[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Inflammation has been hypothesized to increase the risk of cancer development as an initiator or promoter, yet no large-scale study of inherited variation across cancer sites has been conducted.
We conducted a cross-cancer genomic analysis for the inflammation pathway based on 48 genome-wide association studies within the National Cancer Institute GAME-ON Network across five common cancer sites, with a total of 64 591 cancer patients and 74 467 control patients. Subset-based meta-analysis was used to account for possible disease heterogeneity, and hierarchical modeling was employed to estimate the effect of the subcomponents within the inflammation pathway. The network was visualized by enrichment map. All statistical tests were two-sided.
We identified three pleiotropic loci within the inflammation pathway, including one novel locus in Ch12q24 encoding SH2B3 (rs3184504), which reached GWAS significance with a P value of 1.78 x 10(-8), and it showed an association with lung cancer (P = 2.01 x 10(-6)), colorectal cancer (GECCO P = 6.72x10(-6); CORECT P = 3.32x10(-5)), and breast cancer (P = .009). We also identified five key subpathway components with genetic variants that are relevant for the risk of these five cancer sites: inflammatory response for colorectal cancer (P = .006), inflammation related cell cycle gene for lung cancer (P = 1.35x10(-6)), and activation of immune response for ovarian cancer (P = .009). In addition, sequence variations in immune system development played a role in breast cancer etiology (P = .001) and innate immune response was involved in the risk of both colorectal (P = .022) and ovarian cancer (P = .003).
Genetic variations in inflammation and its related subpathway components are keys to the development of lung, colorectal, ovary, and breast cancer, including SH2B3, which is associated with lung, colorectal, and breast cancer.
JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute 11/2015; 107(11):djv246. DOI:10.1093/jnci/djv246 · 12.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Defective cellular transport processes can lead to aberrant accumulation of trace elements, iron, small molecules and hormones in the cell, which in turn may promote the formation of reactive oxygen species, promoting DNA damage and aberrant expression of key regulatory cancer genes. As DNA damage and uncontrolled proliferation are hallmarks of cancer, including epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), we hypothesized that inherited variation in the cellular transport genes contributes to EOC risk.
In total, DNA samples were obtained from 14,525 case subjects with invasive EOC and from 23,447 controls from 43 sites in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). Two hundred seventy nine SNPs, representing 131 genes, were genotyped using an Illumina Infinium iSelect BeadChip as part of the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study (COGS). SNP analyses were conducted using unconditional logistic regression under a log-additive model, and the FDR q<0.2 was applied to adjust for multiple comparisons.
The most significant evidence of an association for all invasive cancers combined and for the serous subtype was observed for SNP rs17216603 in the iron transporter gene HEPH (invasive: OR = 0.85, P = 0.00026; serous: OR = 0.81, P = 0.00020); this SNP was also associated with the borderline/low malignant potential (LMP) tumors (P = 0.021). Other genes significantly associated with EOC histological subtypes (p<0.05) included the UGT1A (endometrioid), SLC25A45 (mucinous), SLC39A11 (low malignant potential), and SERPINA7 (clear cell carcinoma). In addition, 1785 SNPs in six genes (HEPH, MGST1, SERPINA, SLC25A45, SLC39A11 and UGT1A) were imputed from the 1000 Genomes Project and examined for association with INV EOC in white-European subjects. The most significant imputed SNP was rs117729793 in SLC39A11 (per allele, OR = 2.55, 95% CI = 1.5-4.35, p = 5.66x10-4).
These results, generated on a large cohort of women, revealed associations between inherited cellular transport gene variants and risk of EOC histologic subtypes.
PLoS ONE 06/2015; 10(6):e0128106. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0128106 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations account for only ∼27% of the familial aggregation of ovarian cancer (OvC), no OvC risk prediction model currently exists that considers the effects of BRCA1, BRCA2 and other familial factors. Therefore, a currently unresolved problem in clinical genetics is how to counsel women with family history of OvC but no identifiable BRCA1/2 mutations.
We used data from 1548 patients with OvC and their relatives from a population-based study, with known BRCA1/2 mutation status, to investigate OvC genetic susceptibility models, using segregation analysis methods.
The most parsimonious model included the effects of BRCA1/2 mutations, and the residual familial aggregation was accounted for by a polygenic component (SD 1.43, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.86), reflecting the multiplicative effects of a large number of genes with small contributions to the familial risk. We estimated that 1 in 630 individuals carries a BRCA1 mutation and 1 in 195 carries a BRCA2 mutation. We extended this model to incorporate the explicit effects of 17 common alleles that are associated with OvC risk. Based on our models, assuming all of the susceptibility genes could be identified we estimate that the half of the female population at highest genetic risk will account for 92% of all OvCs.
