[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent advances in the study of tumor-derived microvesicles reveal new insights into the cellular basis of disease progression and the potential to translate this knowledge into innovative approaches for cancer diagnostics and personalized therapy. Tumor-derived microvesicles are heterogeneous membrane-bound sacs that are shed from the surfaces of tumor cells into the extracellular environment. They have been thought to deposit paracrine information and create paths of least resistance, as well as be taken up by cells in the tumor microenvironment to modulate the molecular makeup and behavior of recipient cells. The complexity of their bioactive cargo-which includes proteins, RNA, microRNA, and DNA-suggests multipronged mechanisms by which microvesicles can condition the extracellular milieu to facilitate disease progression. The formation of these shed vesicles likely involves both a redistribution of surface lipids and the vertical trafficking of cargo to sites of microvesicle biogenesis at the cell surface. Current research also suggests that molecular profiling of these structures could unleash their potential as circulating biomarkers as well as platforms for personalized medicine. Thus, new and improved strategies for microvesicle identification, isolation, and capture will have marked implications in point-of-care diagnostics for cancer patients.
Genes & development 06/2012; 26(12):1287-99. · 12.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patterning of the Drosophila pupal eye is characterized by precise cell movements. In this paper, we demonstrate that these movements require an Arf regulatory cycle that connects surface receptors to actin-based movement. dArf6 activity-regulated by the Arf GTPase-activating proteins (ArfGAPs) dAsap and dArfGAP3 and the Arf GTP exchange factors Schizo and dPsd-promoted large cellular extensions; time-lapse microscopy indicated that these extensions presage cell rearrangements into correct epithelial niches. During this process, the Drosophila eye also requires interactions between surface Neph1/nephrin adhesion receptors Roughest and Hibris, which bind the adaptor protein Cindr (CD2AP). We provide evidence that Cindr forms a physical complex with dArfGAP3 and dAsap. Our data suggest this interaction sequesters ArfGAP function to liberate active dArf6 elsewhere in the cell. We propose that a Neph1/nephrin-Cindr/ArfGAP complex accumulates to limit local Arf6 activity and stabilize adherens junctions. Our model therefore links surface adhesion via an Arf6 regulatory cascade to dynamic modeling of the cytoskeleton, accounting for precise cell movements that organize the functional retinal field. Further, we demonstrate a similar relationship between the mammalian Cindr orthologue CD2AP and Arf6 activity in cell motility assays. We propose that this Cindr/CD2AP-mediated regulation of Arf6 is a widely used mechanism in emerging epithelia.
Molecular biology of the cell 12/2011; 22(23):4513-26. · 5.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several mechanisms function in the endocytic regulation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway to promote or interrupt the progression of critical cellular processes during embryonic development or disease progression. Endocytosis was initially associated with the formation of a morphogen gradient of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, but current studies have documented its role in defining signal intensity and propagation. Although the exact parameters that define and dictate the internalization of Wnt receptors and co-receptors via clathrin- or caveolae-mediated endocytosis remain unclear, new studies indicate that the trafficking of the signaling pool of the dual-function protein beta-catenin from sites of cell-cell contacts serve as a mechanism to finely tune the outcome of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling. This review discusses the endocytic regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling that occurs at the cell surface as well as within the cell.
Current drug targets 05/2011; 12(8):1216-22. · 3.93 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A wide range of cellular activities depends upon endocytic recycling. ARF6, a small molecular weight GTPase, regulates the processes of endocytosis and endocytic recycling in concert with various effector molecules and other small GTPases. This review highlights three critical processes that involve ARF6-mediated endosomal membrane trafficking-cell motility, cytokinesis, and cholesterol homeostasis. In each case, the function of ARF6-mediated trafficking varies-including localization of specific protein and lipid cargo, regulation of bulk membrane movement, and modulation of intracellular signaling. As described in this review, mis-regulation of endocytic traffic can result in human disease when it compromises the cell's ability to regulate cell movement and invasion, cell division, and lipid homeostasis.
Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology 02/2011; 22(1):39-47. · 6.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor development in glandular tissues is associated with structural alterations in the hollow ducts and spherical structures that comprise such tissues. We describe a signaling axis involving sustained activation of the GTP-binding protein, ARF6, that provokes dramatic changes in the organization of epithelial cysts, reminiscent of tumorigenic glandular phenotypes. In reconstituted basement membrane cultures of renal epithelial cysts, enhanced ARF6 activation induces the formation of cell-filled glandular structures with multiple lumens and disassembled cadherin-based cell-cell contacts. All of these alterations are accompanied by growth factor receptor internalization into signaling endosomes and reversed by blocking ARF6 activation or receptor endocytosis. Receptor localization in signaling endosomes results in hyperactive extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling leading to Bcl-2 stabilization and aberrant cysts. Similarly, formation of hyperproliferative and disorganized mammary acini induced by chronic stimulation of colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor is coupled to endogenous ARF6 activation and constitutive receptor internalization and is reversed by ARF6 inhibition. These findings identify a previously unrecognized link between ARF6-regulated receptor internalization and events that drive dramatic alterations in cyst morphogenesis providing new mechanistic insight into the molecular processes that can promote epithelial glandular disruption.
Molecular biology of the cell 05/2010; 21(13):2355-66. · 5.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microvesicles are generated by the outward budding and fission of membrane vesicles from the cell surface. Recent studies suggest that microvesicle shedding is a highly regulated process that occurs in a spectrum of cell types and, more frequently, in tumor cells. Microvesicles have been widely detected in various biological fluids including peripheral blood, urine and ascitic fluids, and their function and composition depend on the cells from which they originate. By facilitating the horizontal transfer of bioactive molecules such as proteins, RNAs and microRNAs, they are now thought to have vital roles in tumor invasion and metastases, inflammation, coagulation, and stem-cell renewal and expansion. This Commentary summarizes recent literature on the properties and biogenesis of microvesicles and their potential role in cancer progression.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, small GTPase activation, cytoskeletal rearrangements, and the directed targeting of proteases to sites of extracellular matrix degradation all accompany the process of tumor cell invasion. Several studies have implicated the small GTP-binding protein ARF6 in tumor cell invasion, although the molecular basis by which ARF6 facilitates this process is unclear.
We show that the ARF6 GTP/GDP cycle regulates the release of protease-loaded plasma membrane-derived microvesicles from tumor cells into the surrounding environment. To enable microvesicle shedding, ARF6-GTP-dependent activation of phospholipase D promotes the recruitment of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) to the plasma membrane where, in turn, ERK phosphorylates and activates myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK). MLCK-mediated MLC phosphorylation is required for microvesicle release. Inhibition of ARF6 activation is accompanied by PKC-mediated phosphorylation of MLC, which blocks microvesicle shedding. Protein cargo appears to be selectively sorted into microvesicles, and adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM) is facilitated by microvesicle-associated integrin receptors.
Microvesicle shedding in tumor cells occurs via an actomyosin-based membrane abscission mechanism that is regulated by nucleotide cycling on ARF6. Microvesicle shedding appears to release selected cellular components, particularly those involved in cell adhesion and motility, into the surrounding environment. These findings suggest that ARF6 activation and the proteolytic activities of microvesicles, both of which are thought to correlate directly with tumor progression, could potentially serve as biomarkers for disease.
Current biology: CB 11/2009; 19(22):1875-85. · 10.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study shows that the small GTP-binding protein ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6) is an important regulator of tumor growth and metastasis. Using spontaneous melanoma tumor growth assays and experimental metastasis assays in nude mice, we show that sustained activation of ARF6 reduces tumor mass growth but significantly enhances the invasive capacity of tumor cells. In contrast, mice injected with tumor cells expressing a dominantly inhibitory ARF6 mutant exhibited a lower incidence and degree of invasion and lung metastasis compared with control animals. Effects on tumor growth correlate with reduced cell proliferation capacity and are linked at least in part to alterations in mitotic progression induced by defective ARF6 cycling. Furthermore, phospho-ERK levels in subcultured cells from ARF6(GTP) and ARF6(GDP) tumor explants correlate with invasive capacity. ARF6-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling leads to Rac1 activation to promote invadopodia formation and cell invasion. These findings document an intricate role for ARF6 and the regulation of ERK activation in orchestrating mechanisms underlying melanoma growth, invasion, and metastases.
