[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is emerging as an important modulator of different pathological process and as a mechanism contributing to homocysteine (Hcy)-induced hepar injury. However, the molecular event that Hcy-induced ER stress in the hepar under the atherosclerosis background is currently unknown. Endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductin 1α (ERO1α) plays a crucial role in maintaining ER stress function. In this study, we determined the expression of ERO1α in the hepar in hyperhomocysteinemia and the effect of ERO1α in hepacytes ER stress in the presence of Hcy. HHcy model was established by feeding the methionine diet in apolipoprotein-E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice, and the hepatocytes were incubated with folate and different concentrations of Hcy. Our results showed that Hcy triggered ER stress characterized by an increased contents of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK), activating transcription factor (ATF) 6 and X-box binding protein-1 (XBP-1). The ERO1α expressions in HHcy mice and Hcy-treated hepatocytes were decreased compared with those in ApoE-/- group and control hepacytes (P < 0.05), respectively. Knocking-down the expression of ERO1α with small-interfering RNA significantly augmented Hcy-induced ER stress. Meanwhile, the expressions of ER stress-related factor including GRP78, PERK, ATF6 and XBP-1, were significantly decreased when the ERO1α gene was over-expressed in hepacytes. Our results suggested that ERO1α may be involved in Hcy-induced hepar ER stress, and the inhibition of ERO1α expression can accelerate this process.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is well established that homocysteine (Hcy) is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis (AS), which is characterized by vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. However, the molecular mechanism underlying AS in VSMCs is yet to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential involvement of aberrant DNA methylation of the platelet‑derived growth factor (PDGF) gene in Hcy‑mediated VSMC proliferation and its underlying mechanism. Cultured human VSMCs were treated with varying concentrations of Hcy. VSMC proliferation, PDGF mRNA and protein expression and PDGF promoter demethylation showed a dose‑dependent increase with Hcy concentration, suggesting an association among them. Cell cycle analysis revealed a decreased proportion of VSMCs in G0/G1 and an increased proportion in S phase, indicating that VSMC proliferation was increased under Hcy treatment. Furthermore, S‑adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) levels were observed to increase and those of S‑adenosylmethionine (SAM) were observed to decrease. The consequent decrease in the ratio of SAM/SAH may partially explain the hypomethylation of PDGF with Hcy treatment. Folate treatment exhibited an antagonistic effect against Hcy‑induced VSMC proliferation, aberrant PDGF methylation and PDGF expression. These data suggest that Hcy may stimulate VSMC proliferation through the PDGF signaling pathway by affecting the epigenetic regulation of PDGF through the demethylation of its promoter region. These findings may provide novel insight into the molecular association between aberrant PDGF gene demethylation and the proliferation of VSMCs in Hcy‑associated AS.
Molecular Medicine Reports 05/2014; 10(2). DOI:10.3892/mmr.2014.2249 · 1.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and has a strong correlation with heart failure. However, the effects of HHcy on cardiac tissue remain less well understood. To elucidate the role of p53-dependent apoptosis in HHcy-induced cardiac injury, we fed ApoE(-/-) mice with high methionine diet to establish HHcy model. Serum Hcy, cardiac enzymes, and lipids were measured. The protein levels of Noxa, DNMT1, caspases-3/9, and p53 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Bcl-2 and Bax proteins were detected by immunohistochemistry staining. S-adenosyl methionine and S-adenosyl homocysteine concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The mRNA levels of p53 and DNMT1 were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the methylation levels of p53 were analyzed by nested methylation-specific-PCR. Our data showed that the concentrations of serum Hcy and lipids were increased in Meth group compared with the N-control group, which indicated that the model was established successfully. The expression levels of p53 and Noxa were increased in Meth group, while the methylation status of p53 was hypomethylation. The activities of caspase-3/9 were increased in Meth group compared with the N-control group. In addition, immunohistochemistry staining showed that the expression of Bax was significantly increased in Meth and Meth-F group compared with the N-control group. In summary, HHcy induces cardiac injury by up-regulation of p53-dependent pro-apoptotic related genes Noxa and Bax, while p53 DNA hypomethylation is a key molecular mechanism in pathological process induced by HHcy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxymatrine (OMT), an alkaloid extracted from Sophora japonica (kushen), is used to treat inflammatory diseases and various types of cancer in traditional Chinese medicine. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the anti‑inflammatory activity of OMT remain poorly understood. The present study explored the protective effect of OMT on myocardial injury in rats with septic shock by inhibiting the activation of the janus kinase‑signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway. OMT treatment was found to significantly inhibit the activation of JAK2 and STAT3 in myocardial tissue. It also attenuated the expression of pro‑inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin‑1β and tumor necrosis factor‑α. In addition, OMT exhibited anti‑inflammatory properties as heart function and myocardial contractility was improved and pathological and ultrastructural injury was prevented in myocardial tissue induced by septic shock. The results indicate that OMT exhibits substantial therapeutic potential for the treatment of septic shock‑induced myocardial injury through inhibition of the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway.
