Giuseppina F Dusio

University of Milan, Milano, Lombardy, Italy

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Publications (11)30.57 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Vasostatin-1 (VS-1), the N-terminal fragment of chromogranin A (CgA), decreases the permeability of endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo. Here, we investigated whether a similar effect could be observed also on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) in vitro and whether VS-1 could have favorable effects on animal models of acute or chronic colitis, which are characterized by increased permeability of the intestinal epithelium. In vitro, VS-1 was tested on IEC monolayers showing increased permeability, on mechanically injured IEC monolayers, and on the production of the chemokine IL-8/KC by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated IECs. In vivo, VS-1 was tested in animal models of dextran sodium salt (DSS)-induced acute or chronic colitis. In vitro, VS-1 inhibited increased permeability of IECs induced by interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α. Moreover, VS-1 promoted healing of mechanically injured IEC monolayers, most likely through stimulation of cell migration, rather than cell proliferation. Eventually, VS-1 inhibited LPS-induced production of IL-8. In vivo, VS-1 exerted protective effects in animal models of acute or chronic colitis upon oral, but not systemic administration. VS-1 is therapeutically active in animal models of acute or chronic, DSS-induced colitis. The mechanisms underlying this effect are likely to be multiple, and may include inhibition of enhanced intestinal permeability, repair of injured intestinal mucosae, and inhibition of the production of IL-8/KC and possibly other inflammatory cytokines.
    Digestive Diseases and Sciences 01/2012; 57(5):1227-37. · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To highlight possible similarities and differences in receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) and downstream signalling activation profiles between clear-cell sarcomas (CCS) and metastatic melanomas (MM), frozen, and paired-matched fixed samples of six CCS with EWSR1 rearrangement (EWSR1+), five CCS without EWSR1 rearrangement (EWSR1-), and seven MM were investigated by means of biochemical, immunohistochemical, FISH, molecular analyses, and immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. Fixed samples of a further 10 CCS and 14 MM were investigated by means of sequencing for BRAF, NRAS, and KRAS mutations and FISH analyses for the gain of chromosomes 22 and 8. RTK analysis of all CCS/MM samples showed activation of short-form (sf) recepteur d'origine nantais (RON) RTK and of PDGFRB, MET, and HER3. Analysis of downstream signaling revealed consistent phosphorylation patterns of PI3K/AKT, RSK, and the mTOR targets S6 and 4EBP1. Analysis of frozen and fixed material from 21 CCS and 21 MM showed the presence of the V600E BRAF mutation in 2/12 EWSR1+ and 3/9 EWSR1- CCS and 9/21 MM and demonstrated a significant (P < 0.001) correlation between the gain of chromosomes 22 and 8 and EWSR1- CCS. Our results show that BRAF mutation can also be present in CCS and support the proposed aberration of chromosomes 22 and 8 as a possibly useful nonrandom hallmark of EWSR1- CCS. Besides, they broaden the spectrum of the similarities of RTK pathway activation between CCS and MM, thus suggesting that new drugs found to be active in melanoma and RON inhibitors could have a role in CCS treatment. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 11/2011; 51(2):111-26. · 3.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The innate immune system is present throughout the female reproductive tract and functions in synchrony with the adaptive immune system to provide protection in a way that enhances the chances for fetal survival, while protecting against potential pathogens. Recent data show that activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and 4 by low-molecular weight hyaluronic acid (LMW-HA) in the epidermis induces secretion of the antimicrobial peptide β-defensin 2. In the present work, we show that LMW-HA induces vaginal epithelial cells to release different antimicrobial peptides, via activation of TLR2 and TLR4. Further, we found that LMW-HA favors repair of vaginal epithelial injury, involving TLR2 and TLR4, and independently from its classical receptor CD44. This wound-healing activity of LMW-HA is dependent from an Akt/phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase pathway. Therefore, these findings suggest that the vaginal epithelium is more than a simple physical barrier to protect against invading pathogens: on the contrary, this surface acts as efficient player of innate host defense, which may modulate its antimicrobial properties and injury restitution activity, following LMW-HA stimulation; this activity may furnish an additional protective activity to this body compartment, highly and constantly exposed to microbiota, ameliorating the self-defense of the vaginal epithelium in both basal and pathological conditions.