Cancer Research 04/2009; 69(6):2201-9. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A common pathobiological feature of malignant gliomas is the insidious infiltration of single tumor cells into the brain parenchyma, rendering these deadly tumors virtually incurable with available therapies. In this study, we report that ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6), a Ras superfamily small GTPase, is abundantly expressed in invasive human glioma cells. Cellular depletion of ARF6 by small interfering RNA decreased Rac1 activation, impaired HGF-stimulated and serum-stimulated glioma cell migration in vitro, and markedly decreased the invasive capacity of invasive glioma in the brain. Furthermore, ectopic expression of ARF6 in glioma cells promoted cell migration via the activation of Rac1. Upon stimulation of glioma cells with HGF, we show that IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 (IQGAP1) is recruited and overlaps with ARF6 at the leading edge of migrating cells. However, cellular depletion of ARF6 abrogated this recruitment of IQGAP1 and attenuated the formation of surface protrusions. ARF6 forms complexes with Rac1 and IQGAP1 in glioma cells upon HGF stimulation, and knockdown of IQGAP1 significantly inhibits ARF6-induced Rac1 activation and cell migration. Taken together, these data suggest that ARF6-mediated Rac1 activation is essential for glioma cell invasion via a signaling pathway that requires IQGAP1.
Cancer Research 02/2009; 69(3):794-801. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In human Niemann-Pick Type C (NPC) disease, endosomal trafficking defects lead to an accumulation of free cholesterol and other lipids in late endosome/lysosome (LE/LY) compartments, a subsequent block in cholesterol esterification and significantly reduced cholesterol efflux out of the cell. Here we report that nucleotide cycling or cellular knockdown of the small GTP-binding protein, ARF6, markedly impacts cholesterol homeostasis. Unregulated ARF6 activation attenuates the NPC phenotype at least in part by decreasing cholesterol accumulation and restoring normal sphingolipid trafficking. These effects depend on ARF6-stimulated cholesterol efflux out of the endosomal recycling compartment, a major cell repository for free cholesterol. We also show that fibroblasts derived from different NPC patients displayed varying levels of ARF6 that is GTP-bound, which correlate with their response to sustained ARF6 activation. These studies support emerging evidence that early endocytic defects impact NPC disease and suggest that such heterogeneity in NPC disease could result in diverse responses to therapeutic interventions aimed at modulating the trafficking of lipids.
PLoS ONE 02/2009; 4(4):e5193. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Invadopodia are actin-based membrane protrusions formed at contact sites between invasive tumor cells and the extracellular matrix with matrix proteolytic activity. Actin regulatory proteins participate in invadopodia formation, whereas matrix degradation requires metalloproteinases (MMPs) targeted to invadopodia. In this study, we show that the vesicle-tethering exocyst complex is required for matrix proteolysis and invasion of breast carcinoma cells. We demonstrate that the exocyst subunits Sec3 and Sec8 interact with the polarity protein IQGAP1 and that this interaction is triggered by active Cdc42 and RhoA, which are essential for matrix degradation. Interaction between IQGAP1 and the exocyst is necessary for invadopodia activity because enhancement of matrix degradation induced by the expression of IQGAP1 is lost upon deletion of the exocyst-binding site. We further show that the exocyst and IQGAP1 are required for the accumulation of cell surface membrane type 1 MMP at invadopodia. Based on these results, we propose that invadopodia function in tumor cells relies on the coordination of cytoskeletal assembly and exocytosis downstream of Rho guanosine triphosphatases.
