[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The embryonic urogenital sinus mesenchyme (UGM) induces prostate epithelial morphogenesis in development. The molecular signals that drive UGM-mediated prostatic induction have not been defined. We hypothesized that the TGF-beta signaling directed the prostatic induction. UGM from TGF-beta type II receptor stromal conditional knockout mice (Tgfbr2(fspKO)) or control mice (Tgfbr2(floxE2/floxE2)) was recombined with wild-type adult mice bladder urothelial cells. The resulting urothelium associated with Tgfbr2(floxE2/floxE2) UGM was instructively differentiated into prostatic epithelium, as expected. In contrast, the urothelium associated with Tgfbr2(fspKO) UGM permissively maintained the phenotype of bladder epithelial cells. Microarray analysis of UGM tissues suggested the down-regulation of multiple Wnt ligands and the up-regulation of the Wnt antagonist, Wif 1, by the Tgfbr2(fspKO) UGM compared with Tgfbr2(floxE2/floxE2) UGM. The overexpression of Wif-1 by wild-type UGM resulted in the inhibition of prostatic induction. These data suggest that the stromal TGF-beta activity mediated by paracrine Wnt is necessary for the induction of prostatic differentiation. As Wnt ligands mediate differentiation and maintain the stem cell phenotype, the contribution of mouse stem cells and somatic cells to prostatic epithelium in the tissue recombination models was tested. The directed differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells by UGM is suggested by a threshold number of mouse stem cells required in prostatic differentiation. To determine the contribution of somatic cells, the adult bladder epithelial compartment was labeled with green-fluorescent vital dye (CMFDA) and the stem-like cells marked by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) label-retention. The resulting prostatic epithelia of the tissue recombinants maintained the CMFDA dye, suggesting minimal cell division. Thus, the UGM can induce endoderm-derived epithelia and stem cells to form prostate through a transdifferentiation mechanism that requires stromal TGF-beta signaling to mediate epithelial Wnt activity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Identifying developmental proteins could lead to markers of bladder progenitor cells, which could be used to investigate bladder diseases. We recently reported a novel embryonic stem cell model in which to study differential protein expression patterns during bladder development. Differential and temporal expressions of the endodermal proteins known as forkhead box (Foxa1 and Foxa2) were observed. In the current study we further delineated these protein expression patterns.
Epithelium was removed from the underlying mesenchyma from embryonic day 18 rat bladders. Heterospecific recombinant xenografts were created by combining embryonic stem cells plus embryonic bladder mesenchyma and placed beneath the renal capsule of mouse hosts. Grafts were harvested at 16, 18, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days, and evaluated with hematoxylin and eosin, trichrome staining, and immunohistochemistry for uroplakin, smooth muscle alpha-actin, p63, Foxa1, Foxa2 and androgen receptor.
At 16 days uroplakin was detectable and it seemed to correlate with the loss of Foxa2, while Foxa1 remained at all time points. Androgen receptor was first noted in stroma at day 16. It localized to urothelial nuclei at day 21 and was undetectable at 42 days. Adjacent to the urothelium alpha-smooth muscle actin was seen on day 16 and it was localized in bundles to the periphery of the graft at later time points. Staining for basilar urothelium with p63 confirmed basilar orientation at all time points.
We report the temporal spatial expression of various genes in early bladder development. This suggests that some proteins may be potential markers of bladder progenitor cells. Characterizing these markers may potentially identify bladder progenitor cells that have been directed toward a lineage path destined to become urothelial cells. Ultimately these multipotential progenitor cells could be isolated and used to study and treat diseases that affect the bladder.
