[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gemcitabine has been used most commonly as an anticancer drug to treat advanced pancreatic cancer patients. However, intrinsic or acquired resistance of pancreatic cancer to gemcitabine was also developed, which leads to very low five-year survival rates. Here, we investigated whether cellular levels of HSP27 phosphorylation act as a determinant of cellular fate with gemcitabine. In addition we have demonstrated whether HSP27 downregulation effectively could overcome the acquisition of gemcitabine resistance by using transcriptomic analysis. We observed that gemcitabine induced p38/HSP27 phosphorylation and caused acquired resistance. After acquisition of gemcitabine resistance, cancer cells showed higher activity of NF-κB. NF-κB activity, as well as colony formation in gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells, was significantly decreased by HSP27 downregulation and subsequent TRAIL treatment, showing that HSP27 was a common network mediator of gemcitabine/TRAIL-induced cell death. After transcriptomic analysis, gene fluctuation after HSP27 downregulation was very similar to that of susceptible pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine, and then in opposite position to that of acquired gemcitabine resistance, which makes it possible to downregulate HSP27 to overcome the acquired gemcitabine resistance to function as an overall survival network inhibitor. Most importantly, we demonstrated that the ratio of phosphorylated HSP27 to nonphosphorylated HSP27 rather than the cellular level of HSP27 itself acts biphasically as a determinant of cellular fate in gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Due to poor adenoviral infectivity and replication in mouse tumor cell types compared with human tumor cell types, use of human-type adenoviral vectors in mouse animal model systems was limited. Here, we demonstrate enhanced infectivity and productive replication of adenovirus in mouse melanoma cells following introduction of both the Coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) and E1B-55K genes. Introduction of CAR into B16BL6 or B16F10 cells increased the infectivity of GFP-expressing adenovirus; however, viral replication was unaffected. We demonstrated a dramatic increase of adenoviral replication (up to 100-fold) in mouse cells via E1B-55K expression and subsequent viral spreading in mouse tissue. These results reveal for the first time that human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5)-based oncolytic virus can be applied to immunocompetent mouse with the introduction of CAR and E1B-55K to syngenic mouse cell line.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 09/2014; 453(3). DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2014.09.107 · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To overcome the poor tumor transduction efficiency of adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) observed in several types of cancer, the fiber region of Ad5, apart from its tail, was replaced by adenovirus serotype 35 (Ad35). The chimeric Ad5̸F35 adenoviral vector did not exhibit any significant enhancement of transduction efficiency. CD46, a receptor for Ad35, was expressed in relatively small amounts in most of the cancer cells examined. Therefore, we investigated the pivotal factor(s) that render cancer cells susceptible to transduction. We discovered that the tumor transduction efficiency of Ad5/F35 was enhanced in the presence of rapamycin, an autophagy inducer, in some cancer cells. Analysis of survival potential and cell proliferation rates revealed that Ad5/F35 exerted a more pronounced oncolytic effect in cancer cells with higher survival potential in the presence of rapamycin.