The Journal of Cell Biology 07/2008; 181(6):985-98. · 10.82 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tubules are the building blocks of epithelial organs and form in response to cues derived from morphogens such as hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Relatively little is known about signaling pathways that orchestrate the cellular behaviors that constitute tubule development. Here, using three-dimensional cell cultures of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, we show that the ARF6 GTPase is a critical determinant of tubule initiation in response to HGF. ARF6 is transiently activated during tubulogenesis and perturbing the ARF6 GTP/GDP cycle by inducible expression of ARF6 mutants defective in GTP binding or hydrolysis, inhibits the development of mature tubules. Further, we show that activation of ARF6 is necessary and sufficient to initiate tubule extension. The effect of ARF6 on tubule initiation is two-fold. First, ARF6 regulates the subcellular distribution of the GTPase, Rac1, to tubule extensions. Second, ARF6-induced ERK activation regulates Rac1 activation during tubule initiation through the expression of the receptor for urokinase type plasminogen activator. Thus, we have identified a cellular apparatus downstream of ARF6 activation, which regulates membrane and cytoskeleton remodeling necessary for the early stages of tubule development.
The EMBO Journal 05/2007; 26(7):1806-19. · 9.82 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) small GTPases regulate vesicular traffic and organelle structure by recruiting coat proteins, regulating phospholipid metabolism and modulating the structure of actin at membrane surfaces. Recent advances in our understanding of the signalling pathways that are regulated by ARF1 and ARF6, two of the best characterized ARF proteins, provide a molecular context for ARF protein function in fundamental biological processes, such as secretion, endocytosis, phagocytosis, cytokinesis, cell adhesion and tumour-cell invasion.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epithelial cells disassemble their adherens junctions and "scatter" during processes such as tumor cell invasion as well as some stages of embryonic development. Control of actin polymerization is a powerful mechanism for regulating the strength of cell-cell adhesion. In this regard, studies have shown that sustained activation of Rac1, a well-known regulator of actin dynamics, results in the accumulation of polymerized actin at cell-cell contacts in epithelia and an increase in E-cadherin-mediated adhesion. Here we show that active Rac1 is ubiquitinated and subject to proteasome-mediated degradation during the early stages of epithelial cell scattering. These findings delineate a mechanism for the down-regulation of Rac1 in the disassembly of epithelial cell-cell contacts and support the emerging theme that UPS-mediated degradation of the Rho family GTPases may serve as an efficient mechanism for GTPase deactivation in the sustained presence of Dbl-exchange factors.
Molecular Biology of the Cell 06/2006; 17(5):2236-42. · 4.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent work has underscored the importance of membrane trafficking events during cytokinesis. For example, targeted membrane secretion occurs at the cleavage furrow in animal cells, and proteins that regulate endocytosis also influence the process of cytokinesis. Nonetheless, the prevailing dogma is that endosomal membrane trafficking ceases during mitosis and resumes after cell division is complete. In this study, we have characterized endocytic membrane trafficking events that occur during mammalian cell cytokinesis. We have found that, although endocytosis ceases during the early stages of mitosis, it resumes during late mitosis in a temporally and spatially regulated pattern as cells progress from anaphase to cytokinesis. Using fixed and live cell imaging, we have found that, during cleavage furrow ingression, vesicles are internalized from the polar region and subsequently trafficked to the midbody area during later stages of cytokinesis. In addition, we have demonstrated that cytokinesis is inhibited when clathrin-mediated endocytosis is blocked using a series of dominant negative mutants. In contrast to previous thought, we conclude that endocytosis resumes during the later stages of mitosis, before cytokinesis is completed. Furthermore, based on our findings, we propose that the proper regulation of endosomal membrane traffic is necessary for the successful completion of cytokinesis.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2006; 280(50):41628-35. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During cancer development, coordinated changes in cell motility and cell cycle progression are required for the gradual transformation of normal cells into cancer cells. Previous studies have shown that ARF6 is a critical regulator of epithelial cell integrity and motility via its role in membrane movement and actin-based cytoskeletal remodeling. Recently, we have found that ARF6 also plays a role during cell division. It localizes to the cleavage furrow and midbody of cells during mitosis, and its activity is regulated during cytokinesis. Here, we investigate the requirement for ARF6 during mitosis and find that depletion of ARF6 using RNA interference disrupts the completion of cytokinesis. This finding demonstrates that ARF6 is essential during the final stages of cytokinesis. In addition, we have identified Ku70, a DNA-binding protein that is required for DNA damage repair, as a new ARF6-interacting protein and found that it is part of a complex with ARF6, especially during mitosis. These results clarify the importance of ARF6 activity during cytokinesis and begin to reveal other molecules that may contribute to the function of ARF6.
