You Jin Lee

Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea

Are you You Jin Lee?

Claim your profile

Publications (62)157.97 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Activation of β-catenin in neurons regulates mitochondrial function and protects against protein misfolding disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease. Melatonin, a natural secretory product of the pineal gland, exerts neuroprotective effects through the activation of β-catenin. In this study, melatonin increased β-catenin protein expression and activation in human neuroblastoma cell lines SH-SY5Y cells. Melatonin also inhibited PrP (106-126)-induced neurotoxicity and the inhibition attenuated by treatment of β-catenin inhibitor ICG-001. Activation of β-catenin blocked PrP (106-126)-mediated down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein survivin and Bcl-2. Reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential, translocation of Bax and cytochrome c release which induced by PrP (106-126) treatment were inhibited by β-catenin activation, which contributed to prevented PrP (106-126)-induced neuronal cell death. In conclusion, β-catenin activation by melatonin prevented PrP (106-126)-induced neuronal cell death through regulating anti-apoptotic proteins and mitochondrial pathways. These results also suggest the therapeutic value of wnt/ β-catenin signaling in prion-related disorders as influenced by melatonin.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Pineal Research 09/2014; · 7.30 Impact Factor
  • Source
    You Jin Lee
    Endocrinology and metabolism (Seoul, Korea). 06/2014; 29(2):144-5.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The inter-conversion of ethylene and propylene over P-modified HZSM5 catalysts in catalytic naphtha cracking conditions are prevailing and the following reaction mechanism is proposed.
    Catalysis Today 05/2014; 226:52–66. · 3.31 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Lateral lymph node metastasis is an important prognostic factor and is predictive of tumor recurrence and cause-specific survival in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). However, the factors predicting recurrence and clinical outcomes after therapeutic lateral neck dissection are not well established. The aims of this study were to evaluate the incidence, pattern, and factors predictive of PTC recurrence after therapeutic lateral neck dissection. The records of 126 consecutive patients who underwent total thyroidectomy with therapeutic lateral neck dissection for primary PTC at the National Cancer Center were retrospectively reviewed. The factors predictive of recurrence were determined using both univariate and multivariate analyses considering several clinicopathologic variables. The median follow-up period was 61.2 months, during which 22 patients (17.5 %) experienced recurrence with 1 death (0.8 %) due to disease. Locoregional recurrence and distant metastasis were found in 20 cases (15.9 %) and 2 cases (1.6 %), respectively. Male gender, aggressive histology, number of lymph node metastases, initial level of T4-off Tg per ng/mL, and ATA risk categories (high risk) were independent risk factors for recurrence. Of note, initial T4-off Tg levels greater than 4.2 ng/mL showed highest sensitivity and specificity in predicting recurrence. These results provide useful information regarding the clinical outcomes after therapeutic lateral neck dissection for primary PTC and can be used to identify at-risk patients who need aggressive treatment and intensive surveillance for postoperative recurrence.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 02/2014; · 4.12 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In recent years, some reports have suggested that papillary thyroid cancers are more frequently associated with lymphocytic thyroiditis or Hashimoto's thyroiditis. This study investigated a potential increase in the prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis among papillary thyroid cancer patients.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(6):e99054. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis, the process of new vessel formation from the pre-existing blood vasculature, is critical for continuous tumor growth and is considered to be a validated antitumor target. The results of our previous study demonstrate the anti-angiogenic potential of an extract of Gleditsia sinensis thorns, which has been traditionally used in Korean medicine to remedy diverse diseases, including tumors. In the present study, we attempted to identify the active anti-angiogenic constituents of the ethanol extract of G. sinensis thorns (EEGS). By virtue of in vitro activity-guided fractionation using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) primary endothelial cells, chromatographic separation, and NMR spectral analyses, we isolated and identified the potent active constituent, cytochalasin H, a biologically active secondary metabolite of fungi. This unexpected active constituent may have originated from the endophytic fungi, Chaetomium globosum, which naturally populate G. sinensis, the identity of which was determined by analysis of fungal community. Cytochalasin H isolated from the EEGS showed in vitro anti-angiogenic activities such as suppressed cell growth and mobility in HUVEC, and inhibited the pro-angiogenic protein-induced formation of new blood vessels in vivo. The anti-angiogenic effect of cytochalasin H was in part due to reduced expression of pro-angiogenic factor, such as endothelin-1. This is the first report regarding the isolation and identification of cytochalasin H, as an active anti-angiogenic constituent of G. sinensis thorns.
    Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 10/2013; · 1.85 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The prognostic role of the T1799A BRAF mutation is controversial. We investigated the protein expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTCs) samples harboring the specific mutation using proteomic tools. We performed two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to identify differential protein expression regarding lymph node metastasis (LNM). Proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for 38 PTCs harboring the mutation. We validated the association between these proteins and clinicopathological factors in a test set of 121 PTCs. The expression of vimentin was increased in PTCs with LNM, but the one for HSP60, SOD2 and PEBP1 was increased in samples without LNM. HSP60 protein was up-regulated in PTCs without LNM (84.2% vs. 36.8%. p=0.003) and in PTCs without LNM harboring the mutation (58% vs. 41.8%. p=0.003) in the test set as shown by immunohistochemical staining. HSP60 protein expression may inhibit LNM in PTCs harboring the BRAF mutation and may be a useful prognostic marker.
    Anticancer research 10/2013; 33(10):4357-4364. · 1.71 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The goal of this study is to compare the overall quality of film mammograms taken according to the Korean standards with the American College of Radiology (ACR) standard for clinical image evaluation and to identify means of improving mammography quality in Korea. Four hundred and sixty eight sets of film mammograms were evaluated with respect to the Korean and ACR standards for clinical image evaluation. The pass and failure rates of mammograms were compared by medical facility types. Average scores in each category of the two standards were evaluated. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to identify an optimal Korean standard pass mark by taking the ACR standard as the reference standard. 93.6% (438/468) of mammograms passed the Korean standard, whereas only 80.1% (375/468) passed the ACR standard (p < 0.001). Non-radiologic private clinics had the lowest pass rate (88.1%: Korean standard, 71.8%: ACR standard) and the lowest total score (76.0) by the Korean standard. Average scores of positioning were lowest (19.3/29 by the Korean standard and 3.7/5 by the ACR standard). A cutoff score of 77.0 for the Korean standard was found to correspond to a pass level when the ACR standard was applied. We suggest that tighter regulations, such as, raising the Korean pass mark, subtracting more for severe deficiencies, or considering a very low scores in even a single category as failure, are needed to improve the quality of mammography in Korea.
    Korean journal of radiology: official journal of the Korean Radiological Society 09/2013; 14(5):701-10. · 1.32 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Voice and throat dysfunction may occur in patients after thyroidectomy, even in the absence of apparent laryngeal nerve injury. We evaluated the impact of thyroid surgery on voice and throat function using perceptive, objective, and subjective measurements in a prospectively enrolled and serially followed cohort of thyroid cancer patients. We assessed the impact of surgical extent and intensity of postoperative treatment, including addition radioactive iodine treatment (RIT), on these functions. Consenting patients undergoing thyroid lobectomy (TL; n = 33), total thyroidectomy (TT; n = 41), or TT plus RIT (n = 81), none of whom had laryngeal nerve dysfunction perioperatively, were enrolled prospectively. All underwent comprehensive functional evaluations, including perceptive voice quality using the grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, strain (GRBAS) scale and acoustic voice analysis with multiple parameters, and filled out subjective questionnaires, including the Voice Handicap Index (VHI) and the Glasgow Edinburgh Throat Scale, before thyroidectomy and at 1, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. In this study, 14-83% of the patients developed some element of voice and throat dysfunction, shown consistently in different evaluations. Typical patterns were alterations of perceptive voice, deranged acoustic parameters, and subjective worsening on the VHI and GETS. Moreover, these changes were correlated with the extent of treatment, especially within 3 months after operation, and often persisted 12 months postoperatively. RIT had no effects on voice outcomes throughout the follow-up. Voice and throat dysfunction are evident after thyroidectomy, more severely after TT than TL. These potential disabilities should be considered carefully to further enhance patients' quality of life.
    Surgery 08/2013; · 3.37 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Lignans isolated from Schisandria chinensis have been prescribed as anti-cancer and anti-hepatitis treatments in Chinese medicine. To investigate the applications of lignans isolated from Schisandria chinensis in hepatic carcinoma therapy, their apoptotic ability was screened using a cell proliferation assay. Compared to the other lignans, gomisin N induced high apoptotic levels in hepatic carcinoma. Cell morphology and flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that this lignan induced cell death at high concentrations, but did not induce any changes at low concentrations. In addition, the expression levels of Bcl-2 and Bax proteins, which are involved in the apoptotic pathway, were markedly increased in only the 320 µM-treated group compared to the vehicle and other concentration groups, while the expression level of p53 protein remained unchanged in this group. These results suggest that gomisin N is an anti-cancer drug candidate capable of inhibiting the proliferation and inducing the apoptosis of human hepatic carcinomas.