International Journal of Oncology 04/2013; 42(4):1337-48. DOI:10.3892/ijo.2013.1812 · 3.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Curcumin as an anticancer agent was investigated in regards to its ability to regulate the switching of cancer cells from survival to necrotic cell death. At higher concentrations, curcumin induced ROS production leading to JNK and p38 phosphorylation in DU-145 prostate cancer cells. Of the MAP kinases, ERK or p38/JNK were phosphorylated earlier during curcumin treatment, and were responsible for curcumin-induced cell survival at early time of treatment with the help of phosphorylated Akt, while significant amounts of ROS production in later periods stimulated cell death with caspase degradation. In addition to autophagic signaling, necrosis was dominant with little apoptotic cell death. Caspase activation was completely prohibited by procaspase degradation, which contributed to curcumin-induced early necrosis. At the later incubation period (24 h), cytotoxicity caused by curcumin peaked, at which time survival or proliferation signals, such as phosphorylated Akt and phosphorylated ERK, were almost completely diminished. Curcumin-induced ROS were shown to function, biphasically depending on the incubation period; facilitating survival, in the earlier incubation period, and necrotic death in the later. Based on all of these results, we concluded that curcumin contributes to a complex signaling network, affecting cell survival and necrotic cell death, which in turn could inhibit apoptotic cell death.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously, we showed that mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-related kinase 4 (MEKK4) is responsible for p38 activation and that its activation during tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) treatment also increases the catalytic activity of Akt. Here, we further investigated how the TRAIL-induced MEKK4/p38/heat shock protein (HSP27)/Akt survival network is modulated by the Src/c-Cbl interacting protein of 85kDa (CIN85)/c-Cbl complex. TRAIL-induced activation of Akt catalytic activity and phosphorylation were highly correlated with p38/HSP27 phosphorylation, whereas the phosphorylation of p38/HSP27 increased further during incubation with curcumin and TRAIL, which caused significant apoptotic cell death. CIN85, a c-Cbl-binding protein, plays an essential role in connecting cell survival to cell death. The interaction of CIN85 with MEKK4 was increased during the late phase of TRAIL incubation, suggesting that sustained p38 and HSP27 phosphorylation protects cells by preventing further cell death. However, further increases in p38/HSP27 phosphorylation induced by cotreatment with curcumin and TRAIL converted cell fate to death. Taken together, these data demonstrate that phosphorylated p38/HSP27 as biphasic modulators act in conjunction with CIN85 to determine whether cells survive or die in response to apoptotic stress.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The combination of curcumin and TRAIL and their role in enhancing apoptotic cell death has been reported by many studies. However, the exact molecular mechanism of apoptosis mediated by curcumin and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is not yet completely understood. In this study, we observed a close connection between dephosphorylated Akt and an increase in phosphorylated heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) during combined treatment with curcumin and TRAIL. Akt dephosphorylation was cumulatively regulated by protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1), and src. PP1 and PDK1 directly interacted with HSP27, whereas src indirectly interacted with HSP27 via the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 complex. In conclusion, HSP27 modulated cell survival by its interactions with various binding partners, depending on the level of phosphorylated HSP27.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has been shown to activate mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) depending on caspase and mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 activations. However, the upstream molecule of MAPKs has not yet been identified. The mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEKK1) and the apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) are considered to be possible candidates for the action of MAPKKKs induced by TRAIL and the possibility of reactive oxygen species involvement has also been investigated. We found that MEKK1/MEKK4 as opposed to ASK1, are responsible for TRAIL-induced c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) or p38 activation, and that their catalytic activity is repressed by the caspase-8 inhibitor, suggesting that the caspase-8 activation induced by TRAIL is indispensible for MEKK activation. The 14-3-3 θ was also shown to interact with and to dissociate from MEKK1 by TRAIL treatment, thus implicating the 14-3-3 protein as a negative regulator of MEKK1 activation. Taken together, we show herein that the upstream molecule of the TRAIL-induced MAPK activation is MEKK, as opposed to ASK1, via the mediation of its signal through JNK/p38 in a caspase-8-dependent manner.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously observed that TRAIL induces acquired TRAIL resistance coinciding with increased Akt phosphorylation brought about by the Src-PI3K-Akt signaling pathways and mediated by c-Cbl. c-Cbl, a ubiquitously expressed cytoplasmic adaptor protein, is simultaneously involved in the rapid degradation of TRAIL receptors and Akt phosphorylation during TRAIL treatment. Here, we show that Akt phosphorylation is not exclusively responsible for acquired TRAIL resistance. Akt catalytic activation is known to increase during metabolic oxidative stress, but we show that TRAIL also dramatically induces the catalytic activation of Akt in TRAIL-sensitive cells, but not in TRAIL-resistant cells. This suggests that Akt catalytic activation during TRAIL-induced apoptosis is likely to play a compensatory role in the maintenance of cell homeostasis. In addition, activated p38 and phosphorylated HSP27 were found to act as downstream effector molecules of p38 during TRAIL treatment and were shown to be responsible for increased Akt catalytic and invasive activities.
