the WHO, although T-lineage remains possible. Of 10 patients with localized disease, only two relapsed and 9 survive. Of 10 patients with advanced disease, six relapsed and five (50%) survive.Conclusions These results suggest that localized PTCL in children and adolescents is frequently cured with modern therapy, but that advanced stage cases may require novel therapy. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2008;51:29–33. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Pediatric Blood & Cancer 07/2008; 51(1):29 - 33. DOI:10.1002/pbc.21543 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Frameshift mutations in exon 12 of the nucleophosmin gene (NPM1) result in aberrant cytoplasmic localization of the NPM protein (NPMc(+)) and occur in 25% to 35% of adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In adults with AML, NPMc(+) has been associated with normal karyotype, FLT3/ITD mutations, high remission induction rates, and improved survival (particularly in patients lacking FLT3/ITD). NPMc(+) has not been well characterized in childhood AML. This study examines the incidence and clinical significance of NPMc(+) in 295 children with newly diagnosed AML treated on a large cooperative group clinical trial (POG-9421). We find that NPMc(+) is relatively uncommon in childhood AML (23 of 295 patients, 8%); and is significantly associated with FLT3/ITD mutations (P = .046), female sex (P = .029), older age (P = .047), and normal cytogenetics (P < .001). There is a favorable impact of NPMc(+) on survival in children lacking FLT3/ITD (5-year EFS, 69% vs 35%; hazard ratio, 0.39; P = .051), which is similar in magnitude to the favorable impact of t(8;21) and inv(16). We conclude that NPMc(+) is relatively rare in childhood AML, particularly in younger children. NPMc(+) does not abrogate the negative prognostic influence of FLT3/ITD mutations, but may contribute to risk stratification in children who lack FLT3/ITD mutations by identifying a group with superior prognosis.
    Blood 08/2007; 110(3):979-85. DOI:10.1182/blood-2007-02-076604 · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Monosomy 7 (-7) and deletion 7q \del(7q)] are rare in childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We retrospectively collected data on 258 children with AML or refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation (RAEB-T) and -7 or del(7q) with or without other cytogenetic aberrations \+/- other]. Karyotypes included -7 (n = 90), -7 other (n = 82), del(7q) (n = 21), and del(7q) other (n = 65). Complete remission (CR) was achieved in fewer patients with -7 +/- other compared with del(7q) +/- other (61% versus 89%, P < .001). Overall, the 5-year survival rate was 39% (SE, 3%). Survival was superior in del(7q) +/- other compared with -7 +/- other (51% versus 30%, P < .01). Cytogenetic aberrations considered favorable in AML \t(8;21)(q22;q22), inv(16)(p13q22), t(15;17)(q22;q21), t(9;11)(p22;q23)] (n = 24) were strongly associated with del(7q) and a higher 5-year survival rate compared with del(7q) without favorable cytogenetics (75% versus 46%, P = .03). Patients with -7 and inv(3),-5/del(5q), or + 21 had a 5-year survival rate of 5%. Stem cell transplantation analyzed as a time-dependent variable had no impact on overall survival. However, patients not achieving CR had a 31% survival rate after stem cell transplantation. Childhood AML with chromosome 7 aberrations represents a heterogeneous group of disorders with additional cytogenetic aberrations having a major prognostic impact which should be reflected in future risk-group stratification.
    Blood 07/2007; 109(11):4641-7. DOI:10.1182/blood-2006-10-051342 · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) activates (phosphorylates) signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) with subsequent cytoplasmic expression, in some cases, of survivin and tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease 1 (TIMP1). These are inhibitors of apoptosis and negative prognostic factors. CD56 is also a negative prognostic marker in ALCL. We assayed 40 cases of predominantly ALK+ pediatric ALCL for pSTAT3, survivin, TIMP1, and CD56 using immunohistochemical analysis. The patients were derived from a Pediatric Oncology Group treatment protocol that showed 72% event-free survival at 4 years for ALCL. The results show that in advanced-stage pediatric ALCL, although most tumors express ALK and a majority show activated STAT3, cytoplasmic localization of survivin and TIMP1 is not frequent, nor is expression of CD56. This may help, in part, explain the relatively good prognosis of pediatric ALCL.