The resulting model can be used to obtain the risk of developing OvC on the basis of BRCA1/2, explicit family history and common alleles. This is the first model that accounts for all OvC familial aggregation and would be useful in the OvC genetic counselling process.
Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Journal of Medical Genetics 05/2015; 52(7). DOI:10.1136/jmedgenet-2015-103077 · 6.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Clinical genetic testing is commercially available for rs61764370, an inherited variant residing in a KRAS 3' UTR microRNA binding site, based on suggested associations with increased ovarian and breast cancer risk as well as with survival time. However, prior studies, emphasizing particular subgroups, were relatively small. Therefore, we comprehensively evaluated ovarian and breast cancer risks as well as clinical outcome associated with rs61764370.
Centralized genotyping and analysis were performed for 140,012 women enrolled in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (15,357 ovarian cancer patients; 30,816 controls), the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (33,530 breast cancer patients; 37,640 controls), and the Consortium of Modifiers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 (14,765 BRCA1 and 7904 BRCA2 mutation carriers).
We found no association with risk of ovarian cancer (OR=0.99, 95% CI 0.94-1.04, p=0.74) or breast cancer (OR=0.98, 95% CI 0.94-1.01, p=0.19) and results were consistent among mutation carriers (BRCA1, ovarian cancer HR=1.09, 95% CI 0.97-1.23, p=0.14, breast cancer HR=1.04, 95% CI 0.97-1.12, p=0.27; BRCA2, ovarian cancer HR=0.89, 95% CI 0.71-1.13, p=0.34, breast cancer HR=1.06, 95% CI 0.94-1.19, p=0.35). Null results were also obtained for associations with overall survival following ovarian cancer (HR=0.94, 95% CI 0.83-1.07, p=0.38), breast cancer (HR=0.96, 95% CI 0.87-1.06, p=0.38), and all other previously-reported associations.
rs61764370 is not associated with risk of ovarian or breast cancer nor with clinical outcome for patients with these cancers. Therefore, genotyping this variant has no clinical utility related to the prediction or management of these cancers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 12 epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) susceptibility alleles. The pattern of association at these loci is consistent in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers who are at high risk of EOC. After imputation to 1000 Genomes Project data, we assessed associations of 11 million genetic variants with EOC risk from 15,437 cases unselected for family history and 30,845 controls and from 15,252 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 8,211 BRCA2 mutation carriers (3,096 with ovarian cancer), and we combined the results in a meta-analysis. This new study design yielded increased statistical power, leading to the discovery of six new EOC susceptibility loci. Variants at 1p36 (nearest gene, WNT4), 4q26 (SYNPO2), 9q34.2 (ABO) and 17q11.2 (ATAD5) were associated with EOC risk, and at 1p34.3 (RSPO1) and 6p22.1 (GPX6) variants were specifically associated with the serous EOC subtype, all with P < 5 × 10(-8). Incorporating these variants into risk assessment tools will improve clinical risk predictions for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
To analyze the effect of germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 on mortality in patients with ovarian cancer up to 10 years after diagnosis.
We used unpublished survival time data for 2,242 patients from two case-control studies and extended survival time data for 4,314 patients from previously reported studies. All participants had been screened for deleterious germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. Survival time was analyzed for the combined data using Cox proportional hazard models with BRCA1 and BRCA2 as time-varying covariates. Competing risks were analyzed using Fine and Gray model.
The combined 10-year overall survival rate was 30% [95% confidence interval (CI), 28%-31%] for non-carriers, 25% (95% CI, 22%-28%) for BRCA1 carriers, and 35% (95% CI, 30%-41%) for BRCA2 carriers. The HR for BRCA1 was 0.53 at time zero and increased over time becoming greater than one at 4.8 years. For BRCA2, the HR was 0.42 at time zero and increased over time (predicted to become greater than 1 at 10.5 years). The results were similar when restricted to 3,202 patients with high-grade serous tumors and to ovarian cancer-specific mortality.
BRCA1/2 mutations are associated with better short-term survival, but this advantage decreases over time and in BRCA1 carriers is eventually reversed. This may have important implications for therapy of both primary and relapsed disease and for analysis of long-term survival in clinical trials of new agents, particularly those that are effective in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.