International Journal of Oncology 01/2011; 38(1):249-56. DOI:10.3892/ijo-00000845 · 3.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported two modes of development of acquired TRAIL resistance: early phase and late phase . In these studies, we observed that greater Akt activity and the expression of Bcl-xL were related mainly to the late phase of acquired TRAIL resistance. Recently we became aware of a possible mechanism of early phase TRAIL resistance development through internalization and degradation of TRAIL receptors (DR4 and DR5). Our current studies demonstrate that TRAIL receptors rapidly diminish at the membrane as well as the cytoplasm within 4h after TRAIL exposure, but recover completely after one or two days. Our studies also reveal that Cbl, a ubiquitously expressed cytoplasmic adaptor protein, is responsible for the rapid degradation of TRAIL receptors; Cbl binds to them and induces monoubiquitination of these receptors concurrent with their degeneration soon after TRAIL exposure, creating the early phase of acquired TRAIL resistance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously observed that TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) induces acquired TRAIL resistance by increasing Akt phosphorylation and Bcl-xL expression. In this study, we report that Src, c-Cbl, and PI3K are involved in the phosphorylation of Akt during TRAIL treatment. Data from immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting assay reveal that Src interacts with c-Cbl and PI3K. Data from immune complex kinase assay demonstrate that Src can directly phosphorylate c-Cbl and PI3K p85 subunit protein. Data from gene knockdown experiments with an RNA interference (RNAi) technique show that c-Cbl is involved in the interaction between Src and PI3K p85 during TRAIL treatment, playing an important role in TRAIL-induced Akt phosphorylation. Taken together, c-Cbl may act as a mediator to regulate the Src-PI3K-Akt signal transduction pathway during TRAIL treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The tyrosine phenol-lyase from Symbiobacterium toebii was engineered to improve both its stability and catalytic activity by the application of random mutagenesis and subsequent reassembly of the acquired mutations. Activity screening of the random library produced four mutants with a two-fold improved activity, whereas parallel screening after heat treatment at 65 degrees C identified three mutants with half-inactivation temperatures improved by up to 5.6 degrees C. The selected mutants were then reassembled using the staggered extension PCR method, and subsequent screening of the library produced seven mutants with up to three-fold improved activity and half-inactivation temperatures improved by up to 11.2 degrees C. Sequence analyses revealed that the stability-improved hits included A13V, E83K and T407A mutations, whereas the activity-improved hits included the additional T129I or T451A mutation. In particular, the A13V mutation was propagated in the hits with improved stability during the reassembly-screening process, indicating the critical nature of the N-terminal moiety for enzyme stability. Furthermore, homology modeling of the enzyme structure revealed that most of the stability mutations were located around the dimer-dimer interface, including the N-terminus, whereas the activity-improving mutations were located further away, thereby minimizing any interference that would be detrimental to the co-improvement of the stability and catalytic activity of the enzyme.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has been shown to induce apoptosis through caspase activation in a number of cancer cell lines while displaying minimal or no toxicity on normal cells, suggesting that this protein may hold potential for development as a new cancer therapeutic agent. Moreover, TRAIL can activate mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in addition to caspases. However, it has not been clearly understood how MAPKs are activated by TRAIL and the biological significance of their activation. Here we show that TRAIL-induced MAPKs activation is dependent on caspase activation and that mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (Mst1) functions as a mediator between caspase activation and MAPKs activation. Activation of MAPKs (JNK, p38, ERK) is differentially regulated by cleavage size (40 kDa and 36 kDa) of Mst1, which is controlled by caspase-7 and -3.