    American Journal of Clinical Pathology 06/2007; 127(5):770-8. DOI:10.1309/FNY8Y4H6PK1V2MGE · 3.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The outcome for children with acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) remains poor, except for cases associated with Down syndrome (DS). This study compared immunophenotypic and drug sensitivity patterns of childhood AMKL cases with or without DS. All DS-AMKL cases showed high expression of CD36 and were very sensitive to cytarabine and daunorubicin in vitro. In children without DS, high expression of CD36 on AMKL blasts identified a sub-group with immunophenotypic and drug sensitivity patterns similar to that of DS AMKL. Among non-DS AMKL patients, CD36-high cases had a superior outcome compared with CD36-negative cases. CD36 expression in acute myeloid leukemia cases other than AMKL was not associated with increased in vitro drug sensitivity. CD36 expression in AMKL may be an indicator of megakaryoblast maturation and chemotherapy sensitivity.
    Leukemia and Lymphoma 11/2006; 47(10):2076-83. DOI:10.1080/10428190600773180 · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Pediatric Oncology Group adopted a histology-based approach to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and treated patients with advanced large-cell lymphoma on a separate protocol (doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone, 6-mercaptopurin, and methotrexate; APO regimen). In this study, we assessed the effects of an intense antimetabolite therapy alternating with APO on overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) and looked into biologic correlates. From December 1994 to April 2000, we enrolled 180 eligible pediatric patients with stage III/IV large-cell lymphoma (LCL); 90 patients were randomly assigned to the intermediate-dose methotrexate (IDM) and high-dose cytarabine (HiDAC) arm, 85 patients to the APO arm, and five patients directly to the APO arm by study design due to CNS involvement. Planned therapy duration was 12 months. The 4-year EFS for all patients was 67.4% (SE, 4.2%), and OS was 80.1% (SE, 3.6%) without any significant difference between the two arms. The 4-year EFS and OS were 71.8% (SE, 6.1%) and 88.1% (SE, 4.4%), respectively, for patients with anaplastic large-cell lymphoma, and 63.8% (SE, 10.3%) and 70.3% (SE, 9.0%), respectively, for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Only 11 patients required radiation (due to unresponsive bulky disease or CNS involvement). The IDM/HiDAC arm was associated with more toxicity. The efficacy of incorporating IDM/HiDAC in the treatment plan of pediatric and adolescent patients with advanced-stage LCL was inconclusive as to its effect on EFS, regardless of the lymphoma phenotype. It cannot be excluded that with a higher number of patients, one treatment could prove superior and future studies will build on these data.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 02/2005; 23(3):541-7. DOI:10.1200/JCO.2005.11.075 · 17.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although the Bcl-2 protein inhibits apoptosis (programmed cell death) of lymphoid cells induced by a variety of stimuli, its effects on myeloid cell short- and long-term survival after chemotherapy are less defined. We sought to elucidate the short- and long-term effect of Bcl-2 in a well-studied myeloid cell line (HL-60) treated with specific anti-AML chemotherapy. HL-60 cells overexpressing Bcl-2 (HL-60/BCL-2) were more resistant than parental HL-60 cells to multiple chemotherapeutic agents in short-term apoptosis and viability assays. Significantly, HL-60/BCL-2 cells retained greater long-term proliferative capacity than HL-60 cells when treated with low doses of doxorubicin. To assess the importance of Bcl-2 expression in pediatric AML we correlated clinical outcome and levels of Bcl-2 protein in 22 patient specimens. The correlation did not achieve statistical significance with patient response to chemotherapy or long-term outcome, suggesting that analysis of larger numbers of patient samples would not be useful. Our study suggests that although Bcl-2 clearly promotes short and long-term survival in a myeloid cell line, measurement of Bcl-2 levels alone are not sufficient to be of prognostic significance in pediatric AML.
    Leukemia Research 02/1998; 22(1):81-7. DOI:10.1016/S0145-2126(97)00127-6 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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