    Molecular Medicine Reports 07/2013; 2(5):725-32. · 1.17 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK) plays a central role in cellular metabolic sensing and energy balance homeostasis, and interacts with various pathways [e.g., TP53, mTOR, NUAK2 (sucrose nonfermenting-like kinase), MAPK3/1 (ERK) and PDK]. Therefore, the present study analyzed the expression of pAMPK, NUAK2, MAPK3/1 and PDK-1 and their effect on the survival of patients with resected gastric cancer. Methods: A total of 621 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma surgically resected with curative intent were enrolled in the study. Immunohistochemical staining for pAMPK, NUAK2, MAPK3/1 and PDK-1 was performed using tissue microarrays of surgical specimens of gastric cancer tissue. Results: Positive pAMPK, NUAK2, MAPK3/1 and PDK-1 expression was observed in 379 (61.0%), 257 (41.4%), 327 (52.7%) and 67 (10.8%) cases, respectively. Multivariate survival analysis showed a significantly better survival for the patients with positive pAMPK or MAPK3/1 expression than for the patients with a negative expression [pAMPK: disease-free survival (DFS), hazard ratio (HR) = 0.750, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.568-0.970, p = 0.030; MAPK3/1: DFS, HR = 0.692, 95% CI = 0.720-0.974, p = 0.021), while NUAK2 or PDK-1 expression had no effect on survival. Conclusion: pAMPK or MAPK3/1 expression was found to be an independent prognostic marker for patients with resected gastric cancer.
    Oncology 07/2013; 85(2):78-85. · 2.17 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We fabricated 4.3-inch WVGA fringe-field switching mode with fast response time using reactive mesogen (RM) mixed in planar alignment layer. The RM-mixed alignment layer gave rise to improvement of the response time by an enhancement of azimuthal anchoring energy. In addition, due to low pretilt angle of the RM-mixed alignment layer, no gray inversion was observed.
    SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers. 06/2013; 44(1).
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Shivering is a frequent event during spinal anesthesia and meperidine is a well-known effective drug for prevention and treatment of shivering. Nefopam is a non-opiate analgesic and also known to have an anti-shivering effect. We compared nefopam with meperidine for efficacy of prevention of shivering during spinal anesthesia. Sixty five patients, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II, aged 20-65 years, scheduled for elective orthopedic surgery under spinal anesthesia were investigated. Patients were randomly divided into two groups, meperidine (Group M, n = 33) and nefopam (Group N, n = 32) groups. Group M and N received meperidine 0.4 mg/kg or nefopam 0.15 mg/kg, respectively, in 100 ml of isotonic saline intravenously. All drugs were infused for 15 minutes by a blinded investigator before spinal anesthesia. Blood pressures, heart rates, body temperatures and side effects were checked before and at 15, 30, and 60 minutes after spinal anesthesia. The incidences and scores of shivering were similar between the two groups. The mean arterial pressures in Group N were maintained higher than in Group M at 15, 30, and 60 minutes after spinal anesthesia. The injection pain was checked in Group N only and its incidence was 15.6%. We conclude that nefopam can be a good substitute for meperidine for prevention of shivering during spinal anesthesia with more stable hemodynamics, if injection pain is effectively controlled.
    Korean journal of anesthesiology 03/2013; 64(3):229-33.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A new sinapoyl glycoside, 1,3-di-O-sinapoyl-β-D-glucopyranose (1) along with 13 known compounds, including, sinapoyl glycosides (2 and 3), cardenolide glycoside (4), flavonoids (5-10), lignan (11), phenolic acids (12 and 13), and phytosterol (14), were isolated from the seeds of Descurainia sophia by chromatographic separation methods. The structures of 1-14 were determined by the interpretation of spectroscopic data as well as by comparison of that data with previously reported values. Compounds 2, 3, 5, 6, and 11 were identified in and isolated from this plant for the first time in this study. All isolates were evaluated for in vitro cytotoxic activities against seven human cancer cell lines and for in vitro anti-inflammatory potential using LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 murine macrophages. Compound 4 showed potent cytotoxicity (IC(50) values ranging from 0.034 to 0.596 μM) against all human cancer cell lines tested and was identified as the main active cytotoxic constituent of this plant. Compound 8 (ED(50) = 5.45 μM) and 11 (ED(50) = 10.02 μM) exerted dose-dependent inhibitory effects on NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells.
