Shinji Akita

Gifu Prefectural Tajimi Hospital, Gihu, Gifu, Japan

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Publications (15)41.82 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A 74-year-old woman was transferred to our hospital for further examinations because of abdominal fullness and abnormal levels of serum liver/biliary enzyme persisting for 3 weeks. She had anemia and dilatation of many capillary vessels in her fingers, palms, and tongue in addition to reporting frequent incidences of nasal bleeding in herself and her family. Abdominal ultrasonography detected a cystic lesion in the right hepatic lobe, connected to a dilated tortuous hepatic artery. A low-echoic hepatic phyma was also detected in the back of the cystic lesion. Abdominal computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging indicated that the cystic lesion was an aneurysm and the low-echoic phyma was a hematoma. Hepatic arteriography confirmed a hepatic aneurysm, tortuous dilatation of the hepatic artery, and the complication of an arteriovenous shunt in the liver. Taking all of these findings into consideration, this case was diagnosed as hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HTT) complicated by a hepatic aneurysm causing intrahepatic hematoma. To prevent re-rupture of the aneurysm, we performed a hepatic arterial coil embolization. After therapy, no blood flow to the aneurysm was detected by ultrasonic color Doppler method and the hematoma gradually diminished. There have been no reports of a case in which hepatic arterial embolization was effective for HHT-associated hepatic aneurysm causing intrahepatic hematoma. This very rare case provides important clinical information regarding abdominal vascular complications of HTT and a less invasive treatment for them.
    Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 01/2008; 22(12):2352-7. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transpapillary bile duct brushing cytology and/or forceps biopsy was performed in the presence of an indwelling guidewire in patients with biliary stricture, and the treatment time, overall diagnosis rate, diagnosis rate of each disease, complications, and influences on subsequent biliary drainage were investigated. After endoscopic retrograde cholangiography, brushing cytology was performed, followed by forceps biopsy. In patients with obstructive jaundice, endoscopic biliary drainage (EBD) was subsequently performed. To investigate the influences of bile duct brushing cytology and forceps biopsy on EBD, patients who underwent subsequent EBD by plastic stent were compared with patients who underwent EBD alone. The samples for cytology were collected successfully in all cases, and the sensitivity for malignancy/benignity, specificity, and accuracy were 71.6%, 100%, and 75.0%, respectively. The biopsy sampling was successful in 51 patients, and samples applicable to the evaluation were collected in all 51 patients. The sensitivity for malignancy/benignity, specificity, and accuracy were 65.2%, 100%, and 68.6%, respectively. Combination of the two procedures increased the sensitivity and accuracy to 73.5% and 76.6%, respectively. The time required for cytology and biopsy was 11.7 min, which is relatively short. Cytology and biopsy did not affect drainage. Regarding accidents, bile duct perforation occurred during biopsy in one patient (1.9%), but was rapidly improved by endoscopic biliary drainage. Transpapillary brushing cytology and forceps biopsy could be performed in a short time. The diagnosis rate was high, and the incidence of complication was low, having no influence on subsequent biliary drainage.
    Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 11/2007; 22(10):1615-20. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 37-year-old man presented complaining of epigastralgia. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed the presence of a papillary tumor (9 mm in diameter) in the cystic lesion (18 mm in diameter) in hepatic segment 4, which was accompanied by mild intrahepatic bile duct dilatation. Although abdominal computed tomography also showed the cystic lesion, it did not show papillary tumors inside the lesion. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography showed the communication between the cystic lesion and the left hepatic duct. In addition, mucus was observed in the common bile duct. When transpapillary intraductal ultrasonography was performed through the left hepatic duct using a fine ultrasonic probe, a hyperechoic papillary and lobulated tumor was clearly shown in the cystic lesion. The wall of the cyst was smooth and there was no sign of tumor infiltration. Based on these findings, biliary cystadenoma was diagnosed and an extended left lobectomy was carried out. However, pathological findings postoperatively revealed that the lesion was a localized biliary papilloma, developing and extending to the intrahepatic duct. This case is rare and there have been no published reports describing a biliary papilloma morphologically similar to biliary cystadenoma.
    Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 03/2005; 20(2):321-4. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background:  Endoscopic bilateral expandable metal stent (EMS) placement has been performed in malignant hilar strictures. To perform EMS placement successfully, insertion of guidewires into the bilateral intrahepatic bile ducts is an important and necessary step. In the present study, we evaluated the usefulness of the Haber RAMPTM catheter (HRC) for the selective insertion of guidewires.Methods:  EMS placement was performed in 17 patients with malignant hilar strictures. As the HRC has three lumens connected to apertures facing in different directions, the direction of the guidewire can be controlled at the catheter tip. Insertion of guidewires into bilateral intrahepatic bile ducts was attempted with and without the HRC.Results:  The success rate of guidewire insertion into the bilateral intrahepatic bile ducts was 100% (7/7) when the HRC was used, whereas it was 50% (5/10) without the HRC. In the five patients with insertion failure, reinsertion was successfully performed using the HRC. The time required for the bilateral insertion of guidewires was reduced using the HRC. Bilateral EMSs placement was successful in 14 of the 17 patients (82%).Conclusions:  The HRC was very useful for the accurate and rapid bilateral insertion of guidewires.
    Digestive Endoscopy 12/2003; 16(1):30 - 33. · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background:  The present study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of the Memory® 8-wire basket forceps for extracting small common bile duct stones after endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST).Methods:  Sixty-one patients with common bile duct stones underwent EST. In patients with stones of 1 cm or more diameter, stones were crushed into fragments having a diameter of less than 1 cm using a mechanical lithotriptor. Stones were extracted using a conventional 4-wire basket forceps and a stone retrieval balloon catheter. After endoscopic and fluoroscopic confirmation of the absence of stones, stone extraction was again attempted using the Memory® 8-wire basket forceps, which consists of a 5 Fr catheter sheath and a helical 8-wire nitinol monofilament basket. After a few days, the presence or absence of residual stones was examined by cholangiography via the endoscopic nasobiliary drainage tube.Results:  Further extraction of stones was possible using the Memory® 8-wire basket forceps in 47.5% (29/61) of the patients who underwent extraction of stones by a 4 wire-basket forceps and a stone retrieval balloon catheter. Cholangiography some days after using the Memory® 8-wire basket forceps showed residual stones in only two patients (3.3%).Conclusions:  The Memory® 8-wire basket forceps was a useful device for the accurate and rapid endoscopic extraction of common bile duct stones with a diameter of less than 1 cm after EST.
    Digestive Endoscopy 12/2003; 16(1):21 - 25. · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 59-year-old man with bloody stools, and previously diagnosed with sigmoid colon carcinoma, visited our hospital. Preoperative abdominal ultrasonography (US) showed another tumor, with an uneven irregular surface, measuring about 9 x 5 cm, below the left hypochondrium. The tumor consisted of several cysts. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) showed a multicystic tumor attached to the stomach, and its septum and marginal region were intensely stained on contrast imaging. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), low and markedly high signals were revealed in the tumor on T1-weighted and T2-weighted sequences, respectively. Contrast imaging of the upper digestive tract showed extramural compression of the greater curvature of the antral stomach by the tumor. The tumor was partially imaged by endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS), but continuity to the stomach was not confirmed. On abdominal angiography, the tumor was slightly stained via the gastroepiploic arteries. Surgical treatment was performed to excise both the gastric tumor and the sigmoid colon carcinoma. The gastric tumor was removed with gastric wall tissue where the tumor was attached to a 2-cm pedicle. It was multicystic, contained watery fluid, and had a smooth outer surface. Histologically, the tumor consisted of multiple irregular cysts without epithelial lining, and solid epitheloid cell nests in between. The tumor cells had clear or eosinophilic cytoplasm and round nuclei. No mitotic figures were seen. The tumor cells in the pedicle were connected with the muscularis propriae of the stomach. Immunohistochemistry showed c-kit-positive, CD34-positive smooth muscle actin (SMA)-negative, and S-100-negative staining of tumor cells. The final diagnosis was gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST).
    Journal of Gastroenterology 02/2003; 38(12):1181-4. · 3.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Simple liver cysts are rarely complicated by intracystic hemorrhage. We encountered a case of simple liver cyst that was morphologically similar to biliary cystadenocarcinoma, which was complicated by asymptomatic intracystic hemorrhage and successfully treated by right lobectomy. A large cystic lesion of the liver was detected in a 57-year-old woman during a mass screening health check. Abdominal ultrasonography (US) revealed that the cystic lesion, containing many hyperechoic papillary structures, occupied almost the entire region of the right hepatic lobe. In addition, a round mural nodule, measuring approximately 5 cm in diameter, was detected in the cystic wall. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed that the inner part of the cystic lesion showed homogeneous low density, but CT did not show the round nodule detected by US. On T1-weighted sequence of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the lesion showed homogeneous high signals, together with a low-signal tumorous lesion in the cystic wall. T2-weighted sequence of MRI showed unhomogeneous high signals, together with high signals in the tumorous part. These findings did not exclude the possibility of a malignant cystic tumor, such as biliary cystadenocarcinoma. Therefore, right lobectomy was performed. Histological examinations of resected tissue specimens revealed that the lesion was a liver cyst containing a large amount of blood clot, and that the tumorous lesion detected by US and MRI was a large mass of blood clot which was partly liquefied. This case indicates the diagnostic importance of the morphological discordance between CT and US or MRI findings for liver cyst containing a large amount of blood clot.
