Sigurd Elz

United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

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Publications (102)209 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the search for potential bioisosteres of the 4-imidazolyl ring in acylguanidines (e.g. UR-AK24), known to possess affinity to several histamine receptor subtypes (HxR, x = 1-4), and cyanoguanidine-type H4R agonists (e.g. UR-PI376), the contribution of various heterocycles to agonism, antagonism and HR subtype selectivity was studied (recombinant human H1,2,3,4Rs, isolated guinea pig organs (H1R, H2R)). While minor structural modifications of UR-PI376 analogues were not tolerated regarding H4R agonism, in the case of the acylguanidines, a 1,2,4-triazole ring shifted the selectivity toward the H2R.
    Medicinal Chemistry Communication 01/2014; 5(1):72-81. · 2.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Astemizole, a H1R antagonist shows high affinity to the histamine H1 receptor but only a moderate affinity to the histamine H4 receptor. This study aims to modify the astemizole to keep high affinity to the histamine H1 receptor and to increase affinity to the histamine H4 receptor. Therefore, 13 astemizole-derived compounds and astemizole-JNJ7777120-derived hybrid compounds were synthesized and pharmacologically characterized at the histamine H1 and H4 receptors. The new compounds show affinity to the histamine H1 receptor in the pK i range from 5.3 to 8.8, whereas the affinity of these compounds to the histamine H4 receptor was surprisingly rather low (pK i from 4.4 to 5.6). Three representative compounds were docked into the histamine H1 receptor and molecular dynamic studies were performed to explain the binding mode and the experimental results on a molecular level. Furthermore, taking into account the binding mode of compounds with high affinity to the histamine H4 receptor, a H1/H4-pharmacophore hypothesis was developed.
    Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 11/2013; · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Premedication with a combination of histamine H1 receptor (H1R) and H2 receptor (H2R) antagonists has been suggested as a prophylactic principle, for instance, in anaesthesia and surgery. Aiming at pharmacological hybrids combining H1R and H2R antagonistic activity, a series of cyanoguanidines 14-35 was synthesized by linking mepyramine-type H1R antagonist substructures with roxatidine-, tiotidine-, or ranitidine-type H2R antagonist moieties. N-desmethylmepyramine was connected via a poly-methylene spacer to a cyanoguanidine group as the "urea equivalent" of the H2R antagonist moiety. The title compounds were screened for histamine antagonistic activity at the isolated ileum (H1R) and the isolated spontaneously beating right atrium (H2R) of the guinea pig. The results indicate that, depending on the nature of the H2R antagonist partial structure, the highest H1R antagonist potency resided in roxatidine-type compounds with spacers of six methylene groups in length (compound 21), and tiotidine-type compounds irrespective of the alkyl chain length (compounds 28, 32, 33), N-cyano-N'-[2-[[(2-guanidino-4-thiazolyl)methyl]thio]ethyl]-N″-[2-[N-[2-[N-(4-methoxybenzyl)-N-(pyridyl)-amino] ethyl]-N-methylamino]ethyl] guanidine (25, pKB values: 8.05 (H1R, ileum) and 7.73 (H2R, atrium) and the homologue with the mepyramine moiety connected by a six-membered chain to the tiotidine-like partial structure (compound 32, pKB values: 8.61 (H1R) and 6.61 (H2R) were among the most potent hybrid compounds. With respect to the development of a potential pharmacotherapeutic agent, structural optimization seems possible through selection of other H1R and H2R pharmacophoric moieties with mutually affinity-enhancing properties.