    Archives of Pharmacal Research 02/2013; · 1.54 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A new tetrahydrofuran lignan, (7S,8R,7'S,8'S)-3-methoxy-3',4'-methylenedioxy-7,9'-epoxylignane-4,7',9-triol (1), and 21 known compounds 2-22 were isolated from the roots of Asiasarum heterotropoides by chromatographic separation methods. The structures of all compounds 1-22 were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis including 1D- and 2D-NMR. Fourteen of these compounds (1-3, 7, 10, 12-17, 19, 21, and 22) were isolated from this species in this study for the first time. All of the isolates were evaluated for their anticancer activities using in vitro assays. Among the 22 tested compounds, two (compounds 5 and 7) induced the downregulation of NO production, FOXP3 expression, and HIF-1α transcriptional activity.
    Molecules 01/2013; 19(1):122-38. · 2.43 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sunitinib in patients with relapsed or refractory small cell lung cancer (SCLC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligibility included histologic or cytologic diagnosis of SCLC, ECOG PS of 0-2, cancer progression following one or two prior chemotherapy or chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) and adequate organ functions. Treatment regimen consisted of a 6-week cycle of sunitinib given as 50mg p.o. daily for 4 weeks followed by 2 weeks off. The primary end point was objective response rate (ORR). RESULTS: From March 2008 to October 2010, 25 patients were enrolled and 24 received treatment. The median age was 64.5 years; 22 patients (92%) were male. Eight patients (33%) displayed sensitive relapse. Seven patients (29%) received CRT and fifteen patients (63%) had received one prior chemotherapy. A median of 1 cycle (range 1-4) of sunitinib was administered, and 23 patients were evaluable for response. Two patients displayed partial response, and seven patients presented stable disease with a ORR of 9% (95% CI, 1-28%). The median progression-free (PFS) and overall survivals were 1.4 months (95% CI, 1.1-1.7) and 5.6 months (95% CI, 3.5-7.7), respectively. The common grade 3 or 4 toxicities included thrombocytopenia (63%), asthenia (29%) and neutropenia (25%). CONCLUSIONS: Although tumor response was noted in 2 patients, the median PFS was short and most patients were unable to tolerate the treatment. At the current dose schedule, sunitinib does not appear to warrant further evaluation.
    Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 11/2012; · 3.14 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Indeterminate cytology results increase the number of repetitive procedure and unnecessary surgery. This study was designed to find useful and simple predictive tools to differentiate malignant thyroid nodules from indeterminate nodules. We retrospectively enrolled 164 patients who had undergone thyroid surgery as a result of indeterminate cytology in the National Cancer Center. We reviewed patients' age at diagnosis, sex, preoperative biochemical markers such as thyroglobulin (Tg), anti-Tg antibody, free T4 and TSH level, and sonographical and pathological findings, which were subjected to statistical analysis. We found several clinical and sonographical predictive factors that showed significant differences. Young age, male, preoperative high Tg level, and hypoechoic nodule on sonography all increased cancer probability significantly in multivariate analysis. With a cut-off value of 187.5 ng/mL Tg, sensitivity and specificity were 54.8% and 90.1%, respectively (AUC 0.748, P < 0.001). In the case of nodule size > 1.7 cm, elevated serum Tg predicts the risk of malignancy; especially Tg > 70 ng/mL (odds ratio 3.245, 95% confidence interval 1.115-9.450, P = 0.038). Preoperative Tg levels had very high specificity in predicting thyroid cancer in case of suspicious follicular neoplasm. Therefore, Tg levels may be a useful marker for differentiating thyroid cancer from benign thyroid nodules in the cytological diagnosis of indeterminate nodules.
    Journal of Korean medical science 09/2012; 27(9):1014-8. · 0.84 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Higher levels of body fat are associated with an increased risk for development numerous adverse health conditions. FTY720 is an immune modulator and a synthetic analogue of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), activated S1P receptors and is effective in experimental models of transplantation and autoimmunity. Whereas immune modulation of FTY720 has been extensively studied, other actions of FTY720 are not well understood. Here we describe a novel role of FTY720 in the prevention of obesity, involving the regulation of adipogenesis and lipolysis in vivo and in vitro. Male C57B/6J mice were fed a standard diet or a high fat diet (HFD) without or with FTY720 (0.04 mg/kg, twice a week) for 6 weeks. The HFD induced an accumulation of large adipocytes, down-regulation of p-AMPKα and p-Akt; down-regulation of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and perilipin mRNA as well as p-HSL (Ser563) and up-regulation of p-GSK3α/β. All these effects were blunted by FTY720 treatment, which modulated the inhibition of adipogenesis and promoted lipolysis. Also, FTY720 significantly decreased lipid accumulation in maturing preadipocytes. FTY720 down-regulated the transcriptional levels of the PPARγ, C/EBPα and adiponectin, which are markers of adipogenic differentiation. FTY720 significantly increased the release of glycerol and the expression of the HSL, ATGL and perilipin, which are regulators of lipolysis. FTY720 is resistant to obesity by directly affecting adipogenesis and lipolysis. Thus, FTY720 may have clinical applications in the treatment of obesity.