The Journal of urology 09/2008; 180(4 Suppl):1784-9. · 4.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mechanisms of androgen dependence of the prostate are critical to understanding prostate cancer progression to androgen independence associated with disease mortality. Transient elevation of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) occurs after androgen ablation. To determine the role of TGF-beta on prostate response to androgen ablation, conditional TGF-beta type II receptor knockout mouse models of the epithelia (Tgfbr2(NKX3.1KO)) and stromal fibroblasts (Tgfbr2(fspKO)) were used. After castration, the prostates of Tgfbr2(NKX3.1KO) mice had apoptosis levels similar to those expected for control Tgfbr2(floxE2/floxE2) mice. Prostates of Tgfbr2(fspKO) mice, however, had reduced regression and high levels of proliferation associated with canonical Wnt activity throughout the glandular epithelia regardless of androgen status. In contrast, Tgfbr2(floxE2/floxE2) prostates had epithelial canonical Wnt activity only in the surviving proximal ducts after castration. In vitro studies showed that androgen antagonist, bicalutamide, transiently elevated both Tgfbr2(floxE2/floxE2) and Tgfbr2(fspKO) stromal expression of Wnt-2, Wnt-3a, and Wnt-5a. The neutralization of Wnt signaling by the expression of secreted frizzled related protein-2 (SFRP-2) resulted in decreased LNCaP prostate epithelial cell proliferation in stromal conditioned media transfer experiments. In vivo tissue recombination studies using Tgfbr2(fspKO) prostatic stromal cells in combination with wild-type or SV40 large T antigen expressing epithelia resulted in prostates that were refractile to androgen ablation. The expression of SFRP-2 restored the Tgfbr2(fspKO)-associated prostate responsiveness to androgen ablation. These studies reveal a novel TGF-beta, androgen, and Wnt paracrine signaling axis that enables prostatic regression of the distal ducts after androgen ablation while supporting proximal duct survival.
Cancer Research 07/2008; 68(12):4709-18. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammation is a physiological process that characterizes many bladder diseases. We hypothesized that nicotinic and estrogen signaling could down-regulate bladder inflammation. Cyclophosphamide was used to induce acute and chronic bladder inflammation. Changes in bladder inflammation were measured histologically and by inflammatory gene expression. Antagonizing nicotinic signaling with mecamylamine further aggravated acute and chronic inflammatory changes resulting from cyclophosphamide treatment. Estrogen and nicotinic signaling independently attenuated acute bladder inflammation by decreasing neutrophil recruitment and down-regulating elevated lipocalin-2 and cathepsin D expression. However, the combined signaling by the estrogen and nicotinic pathways, as measured by macrophage infiltration and up-regulation of interleukin-6 expression in the bladder, synergistically reduced chronic bladder inflammation. The elevated expression of p65 nuclear localization in bladders treated with cyclophosphamide or cyclophosphamide with mecamylamine suggested nuclear factor-kappa B activation in the chronic inflammatory process. The complementary treatment of 17 beta-estradiol and the nicotinic agonist anabasine resulted in the translocation of p65 to the cytoplasm, again greater than either alone. Activation of nuclear factor-kappaB can result in macrophage activation and/or elevation in epithelial proliferation. These data suggest that 17 beta-estradiol and anabasine reduce chronic bladder inflammation through reduction of nuclear translocation of p65 to suppress cytokine expression.
American Journal Of Pathology 02/2008; 172(1):59-67. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the role of transforming growth factor-beta in urothelial and bladder development. Transforming growth factor-beta signaling was attenuated in the urothelial compartment and the subsequent effects were examined in a tissue recombination model.
Urothelium was cultured from adult rat bladders and transfected with control vector C7Delta or mutant DNIIR (dominant negative transforming growth factor-beta receptor II). Grafts were created by recombining transfected urothelium plus embryonic day 18 bladder mesenchyma and placed beneath the renal capsule of athymic mouse hosts. Grafts were harvested at 21 and 42 days. Final tissues were evaluated with staining and immunohistochemistry using hematoxylin and eosin, Gomori's trichrome strain, broad-spectrum uroplakin, smooth muscle actin-alpha, phosphorylated SMAD2 and Ki67 antigen. Bladder structures were defined as having smooth muscle, suburothelial connective tissue and mature urothelium expressing uroplakin. Urothelial compartment diameters were measured and subcategorized as small--0.10 to 0.40, medium--0.41 to 1.0 and large--greater than 1.1 mm.