    Immunology and Cell Biology 11/2010; 89(5):630-9. · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have recently observed that oral administration of D-glucose saves animals from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced death. This effect is the likely consequence of glucose-induced activation of the sodium-dependent glucose transporter-1. In this study, we investigated possible hepatoprotective effects of glucose-induced, sodium-dependent, glucose transporter-1 activation. We show that oral administration of D-glucose, but not of either D-fructose or sucrose, prevents LPS-induced liver injury, as well as liver injury and death induced by an overdose of acetaminophen. In both of these models, physiological liver morphology is maintained and organ protection is confirmed by unchanged levels of the circulating markers of hepatotoxicity, such as alanine transaminase or lactate dehydrogenase. In addition, D-glucose was found to protect the liver from alpha-amanitin-induced liver injury. In this case, in contrast to the previously described models, a second signal had to be present in addition to glucose to achieve protective efficacy. Toll-like receptor 4 stimulation that was induced by low doses of LPS was identified as such a second signal. Eventually, the protective effect of orally administered glucose on liver injury induced by LPS, overdose of acetaminophen, or alpha-amanitin was shown to be mediated by the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10. These findings, showing glucose-induced protective effects in several animal models of liver injury, might be relevant in view of possible therapeutic interventions against different forms of acute hepatic injury.
    American Journal Of Pathology 09/2009; 175(3):1066-76. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many inflammatory diseases are characterized by an imbalance among lymphocyte populations, in particular Th1, Th2 and the recently described Th17 cells. The Th1/Th2 imbalance is linked to many factors, but certainly the role of cytokines is essential. In Th2 diseases IL-4 expression is predominant, while Th1 pathologies are characterized by high expression of IFN-gamma and IL-12. Though today the therapeutical proposal for many inflammatory diseases aims to re-establish normal levels of Th1/Th2 cytokines, the pharmacological use of cytokines, which are very active molecules, is limited by the possible collateral effects. Therefore, our study aims to determine, in a murine model of allergic asthma, the possible therapeutic activity of low dose cytokines solutions, mechanically activated. We found that oral administration of low doses IL-12 plus IFN-gamma is able to solve the bronchial hyperresponsiveness condition of mice, establishing normal cytokine levels. The anti-asthma activity was confirmed by histological analysis of lungs and broncho-alveolar lavage fluid cell count. Serum ovalbumin-specific IgE was also significantly inhibited by treatment with low dose activated cytokines solution. These findings may suggest a novel approach to diseases which involve a Th1/Th2 imbalance.
    Pulmonary Pharmacology &amp Therapeutics 06/2009; 22(6):497-510. · 2.54 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Crohns & Colitis - J CROHNS COLITIS. 01/2009; 3(1).
  • Journal of Crohns & Colitis - J CROHNS COLITIS. 01/2009; 3(1).
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we demonstrate the protective effect of the activation of sodium-dependent glucose transporter-1 (SGLT-1) on damages induced by TLR ligands, in intestinal epithelial cells and in a murine model of septic shock. In intestinal epithelial cell lines, glucose inhibited the IL-8/keratinocyte-derived chemokine production and the activation of the TLR-related transcription factor NF-kappaB stimulated by LPS or CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide. Oral ingestion of glucose was found to protect 100% of mice from lethal endotoxic shock induced by i.p. LPS administration; protection was only observed when glucose was administered orally, not by i.p. route, suggesting the important role of intestinal epithelial cells in this protection. In addition, we observed that the in vivo protection depends on an increase of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. The cornerstone of the observed immunomodulatory and life-saving effects resides in activation of SGLT-1; in fact, the glucose analog 3-O-methyl-d-gluco-pyranose, which induces the transporter activity, but is not metabolized, exerted the same inhibitory effects as glucose both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, we propose that activated SGLT-1, apart from its classical metabolic function, may be a promising target for inhibition of bacteria-induced inflammatory processes and life-saving treatments, assuming a novel role as an immunological player.
    The Journal of Immunology 10/2008; 181(5):3126-36. · 5.52 Impact Factor
  • Cytokine 09/2008; 43(3):310-310. · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 4, 5, 7 and 9 belong to a family of proteins that recognize mainly conserved microbial motifs. Though each TLR has a highly specific ability to recognize a particular microbial pattern, recent papers suggest that some ligands are able to affect the expression of different TLRs. In this paper, we have investigated TLR4, 5, 7 and 9 expression, both at mRNA and protein level, following treatment of different intestinal epithelial cell lines with LPS, flagellin, loxiribine, CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide and peptidoglycan, to assess if the different TLR ligands may modulate the expression of the respective TLR and of the unrelated ones. Our results show that a cross-talk exists between TLRs and various ligands, indicating a cross-regulation among these pattern recognition receptors. In particular, TLR4 was generally down-regulated by treatment with ligands other than LPS, while flagellin and unrelated microbial-associated molecular patterns exerted a general stimulatory activity as regards TLR5 expression. Concerning TLR7 and 9, we have observed a more variable behaviour of the various cell lines with the different ligands. Together, our results demonstrate that the expression of TLRs in intestinal cells is highly dynamic and tightly regulated in response to encountered microbial stimuli.
    International Immunology 06/2008; 20(5):709-18. · 3.14 Impact Factor
  • Cytokine 01/2008; 43(3):255-255. · 2.52 Impact Factor