Molecular Medicine Reports 04/2013; 7(4):1293-9. DOI:10.3892/mmr.2013.1315 · 1.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Survival after acute myocardial infarction is decreased in elderly patients. The enhanced rates of apoptosis in the aging heart exacerbate myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. We have recently demonstrated that the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), the most potent endogenous inhibitor of apoptosis, was decreased in aging rats' hearts. XIAP was balanced by two mitochondria proteins, Omi/HtrA2 and Smac/DIABLO. However, the implicative role of XIAP, Omi/HtrA2, and Smac/DIABLO to aging-related MI/R injury has not been previously investigated. In our study, male aging rats (20-24 months) or young adult rats (4-6 months) were subjected to 30 min of myocardial ischemia followed by reperfusion. MI/R-induced cardiac injury was enhanced in aging rats, as evidenced by aggravated cardiac dysfunction, enlarged infarct size, and increased myocardial apoptosis (TUNEL and caspase-3 activity). Then, the XIAP, Omi/HtrA2, and Smac/DIABLO protein and mRNA expression was detected. XIAP protein and mRNA expression was decreased in both aging hearts and aging hearts subjected to MI/R. Meanwhile, myocardial XIAP protein expression was correlated to cardiac function after MI/R. However, Omi/HtrA2, but not Smac/DIABLO, expression was increased in aging hearts. Moreover, the translocation of Omi/HtrA2 from mitochondria to cytosol was increased in both aging hearts and aging hearts subjected to MI/R. Treatment with ucf-101 (a novel and specific Omi/HtrA2 inhibitor) attenuated XIAP degradation and caspase-3 activity and exerted cardioprotective effects. Taken together, these results demonstrated that increased expression and leakage of Omi/HtrA2 enhanced MI/R injury in aging hearts via degrading XIAP and promoting myocardial apoptosis.
Age 04/2012; 35(3). DOI:10.1007/s11357-012-9406-x · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abnormal fetal and early postnatal growth is closely associated with adult-onset metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the underlying etiological factors remain complex. The presence of the autoantibody against the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-Ab), a known risk factor for pre-eclampsia, may create a suboptimal intrauterine fetal environment. The current study investigated whether middle-aged offspring of AT1-Ab-positive mothers were prone to metabolic disorder development.
The AT1-Abs was detected in placental trophoblastic cells, capillary endothelium, and milk of pregnant rats actively immunized with the second extracellular loop of the AT1 receptor. AT1-Abs in newborn rats induced vasoconstriction, increased intracellular-free Ca(2+) in vitro, and was undetectable 7 weeks later. Immunized group offspring exhibited increased weight variability and insulin resistance at 40 weeks of age under a normal diet, evidenced by elevated fasting serum insulin and homeostasis model assessment score compared with the vehicle control. To further observe metabolic alterations, the offspring were given a high-sugar diet (containing 20% sucrose) 40-48 weeks postnatally. The fasting plasma glucose in immunized group offspring was markedly increased. Concomitantly, these offspring manifested increased visceral adipose tissue, increased fatty liver, increased triglycerides, decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and decreased adiponectin levels, indicative of MetS.