    Journal of Gastroenterology 02/2003; 38(2):190-3. · 3.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Five patients with non-resectable pancreatic head carcinoma complicated by duodenal and biliary obstructions were successfully treated by double stenting with covered self-expandable metallic stents (EMS). Diamond (Boston Scientific, Natick City, MA, USA) stents covered with a polyurethane membrane were used to treat biliary obstructions, whereas covered Ultraflex (Boston Scientific) stents for esophageal stenting were used to treat duodenal obstructions. That is, Diamond stents were initially placed in the biliary tract percutaneously in one patient and endoscopically in the remaining four patients. Subsequently, covered Ultraflex stents were placed in the duodenum. Double stenting with EMS was successfully performed in all five patients without inducing early technical complications. All patients were able to take a liquid diet orally at a mean 1.6 days after the double stenting procedure and were able to eat solid foods thereafter. Sludge-induced biliary obstructions were detected in two patients 3 and 6 months after the placement of EMS. However, recurrent biliary obstruction was not noted in the remaining three patients. The EMS left in the duodenum were not obstructed during the observation period. The survival period of the patients ranged from 86 to 363 days (mean 172 days). There have not been any reports evaluating the usefulness of double stenting using covered EMS for duodenal and biliary obstructions. Because favorable results were obtained by double stenting in our patients, stenting for duodenal and biliary obstructions caused by non-resectable pancreatic head carcinoma may become a useful treatment modality substituting for bypass surgery.
    Digestive Endoscopy 01/2002; 13(4):202 - 206. · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An 80-year-old woman consulted our hospital complaining of general weakness. She had iron deficiency anemia, and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a small lesion accompanying a small amount of fresh bleeding in the stomach. Close observation of the lesion revealed that it was composed of a local assembly of dilated microvessels. The diagnosis of this patient was gastric vascular ectasia causing anemia. Endoscopic ultrasonography demonstrated that the lesion involved the mucosal and submucosal layers of the stomach, and that there were no large vessels inflowing to or outflowing from the lesion. In the present case, we attempted endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR). The lesion was completely resected by only one procedure of EMR without complications such as bleeding. After the endoscopic treatment, iron deficiency anemia improved. Follow-up endoscopy performed 1 year later revealed that there was no residual or recurrent lesion. Although there have not been any published reports describing the use of EMR for gastric vascular ectasia, EMR may be a useful endoscopic treatment for this condition.
    Digestive Endoscopy 01/2002; 14(1):9-11. · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: E-cadherin, which is a [Ca2+]-dependent, homotypic cell-cell adhesion molecule, is expressed in gastrointestinal epithelial cells. Much has been learned about the down-regulation of E-cadherin expression in gastrointestinal tumours, Barrett's oesophageal dysplasia, and Crohn's disease, but the functions of this molecule in normal gastrointestinal mucosa are less known. In this study, we investigated the relationship between E-cadherin expression and permeability using rat cultured gastric and intestinal epithelial cells following a 30-min exposure to various pH solutions. We also investigated the participation of [Ca2+] in these events. E-cadherin expression increased under acid (pH 4) but not alkali (pH 10 or 11) exposure only for gastric epithelial cells. Gastric epithelial permeability was maintained only against acid exposure while intestinal permeability increased under both conditions. Transient influx of [Ca2+] was only observed for gastric epithelial cells just after acid exposure. These findings suggest that E-cadherin expression on gastric epithelium stabilizes the epithelial barrier against acid, probably through influx of [Ca2+]. This event is thought to be one of the protective mechanisms in gastric mucosa against acid back-diffusion, which is one of the causes of peptic ulcer formation.