Clinical Cancer Research 11/2014; 21(3). DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-14-2497 · 8.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Scope:
We reevaluated previously reported associations between variants in pathways of one-carbon (1-C) (folate) transfer genes and ovarian carcinoma (OC) risk, and in related pathways of purine and pyrimidine metabolism, and assessed interactions with folate intake.
Methods and results:
Odds ratios (OR) for 446 genetic variants were estimated among 13,410 OC cases and 22,635 controls, and among 2281 cases and 3444 controls with folate information. Following multiple testing correction, the most significant main effect associations were for dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD) variants rs11587873 (OR = 0.92; p = 6 × 10⁻⁵) and rs828054 (OR = 1.06; p = 1 × 10⁻⁴). Thirteen variants in the pyrimidine metabolism genes, DPYD, DPYS, PPAT, and TYMS, also interacted significantly with folate in a multivariant analysis (corrected p = 9.9 × 10⁻⁶) but collectively explained only 0.2% of OC risk. Although no other associations were significant after multiple testing correction, variants in SHMT1 in 1-C transfer, previously reported with OC, suggested lower risk at higher folate (p(interaction) = 0.03-0.006).
Variation in pyrimidine metabolism genes, particularly DPYD, which was previously reported to be associated with OC, may influence risk; however, stratification by folate intake is unlikely to modify disease risk appreciably in these women. SHMT1 SNP-by-folate interactions are plausible but require further validation. Polymorphisms in selected genes in purine metabolism were not associated with OC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Survival in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is influenced by the host immune response, yet the key genetic determinants of inflammation and immunity that impact prognosis are not known. The nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) transcription factor family plays an important role in many immune and inflammatory responses, including the response to cancer. We studied common inherited variation in 210 genes in the NF-κB family in 10,084 patients with invasive EOC (5,248 high grade serous, 1,452 endometrioid, 795 clear cell, and 661 mucinous) from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. Associations between genotype and overall survival were assessed using Cox regression for all patients and by major histology, adjusting for known prognostic factors and correcting for multiple testing (threshold for statistical significance-p < 2.5x10-5). Results were statistically significant when assessed for patients of a single histology. Key associations were with CARD11 (caspase recruitment domain family, member 11) rs41324349 in patients with mucinous EOC (HR 1.82, 95% CI 1.41-2.35, p=4.13x10-6) and TNFRSF13B (tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 13B) rs7501462 in patients with endometrioid EOC (HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.56-0.82, p=2.33x10-5). Other associations of note included TRAF2 (TNF receptor-associated factor 2) rs17250239 in patients with high-grade serous EOC (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.77-0.92, p=6.49x10-5) and PLCG1 (phospholipase C, gamma 1) rs11696662 in patients with clear cell EOC (HR 0.43, 95% CI 0.26-0.73, p=4.56x10-4). These associations highlight the potential importance of genes associated with host inflammation and immunity in modulating clinical outcomes in distinct EOC histologies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The aim of this study was to estimate the contribution of deleterious mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 to invasive epithelial ovarian cancer in the population.Methods
The coding sequence and splice site boundaries of all six genes were amplified in germline DNA from 2,240 invasive EOC cases and 1,535 controls. Barcoded fragment libraries were sequenced using the Illumina GAII or HiSeq and sequence data for each subject de-multiplexed prior to interpretation. GATK and Annovar were used for variant detection and annotation. After quality control 2,222 cases (99.2 per cent) and 1,528 controls (99.5 per cent) were included in the final analysis.ResultsWe identified 193 EOC cases (8.7 per cent) carrying a deleterious mutation in at least one gene compared to 10 controls (0.65 per cent). Mutations were most frequent in BRCA1 and BRCA2, with 84 EOC cases (3.8 per cent) carrying a BRCA1 mutation and 94 EOC cases (4.2 per cent) carrying a BRCA2 mutation. The combined BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation prevalence was 11 per cent in high-grade serous disease. Seventeen EOC cases carried a mutation in a mismatch repair gene, including 10 MSH6 mutation carriers (0.45 per cent) and 4 MSH2 mutation carriers (0.18 per cent).Conclusions
At least one in ten women with high-grade serous EOC has a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. The development of next generation sequencing technologies enables rapid mutation screening for multiple susceptibility genes at once, suggesting that routine clinical testing of all incidence cases should be considered.
Human Molecular Genetics 04/2014; 23(17). DOI:10.1093/hmg/ddu172 · 6.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Family history is one of the most important risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Little is known, however, on how EOC familial relative risks (FRRs) vary by factors such as tumour subtype or the combined effects of common EOC susceptibility alleles. In addition, no data currently exist on the FRRs associated with EOC after exclusion of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers.