AT1-Abs could be transferred from mother to offspring via the placenta and milk. Moreover, offspring of an AT1-Ab-positive mother were more vulnerable to MetS development in middle age.
AT1-Ab-positivity of mothers during pregnancy is a previously unrecognized "silent" risk factor for MetS development in their offspring.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: β1-adrenoceptors (β1-ARs) are the predominant receptors in regulating heart functions. β1-ARs contain 7-transmembrane domains (7TM), 3 extracellular loops and 3 intracellular loops. Among these loops, the second extracellular loop of β1-AR (β1-AR-ECII) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of heart failure.
(1) Select the sera-negative rats for antibodies against β1-AR-ECII. (2) Detect the level of antibodies against β1-AR-ECII in the process of active immunization with artificial synthetic peptides according to the sequence of human β1-AR-ECII. (3) Observe its long-term role on cardiac structure and function in vivo by immunizing rats. (4) Detect the changes of T lymphocytes subsets in the process of active immunization.
The peptides induced the production of specific autoantibody against β1-AR-ECII. Furthermore, immunization with β1-AR-ECII peptide induced both morphological and functional alterations in the hearts of rats, which potentially results in heart failure. In addition, induction of the autoantibodies against β1-AR-ECII increased the CD4+/CD8+ ratio in the peripheral blood of rats.
In this study, we determined the effect of anti-β1-AR-ECII autoantibody on morphological and functional cardiomyopathic alterations by immunization of rats with a synthetic peptide corresponding to the β1-AR-ECII for 18 months. These results provide further evidence that autoantibody against β1-AR-ECII is involved in the pathogenesis of heart failure. But the underlying mechanisms need further study.
International journal of cardiology 05/2011; 149(1):89-94. DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2009.12.023 · 4.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine whether iNOS contributes to endothelial dysfunction in aged rats.
Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups: young rats, aged rats treated with vehicle and aged rats treated with N-[3-(Aminomethyl) benzyl] acetamidine (1400W, 1 mg/kg, ip). Vasorelaxation was measured in isolated thoracic aorta. iNOS expression of thoracic aortic arteries was detected using immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Nitrotyrosine (a marker for peroxynitrite formation) content and expression in thoracic aortic tissue were determined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemistry.
Maximal relaxation induced by acetylcholine (10⁻⁹ to 10⁻⁵ mol/L) in the aged rats treated with vehicle was significantly decreased (70%±15%, P<0.01), as compared with the young rats (95%±8%). However, the maximal relaxation induced by acidified NaNO2 (an endothelium-independent vasodilator) had no significant difference between the two groups. Moreover, iNOS and nitrotyrosine expression increased in the vessels of the aged rats. In the aged rats treated with 1400W (a highly selective iNOS inhibitor) nitrotyrosine expression was reduced and acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation was markedly improved (maximal relaxation was increased to 87%±8%, P<0.05), but the acidified NaNO₂-induced vasorelaxation had no significant change.
Our study demonstrated that inhibition of iNOS by 1400W increased endothelium-dependent vasodilation in aged rats. The mechanism was related with attenuation of peroxynitrite formation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To prepare the working standards of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) and establish a two-antibody-sandwich ELISA for determining the concentration of peroxynitrite in the tissue.
Nitrated bovine serum albumin was prepared by additions of an alkaline stock solution of peroxynitrite which was synthesized by a quenched-flow reactor. The monoclone anti-3-NT antibody from mouse was used as coating antibody and the polyclone anti-3-NT antibody from as labeling antibody to prepare the standard work curve by orthogonal design. The concentrations of 3-NT in cardiac tissue from rats subjected to myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (MI/R) were analyzed.
A two-antibody-sandwich ELISA method for measuring 3-NT content in biological fluids and homogenates was successfully established. The detecting limit was 0.1 ng x ml(-1) and the linear range of standard work curve was 0.15 - 7.50 ng x ml(-1) (r2 = 0.995). The 3-NT concentration in cardiac tissue from rats subjected to MI/R (1022.42 +/- 97.35 ng x mg pro(-1)) was significantly higher than that in the sham group (246.58 +/- 56.52 ng x mg pro(-1), P < 0.01).