    Experimental and Molecular Medicine 08/2012; · 2.57 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The best treatment option for recurrent papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is reoperation when the recurrent lesion is locoregional. The prognostic significance of serum Tg levels before reoperation and the association between the outcome of reoperation and Tg level remain unclear. Our study aimed to determine the outcomes of patients who underwent reoperation and their association with serum Tg levels. We retrospectively studied 79 patients with PTC with locoregional recurrence whose whole-body scan results were negative for any recurrence but whose serum Tg levels were detectable after first-line treatment. All the patients underwent reoperation and follow-up examinations, which involved serial serum Tg measurements after thyroxine withdrawal (T4-off Tg), neck ultrasonography, chest computed tomography, and/or fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography, to detect further recurrence. During the median follow-up duration of 89 months (range, 38-332 months), 30 patients (38.0%) experienced a second recurrence even after the reoperation. Among all patients, only 12 whose Tg levels decreased postoperatively to undetectable levels showed no recurrence. Most recurrences were detected in the patients with high T4-off Tg levels after the reoperation (T4-off Tg level [ng/mL], number of patients with recurrence [%]: <1, 0/12 [0]; 1-10, 9/31 [33.3]; >10, 16/22 [72.7]; p < 0.001). In conclusion, recurrence occurred in 38.0% of the patients even after the reoperation. The postoperative T4-off Tg level was a good indicator of recurrence after the reoperation. Therefore, patients who experience recurrence should undergo follow-up examinations that involve routine measurements of T4-off Tg levels, especially when postreoperative values exceed 10 ng/mL.
    Endocrine Journal 07/2012; · 2.23 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Schisandra chinensis (S. chinensis) plants are extensively used because of their anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antihepatic activities. However, their active compounds remain to be clearly determined. In this study, we investigated the antitumor functions of α-iso-cubebenol (αIC) isolated from S. chinensis using HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells. HepG2 cells were exposed to αIC for 24 h, and apoptosis was assessed using standard viability and cell proliferation assays, flow cytometry and western blotting. HepG2 cell populations treated only with 340 µM of αIC showed markedly increased cell death, but lower concentrations induced minimal alterations of population viability and cell morphology. However, the results of flow cytometry showed that the majority of viable cells were undergoing apoptosis at all tested αIC concentrations. Western blot analysis results revealed a significant and αIC concentration-dependent reduction in the levels of the pro-caspase-3 apoptotic protein and the Bcl-2 anti-apoptotic protein. In particular, the Bax pro-apoptosis protein and p53 (which regulates Bax expression) showed different expression patterns after the application of αIC treatment to HepG2 cells. Bax expression was slightly increased in cells treated with the high concentration of αIC, while p53 expression was markedly reduced in a dose-dependent fashion, similar to that of Bcl-2. The results of this study suggest that αIC is an anticancer drug candidate by virtue of its apoptotic induction abilities in hepatocellular carcinoma cells, which occur via a p53-independent pathway.
    Oncology Reports 06/2012; 28(3):1103-9. · 2.30 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

286 Citations
157.97 Total Impact Points


  • 2010–2014
    • Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea
  • 2009–2014
    • National Cancer Center Korea
      Kōyō, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
  • 2012–2013
    • Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine
      Bucheon, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
  • 2010–2013
    • Hanyang University
      • Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2011
    • Chonbuk National University
      • College of Veterinary Medicine
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2008–2010
    • Pusan National University
      • • Department of Horticultural Bioscience
      • • Department of Pharmacology
      Pusan, Busan, South Korea
    • Bundang Jesaeng Hospital
      Sŏngnam, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
  • 2007–2008
    • Seoul National University Hospital
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Yonsei University
      • Center for Bioactive Molecular Hybrids and Department of Chemistry
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2005
    • University of Ulsan
      • Department of Physics
      Urusan, Ulsan, South Korea