[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dampness in buildings has been linked to adverse health effects, but the specific causative agents are unknown. Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by molds and toxic to higher vertebrates. In this study, mass spectrometry was used to demonstrate the presence of mycotoxins predominantly produced by Aspergillus spp. and Stachybotrys spp. in buildings with either ongoing dampness or a history of water damage. Verrucarol and trichodermol, hydrolysis products of macrocyclic trichothecenes (including satratoxins), and trichodermin, predominately produced by Stachybotrys chartarum, were analyzed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, whereas sterigmatocystin (mainly produced by Aspergillus versicolor), satratoxin G, and satratoxin H were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. These mycotoxin analytes were demonstrated in 45 of 62 building material samples studied, in three of eight settled dust samples, and in five of eight cultures of airborne dust samples. This is the first report on the use of tandem mass spectrometry for demonstrating mycotoxins in dust settled on surfaces above floor level in damp buildings. The direct detection of the highly toxic sterigmatocystin and macrocyclic trichothecene mycotoxins in indoor environments is important due to their potential health impacts.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology 08/2007; 73(13):4211-7. · 3.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Presence of Stachybotrys chartarum in indoor environments has been linked to building-associated disease, however, the causative agents are unknown. Verrucarol (VER) and trichodermol (TRID) are hydrolysis products of some major S. chartarum mycotoxins, i.e. macrocyclic trichothecenes and trichodermin. We optimized gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods for detecting VER and TRID in S. chartarum-contaminated indoor environmental samples. Heptafluorobutyryl derivatives of both VER and TRID exhibited little MS fragmentation and gave much higher detection sensitivity (sub-picogram injected onto the GC column), both in GC-MS and GC-MSMS, than trimethylsilyl derivatives. Optimal detection sensitivity and specificity was achieved by combining chemical ionization and negative ion (NICI) detection with MSMS. With this method, VER and TRID were detected in building materials colonized by S. chartarum and TRID was demonstrated in dust settled in the breathing zone in a house where an inner wall was colonized. In summary, we have shown that NICI-GC-MSMS can be used to demonstrate mycotoxins in house dust in S. chartarum-contaminated dwellings.
Journal of Environmental Monitoring 03/2007; 9(2):151-6. · 2.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The fat content and fatty acid composition (saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated in cis and trans configuration) in selected food products was determined. From over 2000 products investigated in recent years, results are given for some soft and hard margarines, oils and butter as well as butter-like products. It has been found that food products are distinguished by very high diversification with regard to fat content, in terms of both quantity and quality. This differentiation was particularly evident in the groups of margarines, mixed fats and confectioner's products.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of trimethylsilyl (TMS)-derivatisation for determining muramic acid in environmental and clinical samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry provides high detection sensitivity; however, questions have been raised as concerns the chemical structure of the entity giving the strong signal of m/z 185. In the present communication we present evidence that this entity results from the formation of a lactam structure of muramic acid upon derivatisation.
Journal of Microbiological Methods 03/2002; 48(2-3):267-70. · 2.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Trichothecene mycotoxins are commonly distributed in cereals in the world. Rapid and accurate methods for the determination of these toxins are required to prevent the intoxication of human and to contribute to the supply of safe foods and feed. MSMS mode was applied for identification of eight trichothecene mycotoxins with Finnigan/Mat GCQ GC/MS system. We describe here optimal parameters of CID and to obtain best pairs of ions (precursor ions and daughter ions) for all analysed toxins.