[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Postembryonic de novo organogenesis represents an important competence evolved in plants that allows their physiological and developmental adaptation to changing environmental conditions. The phytohormones auxin and cytokinin (CK) are important regulators of the developmental fate of pluripotent plant cells. However, the molecular nature of their interaction(s) in control of plant organogenesis is largely unknown. Here, we show that CK modulates auxin-induced organogenesis (AIO) via regulation of the efflux-dependent intercellular auxin distribution. We used the hypocotyl explants-based in vitro system to study the mechanism underlying de novo organogenesis. We show that auxin, but not CK, is capable of triggering organogenesis in hypocotyl explants. The AIO is accompanied by endogenous CK production and tissue-specific activation of CK signaling. CK affects differential auxin distribution, and the CK-mediated modulation of organogenesis is simulated by inhibition of polar auxin transport. CK reduces auxin efflux from cultured tobacco cells and regulates expression of auxin efflux carriers from the PIN family in hypocotyl explants. Moreover, endogenous CK levels influence PIN transcription and are necessary to maintain intercellular auxin distribution in planta. Based on these findings, we propose a model in which auxin acts as a trigger of the organogenic processes, whose output is modulated by the endogenously produced CKs. We propose that an important mechanism of this CK action is its effect on auxin distribution via regulation of expression of auxin efflux carriers.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2009; 106(9):3609-14. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High concentrations of cytokinins (CKs) in the cultivation medium can induce partial photomorphogenesis in dark-grown Arabidopsis seedlings. However, no significant increases in endogenous CK levels have been found in de-etiolated mutants, suggesting that either parallel pathways are involved in the light and CK responses, or changes in the sensitivity to CKs occur during photomorphogenesis. Here it is shown that even modest increases in endogenous CK levels induced by transgenic expression of the CK biosynthetic gene, ipt, can lead to many typical features of light-induced de-etiolation, including inhibition of hypocotyl elongation and partial cotyledon opening. In addition, significant changes in expression of 37 proteins (mostly related to chloroplast biogenesis, a major element of light-induced photomorphogenesis) were detected by image and mass spectrometric analysis of two-dimensionally separated proteins. The identified chloroplast proteins were all up-regulated in response to increased CKs, and more than half are up-regulated at the transcript level during light-induced photomorphogenesis according to previously published transcriptomic data. Four of the up-regulated chloroplast proteins identified here have also been shown to be up-regulated during light-induced photomorphogenesis in previous proteomic analyses. In contrast, all differentially regulated mitochondrial proteins (the second largest group of differentially expressed proteins) were down-regulated. Changes in the levels of several tubulins are consistent with the observed morphological alterations. Further, 10 out of the 37 differentially expressed proteins detected have not been linked to either photomorphogenesis or CK action in light-grown Arabidopsis seedlings in previously published transcriptomic or proteomic analyses.
Journal of Experimental Botany 10/2008; 59(13):3705-19. · 5.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytokinin (CK) has been known to inhibit primary root elongation and suggested to act as an auxin antagonist in the regulation of lateral root (LR) formation. While the role of auxin in root development has been thoroughly studied, the detailed and overall description of CK effects on root system morphology, particularly that of developing lateral root primordia (LRPs), and hence its role in organogenesis is still in progress. Here we examine the effects of conditional endogenous CK overproduction on root architecture and consider its temporal aspect during the early development of Arabidopsis thaliana. We employed the pOp/LhGR system to induce ectopic ipt overexpression with a glucocorticoid dexamethasone at designated developmental points. The transient CaMV 35S>GR>ipt transactivation greatly enhanced levels of biologically active CKs of zeatin (Z)-type and identified a distinct developmental interval during which primary root elongation is susceptible to increases in endogenous CK production. Long-term CK overproduction inhibited primary root elongation by reducing quantitative parameters of primary root meristem, disturbed a characteristic graded distribution pattern of auxin response in LRPs and impaired their development. Our findings indicate the impact of perturbed endogenous CK on the regulation of asymmetric auxin distribution during LRP development and imply that there is cross-talk between auxin and CK during organogenesis in A. thaliana.
Plant and Cell Physiology 04/2008; 49(4):570-82. · 4.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The activity of the phytohormone cytokinin depends on a complex interplay of factors such as its metab- olism, transport, stability, and cellular/tissue local- ization. O-glucosides of zeatin-type cytokinins are postulated to be storage and/or transport forms, and are readily deglucosylated. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Petit Havana SR1) plants were constructed over-expressing Zm-p60.1, a maize b-glucosidase capable of releasing active cytokinins from O- and N3-glucosides, to analyse its potential to perturb zeatin metabolism in planta. Zm-p60.1 in chloroplasts isolated from transgenic leaves has an apparent Km more than 10-fold lower than the purified enzyme in vitro. Adult transgenic plants grown in the absence of exogenous zeatin were morphologically indistinguishable from the wild type although differ- ences in phytohormone levels were observed. When grown on medium containing zeatin, inhibition of root elongation was apparent in all seedlings 14 d after sowing (DAS). Between 14 and 21 DAS, the transgenic seedlings accumulated fresh weight leading later (28-32 DAS) to ectopic growths at the base of the hypocotyl. The development of ectopic structures correlated with the presence of the enzyme as demonstrated by histochemical staining. Cytokinin quantification showed that transgenic seedlings grown on medium containing zeatin accumulate active me- tabolites like zeatin riboside and zeatin riboside phos- phate and this might lead to the observed changes. The presence of the enzyme around the base of the hypocotyl and later, in the ectopic structures them- selves, suggests that the development of these struc- tures is due to the perturbance in zeatin metabolism caused by the ectopic presence of Zm-p60.1.
Journal of Experimental Botany 01/2006; 57(4):985-996. · 5.24 Impact Factor