[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bent-crystal channeling is a technique with a potential to increase beam-halo collimation efficiency in high-energy colliders. First measurements at the Tevatron in 2005 have shown that using a thin silicon crystal to deflect the 1-TeV proton beam halo onto a secondary collimator improves the system performance by reducing the machine impedance, beam losses in the collider detectors and irradiation of the superconducting magnets, all in agreement with simulations. Recent results, obtained with an improved goniometer and enhanced beam diagnostics, are reported here for dedicated beam studies and first full collider stores along with simulation results and plans for substantial enhancement of the T-980 experimental setup.
International Journal of Modern Physics A 01/2012; 25(supp01). · 1.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Beam deflection due to axial channeling in a silicon crystal bent along the 111 axis was observed with 400 GeV/c protons at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. The condition for doughnut scattering of protons by the atomic strings of the crystal was attained. Such a condition allowed one to observe a beam deflection of 50 murad with about 30% efficiency. The contribution of hyperchanneled states of protons to the observed beam deflection was less than 2% according to simulation results.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A high performance apparatus has been designed and built by the H8-RD22 collaboration for the study of channeling and volume reflection phenomena in the interaction of 400 GeV/c protons with bent silicon crystals, during the 2006 data taking in the external beamline H8 of the CERN SPS. High-quality silicon short crystals were bent by either anticlastic or quasimosaic effects. Alignment with the highly parallel (8 murad divergence) proton beam was guaranteed through a submicroradian goniometric system equipped with both rotational and translational stages. Particle tracking was possible by a series of silicon microstrip detectors with high-resolution and a parallel plate gas chamber, triggered by various scintillating detectors located along the beamline. Experimental observation of volume reflection with 400 GeV/c protons proved true with a deflection angle of (10.4+/-0.5) murad with respect to the unperturbed beam, with a silicon crystal whose (111) planes were parallel to the beam.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The doubling of the angle of beam deflection due to volume reflection of protons by a sequence of two bent silicon crystals was experimentally observed at the 400 GeV proton beam of the CERN SPS. A similar sequence of short bent crystals can be used as an efficient primary collimator for the Large Hadron Collider.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper presents a detailed study of the deflection phenomena of a 400 GeV=c proton beam impinging on a new generation of bent silicon crystals; the tests have been performed at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron H8 beam line. Channeling and volume reflection angles are measured with an extremely precise goniometer and with high resolution silicon microstrip detectors. Volume reflection has been observed and measured for the first time at this energy, with a single-pass efficiency as large as 98%, in good agreement with the simulation results. This efficiency makes volume reflection a possible candidate for collimation with bent crystals at the CERN Large Hadron Collider.
Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams 11/2007; · 1.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The volume reflection phenomenon was detected while investigating 400 GeV proton interactions with bent silicon crystals in the external beam H8 of the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. Such a process was observed for a wide interval of crystal orientations relative to the beam axis, and its efficiency exceeds 95%, thereby surpassing any previously observed value. These observations suggest new perspectives for the manipulation of high-energy beams, e.g., for collimation and extraction in new-generation hadron colliders, such as the CERN Large Hadron Collider.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Channeling of relativistic particles through a crystal may be useful for many applications in accelerators, and particularly for collimation in hadronic colliders. Efficiency proved to be dependent on the state of the crystal surface and hence on the method used for preparation. We investigated the morphology and structure of the surface of the samples that have been used in accelerators with high efficiency. We found that crystal fabrication by only mechanical methods (dicing, lapping, and others) leads to a superficial damaged layer, which is correlated to performance limitation in accelerators. A planar chemical etching was studied and applied in order to remove the superficial damaged layer. RBS channeling analysis with low-energy protons and 4He+ highlighted better crystal perfection at surface, as a result of the etching. A protocol for preparation and characterization of crystal for channelling has been developed, which may be of interest for reliable operation with crystals in accelerators.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bent crystal was extracting 70-GeV protons with average intensity 4*10^11 (as measured in external beamline) per spill of 1.6 s duration, in parallel to the simultaneous work of two internal targets in the accelerator ring. An additional crystal, placed in the external beamline, was deflecting a small part of the extracted beam with intensity 10^7 protons toward another physics experiment. Crystal-extracted beam had a typical size of 4 mm by 4 mm fwhm at the end of the external beamline. Measurements for the extraction efficiency and other characteristics at the simultaneous work of four experimental set-ups are presented. With crystal working in the above-said regime during one month, no degradation of channeling was observed. The studies of extraction efficiency have been continued with new crystals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A silicon crystal was used to channel and extract 70 GeV protons from the U-70 accelerator with an efficiency of 85.3+/-2.8%, as measured for a beam of approximately 10(12) protons directed towards crystals of approximately 2 mm length in spills of approximately 2 s duration. The experimental data follow very well the prediction of Monte Carlo simulations. This demonstration is important in devising a more efficient use of the U-70 accelerator in Protvino and provides crucial support for implementing crystal-assisted slow extraction and collimation in other machines, such as the Tevatron, RHIC, the AGS, the SNS, COSY, and the LHC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The radical efficiency increase of accelerator beam extraction by
means of bent crystals is reached by reducing the longitudinal dimension
and bending angle of crystals. The usage of short crystals results in
reduction of dechanneling losses and in increase of average number of
crystal crossings by the particles. Both factors allowed an increased 70
GeV beam extraction efficiency of more than 80% which was proved
experimentally and is in a good agreement with theoretical predictions.
The feasibility of the crystal efficiency at injection energies (1.3
GeV) is demonstrated as well
Particle Accelerator Conference, 2001. PAC 2001. Proceedings of the 2001; 02/2001
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An efficient and robust collimation system is mandatory for any superconducting hadron collider, in particular for the LHC, which will store a beam of unprecedented high intensity and energy. The usage of highly efficient and short primary bent-crystal collimators might be a possibility for reaching nominal and ultimate LHC intensity. Over the last years, groups in Italy (Ferrara) and Russia (St. Petersburg) have developed crystal production methods, that considerably improve the crystal quality. These developments led, in turn, to a surprising increase in the channeling efficiency and to the recent observation of the âﾜvolume reflectionâ mechanism. The aim of the proposed experiment is the setup of a beam test facility, directing primary protons from the SPS onto a bent silicon crystal, and the quantitative study of single-pass efficiency for all involved processes. Final goal will be the extrapolation of important information on the feasibility of a crystal collimator for halo cleaning in the LHC. The experiment will be performed in the H8 beamline at the CERN SPS where a beam with very small divergence can be provided thus representing a unique facility for tests and characterization of crystals to be used for particle channeling studies.