Experimental Cell Research 12/2005; 311(1):74-83. · 3.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor cell invasion is a coordinated process involving the formation of invadopodia and the localized degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The process of cell invasion is regulated by cell-signaling proteins such as Ras-related GTPases and members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family. Our studies have focused on the role of the ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6) GTPase in the process of tumor cell invasion. Using activated and dominant negative mutants of ARF6 in a tumor cell culture model, our laboratory has demonstrated that the GTPase cycle of ARF6 regulates invadopodia formation and matrix degradation. Furthermore, ARF6-mediated cell invasion was found to be dependent on the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). These findings demonstrate a critical role for ARF6 in ERK activation and tumor cell invasion. To investigate the role of ARF6 in tumor cell invasion and ERK activation, a number of methods were employed. These procedures include transfection of LOX cells, in vitro matrix-degradation assays, immunofluorescence microscopy, and biochemical assays. These approaches can be applied effectively to measure the degree of invasiveness fostered by ARF6 and/or other GTPases and to examine the subcellular distribution of the molecular players that are trafficked or recruited to sites of cell invasion.
Methods in Enzymology 02/2005; 404:134-47. · 2.00 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epithelial cells regulate their contacts with neighboring cells during embryonic development and in disease states such as tumor metastasis. The intercellular adherens junctions (AJs) are specialized subapical structures that function as principle mediators of cell-cell adhesion. Their disassembly correlates with a loss of cell-cell contact and an acquisition of migratory potential. Regulation of the expression of AJ components by gene transcription can dictate the stability of intercellular adhesive contacts, and accruing evidence indicates that the coordinated regulation of cellular processes such as membrane trafficking and cytoskeletal remodeling can also result in the effective dissolution of AJs. Studies of the posttranscriptional mechanisms by which adhesive interactions are regulated in response to growth factors and/or developmental cues have opened new avenues for investigating cell-cell adhesion during development and in disease.
Trends in Cell Biology 02/2005; 15(1):19-26. · 11.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A hallmark characteristic of epithelial tumor progression as well as some processes of normal development is the loss of the epithelial phenotype and acquisition of a motile or mesenchymal phenotype. Such epithelial to mesenchymal transitions are accompanied by the loss of E-cadherin function by either transcriptional or posttranscriptional mechanisms. Here we demonstrate that, upon v-Src expression, a potent trigger of epithelial to mesenchymal transitions, E-cadherin is internalized and then shuttled to the lysosome instead of being recycled back to the lateral membrane. Thus, while E-cadherin internalization facilitates the dissolution of adherens junctions, its subsequent traffic to the lysosome serves as a means to ensure that cells do not reform their cell-cell contacts and remain motile. We also show that ubiquitin tagging of E-cadherin is essential for its sorting to the lysosome. The lysosomal targeting of E-cadherin is mediated by hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (Hrs) and v-Src-induced activation of the Rab5 and Rab7 GTPases. Our studies reveal that the lysosomal targeting of E-cadherin is an important posttranscriptional mechanism to deplete cellular E-cadherin during Src-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transitions.
Molecular and Cellular Biology 02/2005; 25(1):389-402. · 5.37 Impact Factor