EOC FRRs were computed from observed EOCs in relatives of 1548 patients with EOC recruited between 1999 and 2010 from a population-based cohort study with known BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation status and tumour subtype, compared with the number expected in the general population.
The EOC FRR to all first-degree relatives was estimated to be 2.96 (95% CI 2.35 to 3.72) but there was no evidence of difference in the FRRs for mothers, sisters and daughters. There was significant evidence that the FRR for relatives of patients with EOC diagnosed under age 50 years is higher than that for older patients (4.72 (95% CI 3.21 to 6.95) and 2.53 (95% CI 1.91 to 3.35), p-diff=0.0052) and a suggestion that the FRR in relatives of patients with serous disease is higher than that for non-serous tumours (3.64 (95% CI 2.72 to 4.87) and 2.25 (95% CI 1.56 to 3.26), p-diff=0.0023). The FRR to relatives of cases without a deleterious mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 was estimated to be over twice that of the general population (2.24 (95% CI 1.71 to 2.94)). BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations were estimated to account for about 24% of the EOC FRR to first-degree relatives. FRRs were found to increase with increasing polygenic risk score of the index patient, although the trend was not significant.
These estimates could be useful in the counselling of relatives of patients with ovarian cancer.
Journal of Medical Genetics 11/2013; 51(2). DOI:10.1136/jmedgenet-2013-102015 · 6.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A missense single nucleotide polymorphism in the immune modulatory gene IL1A has been associated with ovarian cancer risk (rs17561), but the functional implications of this polymorphism are undefined. IL-1α is regulated by and activated by NF-κB, a transcription factor family that induces transcription of IL1A along with other pro-inflammatory genes and is an important modifier in carcinogenesis. We therefore tagged SNPs in over 200 genes in the NF-κB pathway for a total of 2,282 SNPs (including rs17561) for genotype analysis of 15,604 cases of ovarian cancer in patients of European descent, including 6,179 of high grade serous (HGS), 2,100 endometrioid, 1,591 mucinous, 1,034 clear cell and 1,016 low grade serous (LGS), including 23,235 control cases spanning 40 studies in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). In this large population, we confirmed the association between rs17561 and clear cell ovarian cancer (OR=0.84, 95% CI: 0.76-0.93; p=0.00075), which remained intact even after excluding participants in the prior study (OR=0.85, 95% CI: 0.75-0.95; p=0.006). Considering a multiple-testing-corrected significance threshold of p< 2.5x10-5, only one other variant, the TNFSF10 SNP rs6785617, was associated significantly with a risk of ovarian cancer (low malignant potential (LMP) tumors OR=0.85, 95% CI: 0.79-0.91; p=0.00002). Our results extend the evidence that borderline tumors may have a distinct genetic etiology. Further investigation of how these SNPs might modify ovarian cancer associations with other inflammation related risk factors is warranted.
Cancer Research 11/2013; 74(3). DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-13-1051 · 9.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is a heterogeneous cancer with both genetic and environmental risk factors. Variants influencing the risk of developing the less-common EOC subtypes have not been fully investigated. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of EOC according to subtype by pooling genomic DNA from 545 cases and 398 controls of European descent, and testing for allelic associations. We evaluated for replication 188 variants from the GWAS [56 variants for mucinous, 55 for endometrioid and clear cell, 53 for low-malignant potential (LMP) serous, and 24 for invasive serous EOC], selected using pre-defined criteria. Genotypes from 13,188 cases and 23,164 controls of European descent were used to perform unconditional logistic regression under the log-additive genetic model; odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals are reported. Nine variants tagging six loci were associated with subtype-specific EOC risk at P < 0.05, and had an OR that agreed in direction of effect with the GWAS results. Several of these variants are in or near genes with a biological rationale for conferring EOC risk, including ZFP36L1 and RAD51B for mucinous EOC (rs17106154, OR = 1.17, P = 0.029, n = 1,483 cases), GRB10 for endometrioid and clear cell EOC (rs2190503, P = 0.014, n = 2,903 cases), and C22orf26/BPIL2 for LMP serous EOC (rs9609538, OR = 0.86, P = 0.0043, n = 892 cases). In analyses that included the 75 GWAS samples, the association between rs9609538 (OR = 0.84, P = 0.0007) and LMP serous EOC risk remained statistically significant at P < 0.0012 adjusted for multiple testing. Replication in additional samples will be important to verify these results for the less-common EOC subtypes.
Human Genetics 11/2013; DOI:10.1007/s00439-013-1383-3 · 4.82 Impact Factor