At 21 days 14 C7Delta control and 15 DNIIR grafts were evaluated. No bladder tissue was seen in the C7Delta grafts vs 49 in DNIIR tissue, including 30 small, 9 medium and 10 large tissues. At 42 days 14 C7Delta and 12 DNIIR grafts were evaluated. Six bladder structures (5 small and 1 medium) were seen in the C7Delta cohort vs 27 (14 small, 7 medium and 6 large) in the DNIIR group. Immunohistochemical detection of phosphorylated-SMAD2 was significantly attenuated in DNIIR tissue. In addition, Ki67 proliferative indexes were 4.0-fold higher in the DNIIR cohort compared to those in C7Delta tissues.
We successfully observed that primary urothelium cultures can be genetically manipulated and recombined with undifferentiated mesenchyma to grow bladder tissue. By attenuating transforming growth factor-beta signaling in the urothelium superior bladder tissue growth occurred, suggesting that transforming growth factor-beta is a growth inhibitor in this organ system.
The Journal of Urology 11/2007; 178(4 Pt 2):1643-9. · 3.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Manipulatable models of bladder development which interrogate specific pathways are badly needed. Such models will allow a systematic investigation of the multitude of pathologies which result from developmental defects of the urinary bladder. In the present communication, we describe a model in which mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells are directed to differentiate to form bladder tissue by specific interactions with fetal bladder mesenchyme. This model allows us to visualize the various stages in the differentiation of urothelium from ES cells, including the commitment to an endodermal cell lineage, with the temporal profile characterized by examining the induction of specific endodermal transcription factors (Foxa1 and Foxa2). In addition, final functional urothelial differentiation was characterized by examining uroplakin expression. It is well established that ES cells will spontaneously develop teratomas when grown within immunocompromised mouse hosts. We determined the specific mesenchymal to ES cell ratios necessary to dictate organ-specific differentiation while completely suppressing teratomatous growth. Embryonic mesenchyme is well established as an inductive tissue which dictates organ-specific programming of epithelial tissues. The present study demonstrates that embryonic bladder mesenchyme can also steer ES cells towards developing specific endodermal derived urothelium. These approaches allow us to capture specific stages of stem cell differentiation and to better define stem cell hierarchies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rapid bladder growth associated, partial urethral obstruction and embryonic bladder development entail stromal-epithelial interactions involving signaling by the cytokine transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). However, to our knowledge the role of TGF-beta in bladder stromal hyperplasia and hypertrophy is not understood.
In an effort to understand the specific role of TGF-beta signaling in bladder stroma a fibroblast specific conditional knockout mouse of the type II TGF-beta receptor gene, Tgfbr2(/spko), was generated using Cre-lox methodology. Bladders from 18, 7 to 8-week-old mice were harvested for histological and immunohistochemical analysis.
Bladders from homozygous Tgfbr2(/spko), male mice showed marked hypertrophy in the lamina propria and smooth muscle layers in the absence of visible or functional bladder obstruction by age 8 weeks. However, age matched female mice of the same genotype maintained bladder architecture similar to that in wild-type littermate male and female controls. Immunohistochemistry for the phosphorylated form of Smad2 indicated a general loss in TGF-beta signaling in the lamina propria of bladders of male and female Tgfbr2(/spko), mice, and yet pronounced alpha-smooth muscle actin expression was noted in male Tgfbr2(/spko), bladders, which is a marker for myofibroblasts.
A sex disparity was observed in the Tgfbr2(/spko), mouse model lacking TGF-beta signaling in fibroblasts. Deletion of TGF-beta in males leads to a hypertrophied lamina propria and muscularis externa with myofibroblast differentiation and proliferation. Female homozygous Tgfbr2(/spko), bladders appeared the same as those of wild-type male and female controls. This model suggests a role for stromal TGF-beta signaling with estrogens and androgens in bladder fibrosis.
The Journal of Urology 11/2005; 174(4 Pt 2):1704-7; discussion 1707. · 3.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:Rapid bladder growth associated, partial urethral obstruction and embryonic bladder development entail stromal-epithelial interactions involving signaling by the cytokine transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). However, to our knowledge the role of TGF-β in bladder stromal hyperplasia and hypertrophy is not understood.
Journal of Urology - J UROL. 01/2005; 174(4):1704-1707.