A two-antibody-sandwich ELISA was established for determining the 3-NT concentration in the tissue and conveniently, quickly, accurately quantitative analysis of the content of 3-NT. The assay provides a new method for quantitative analysis of the peroxyinitrite in the future.
Zhongguo ying yong sheng li xue za zhi = Zhongguo yingyong shenglixue zazhi = Chinese journal of applied physiology 11/2009; 25(4):569-72.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of autoantibodies against alpha(1)-adrenoceptor (alpha(1)-AAB) in the serum of patients with primary hypertension, and that these autoantibodies exert adrenergic-agonist-like effects. However, their role in the development of hypertension remains unclear. The current study determined whether alpha(1)-AAB can cause vascular contraction, and further investigated the cellular receptors that mediate their vasoactivity. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect alpha(1)-AAB in blood samples collected from 73 patients with primary hypertension and 86 normotensive patients. IgGs were purified from mixed sera from 25 alpha(1)-AAB-positive hypertensive patients and 20 alpha(1)-AAB-negative normotensives, respectively. The vasoconstrictive effect of purified IgG from the sera of either hypertensive or normotensive patients was observed in isolated rat thoracic aorta, coronary artery, renal artery, middle cerebral artery, and mesenteric artery. The effects of alpha(1)-AAB administration on mean arterial blood pressure in vivo were also assessed. The frequency of alpha(1)-AAB presence was considerably higher in patients with primary hypertension than normotensive subjects (34.2 vs. 10.5%, P < 0.01). In isolated thoracic aortic rings, renal artery, middle cerebral artery, and coronary artery segments, alpha(1)-AAB induced vasoconstriction in a concentration-dependent fashion, which can be completely blocked by prazosin, a selective alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist. The mean arterial pressure significantly increased after the administration of alpha(1)-AAB in vivo. Our results demonstrated that the alpha(1)-AAB (which exhibited remarkable effects of vascular contraction in vitro, elevated blood pressure in vivo, and showed no desensitization phenomena) may play a role in both elevating vascular resistance and the development and maintenance of hypertension.
Archiv für Kreislaufforschung 04/2009; 104(5):581-9. DOI:10.1007/s00395-009-0020-8 · 5.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the biological effects of anti-beta(3) adrenoceptor (beta(3)-AR) autoantibody in the serum of patients with heart failure, which may contribute to a new therapeutic clue for heart failure.
The synthetic peptide of the second extracellular loop of the beta(3)-AR was used as the antigen to screen sera of patients with heart failure and of healthy controls by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. IgG in the patients group of positive autoantibody sera was prepared by using a MabTrap Kit (Amersham) following the manufacturer's instructions. The effects of IgG per each group both on contractile response of adult isolated cardiomyocytes and on beating frequency of cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were observed.
The positive rate of anti-beta(3)-AR autoantibody was 26.7% (mean antibody titer: 1:43.27 +/- 2.71) or 11.0% (mean antibody titer: 1:14.59 +/- 1.61) in patients or healthy subjects, respectively P < 0.05. Compared with the control group, the autoantibody against beta(3)-AR from the patients group decreased cell shortening amplitude/cell shortening 3.84% +/- 0.33%, the velocity of shortening -0.47 microm/s +/- 0.07 microm/s and relengthening 0.17 microm/s +/- 0.02 microm/s in adult isolated cardiac myocytes, respectively. The autoantibody in the patients group decreased the beating rate in cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes by 47.1 beats/min +/- 8.11 beats/min, which could have a 6-hour continuance. This decreasing was not modified by Nadolol (beta(1)-AR and beta(2)-AR antagonist) in pretreating myocytes, but was nearly prevented by Bupranolol (nonselective beta-AR antagonist) or beta(3)-AR specific antigen.
It seems reasonable to state that a high titer of the autoantibody against beta(3)-AR in the serum in patients with heart failure, which could have a negative inotropic and chronotropic effect, may be a part of pathophysiological mechanisms of heart failure.
Zhonghua xin xue guan bing za zhi [Chinese journal of cardiovascular diseases] 01/2006; 33(12):1114-8.