    European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology 03/2001; 13(2):127-36. · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurs frequently after initial treatment. The subsequent prognosis varies with the mode of recurrence. Some patients die of hepatic failure even though the HCC is controlled. We consider the clinical stage (CS), using the modified Child-Pugh classification, to be an important factor influencing the prognosis of these patients. To determine the most effective treatment for HCC, we examined 105 patients with solitary small HCC who were followed-up for more than 1 year after initial treatment. All of them were judged to be cured according to imaging or histological studies. The initial treatments were hepatic resection (n = 43), percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEIT, n = 33), and percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy (PMCT, n = 29). The modes of recurrence were divided into intrahepatic metastasis (IM) and multicentric occurrence (MO). Prognosis of MO was superior to that of IM in CS I patients, but there was no difference in prognosis between these modes in CS II. The hepatic resection group had more MO recurrences in CS I patients and more IM recurrences in CS II patients. IM developed frequently after PEIT and PMCT, regardless of the CS. Prognosis with hepatic resection was superior to that of the other treatments in CS I patients, but there was no difference in prognosis among the 3 treatment modalities in CS II patients. These data indicate that hepatic resection is the first choice for treating HCC in CS I patients, and that PEIT or PMCT is preferable for CS II patients.
    Hepato-gastroenterology 01/2000; 47(32):507-11. · 0.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a case that suggests a relationship between primary biliary cirrhosis and myasthenia gravis. A 43-year-old Japanese woman was admitted to the Nagoya City University Medical School, First Department of Internal Medicine with abnormal liver function in August 1991. She had had ptosis of the right eye since 1990. She had not been treated for liver disease. Ptosis of the right eye and hepatomegaly were present. Serum laboratory examinations revealed elevated biliary enzymes and IgM levels; tests were positive for antimitochondrial antibody and antiacetylcholine antibody. Liver histology revealed chronic non-suppurative destructive cholangitis and led to a diagnosis of primary biliary cirrhosis. The tensilon test was positive. Electromyography with repetitive motor nerve stimulation revealed a neuromuscular junction defect; i.e., the primary characteristic of myasthenia gravis. The patient was diagnosed with myasthenia gravis. Although the development of myasthenia gravis has previously been reported in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis during D-penicillamine administration, this is a very rare case of the coexistence of both diseases before such treatment.
    Hepato-gastroenterology 01/2000; 47(31):125-7. · 0.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the effectiveness of different imaging modalities and the significance of tumor biopsy for diagnosing small hepatocellular carcinoma. Nodules (n = 352) with diameters of 30 mm or less newly detected by periodic ultrasonography and computed tomography in 234 patients with chronic liver disease were investigated with magnetic resonance imaging and digital subtraction angiography. These findings were compared with histologic findings. Histologic diagnoses were dysplastic nodule (n = 23), well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 163), moderately differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 159), and poorly differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 7). We compared three groups based on-diameters of 10, 11-20, and 21-30 mm. Nodules were diagnosed as hepatocellular carcinoma if they had hypervascular staining on digital subtraction angiography, hyperintensity on magnetic resonance T2-weighted images, arterial phase enhancement on enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, or low-high-low density on enhanced computed tomography. Imaging alone was sufficient to diagnose hepatocellular carcinoma in 66.3% of the well-differentiated nodules and 91.6% of the moderately and poorly differentiated nodules (P < 0.001) The size of the nodule influenced the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma by imaging alone in 65.5% (< or = 10 mm), 77.2% (11-20 mm), and 92.3% (21-30 mm) (< or = 10 vs. 21-30: P < 0.0001, 11-20 vs. 21-30: P < 0.0005). It was impossible to determine the degree of differentiation of the hepatocellular carcinoma by imaging alone. The effectiveness of imaging for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma improved with decreasing differentiation and increasing diameter of the nodules. Tumor biopsy was required to make a histological accurate diagnosis.
    Hepato-gastroenterology 01/2000; 47(36):1659-62. · 0.77 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 01/2000; 118(4). · 12.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the safety and effectiveness of endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) for children with biliary atresia. Subjects were 7 patients with biliary atresia with esophagogastric varices and variceal bleeding. Intravariceal injection using 5% ethanolamine oleate was performed under fluoroscopy until varices were eradicated. Endoscopic examination revealed that bleeding occurred in the junctional gastric varices in most of the cases. The mean number of EIS sessions required for obliteration of the varices was 2.3. In the observation period (mean: 21 months), recurrent esophagogastric varices occurred in 2 patients. One had variceal bleeding that was treated successfully by additional EIS. There were no severe complications associated with EIS. EIS under fluoroscopy was safe and effective for variceal bleeding in children with biliary atresia.
    Hepato-gastroenterology 01/1999; 46(30):3060-2. · 0.77 Impact Factor