    Molecules 01/2013; 18(11):14186-202. · 2.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bivalent histamine H(2) receptor (H(2)R) agonists were synthesized by connecting pharmacophoric 3-(2-amino-4-methylthiazol-5-yl)-, 3-(2-aminothiazol-5-yl)-, 3-(imidazol-4-yl)-, or 3-(1,2,4-triazol-5-yl)propylguanidine moieties by N(G)-acylation with alkanedioic acids of various chain lengths. The compounds were investigated for H(2)R agonism in GTPase and [(35)S]GTPγS binding assays at guinea pig (gp) and human (h) H(2)R-Gsα(S) fusion proteins including various H(2)R mutants, at the isolated gp right atrium, and in GTPase assays for activity on recombinant H(1), H(3), and H(4) receptors. The bivalent ligands are H(2)R partial or full agonists, up to 2 orders of magnitude more potent than monovalent acylguanidines and, with octanedioyl or decanedioyl spacers, up to 4000 times more potent than histamine at the gpH(2)R. In contrast to their imidazole analogues, the aminothiazoles are highly selective for H(2)R vs other HR subtypes. Compounds with (theoretically) sufficient spacer length (20 CH(2) groups) to simultaneously occupy two orthosteric binding sites in H(2)R dimers are nearly inactive, whereas the highest potency resides in compounds with considerably shorter spacers. Thus, there is no evidence for interaction with H(2)R dimers. The high agonistic potency may result from interaction with an accessory binding site at the same receptor protomer.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 01/2012; 55(3):1147-60. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In literature, a synergism between histamine H(1) and H(4) receptor is discussed. Furthermore, it was shown, that the combined application of mepyramine, a H(1) antagonist and JNJ7777120, a H(4) receptor ligand leads to a synergistic effect in the acute murine asthma model. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop new hybrid ligands, containing one H(1) and one H(4) pharmacophor, connected by an appropriate spacer, in order to address both, H(1)R and H(4)R. Within this study, we synthesized nine hybrid compounds, which were pharmacologically characterized at hH(1)R and hH(4)R. The new compounds revealed (high) affinity to hH(1)R, but showed only low affinity to hH(4)R. Additionally, we performed molecular dynamic studies for some selected compounds at hH(1)R, in order to obtain information about the binding mode of these compounds on molecular level.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 09/2011; 21(21):6274-80. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The herbal drug ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) may be effective for treating nausea, vomiting, and gastric hypomotility. In these conditions, cholinergic M (3) receptors and serotonergic 5-HT (3) and 5-HT (4) receptors are involved. The major chemical constituents of ginger are [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, [10]-gingerol, and [6]-shogaol. We studied the interaction of [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, [10]-gingerol (racemates), and [6]-shogaol with guinea pig M (3) receptors, guinea pig 5-HT (3) receptors, and rat 5-HT (4) receptors. In whole segments of guinea pig ileum (bioassay for contractile M (3) receptors), [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, [10]-gingerol, and [6]-shogaol slightly but significantly depressed the maximal carbachol response at an antagonist concentration of 10 µM. In the guinea pig myenteric plexus preparation (bioassay for contractile 5-HT (3) receptors), 5-HT maximal responses were depressed by [10]-gingerol from 93 ± 3 % to 65 ± 6 % at an antagonist concentration of 3 µM and to 48 ± 3 % at an antagonist concentration of 5 µM following desensitization of 5-HT (4) receptors and blockade of 5-HT (1) and 5-HT (2) receptors. [6]-Shogaol (3 µM) induced depression to 61 ± 3 %. In rat esophageal tunica muscularis mucosae (bioassay for relaxant 5-HT (4) receptors), [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, [10]-gingerol, and [6]-shogaol (2-6.3 µM) showed no agonist effects. The maximal 5-HT response remained unaffected in the presence of the compounds. It is concluded that the efficiency of ginger in reducing nausea and vomiting may be based on a weak inhibitory effect of gingerols and shogaols at M (3) and 5-HT (3) receptors. 5-HT (4) receptors, which play a role in gastroduodenal motility, appear not to be involved in the action of these compounds.
    Planta Medica 02/2011; 77(10):973-8. · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A series of dibenzo[b,e]ox(thi)epin-11(6H)-one O-benzoyloximes has been synthesized and structurally elucidated by means of IR, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, MS, and elemental analysis. The newly developed compounds were screened at concentrations of 200-25 μg/mL for their antibacterial activity against Gram+ve organisms such as Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA), Gram-ve organisms such as Escherichia coli (E. coli), and at the same concentration range for their antifungal activity against fungal strain Aspergillus niger (A. niger) by the cup plate method. Ofloxacin and ketoconazole (10 μg/mL) were used as reference standards for antibacterial and antifungal activity, respectively. The dibenzo[b,e]oxepines 6a-c and 6e-h showed low antimicrobial activity (MIC 125-200 μg/mL) compared to the reference substances, whereas a major improvement (MIC 50-75 μg/mL) was achieved with the synthesis of the corresponding bromomethyl derivative 6d. Moreover, replacement of oxygen by its bioisosteric sulfur led to isomeric dibenzo[b,e]thi-epine derivatives 6g,h which significantly exhibited higher antimicrobial activity (MIC 25-50 μg/mL) against all tested culture strains used in the present study, demonstrating that a change of chemical class from dibenzo[b,e]oxepine to dibenzo[b,e]thiepine significantly improves the antimicrobial activity. Further variation, such as the oxidation of the thiepine sulfur to the corresponding isomeric dibenzo[b,e]thiepine 5,5-dioxide derivative 9, comparatively failed to exhibit high activity (MIC 200 μg/mL) against S. aureus, E. coli or A. niger.
    Scientia Pharmaceutica 01/2011; 79(4):749-61.
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    ABSTRACT: Problem statement: Several studies on the synthesis of new nifedipine analogs have beencarried out, but the literature reveled that no study on the synthesis and calcium channel blocking activity of the substituted ester with an amide (5-phenylcarbamoyl) moiety has been reported. Approach: Six new derivatives of m-nifedipine have been successfully synthesized by substituting an ester moiety with an amide (5-phenylcarbamoyl) moiety, using a modified Hantzsch reactions and tested for their pharmacological activities. The nifedipine analogs 1-6 were characterized and confirmed using elemental analysis, Infrared spectroscopy (IR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR) and Mass spectroscopy. The purity of the compounds was ascertained by melting point and TLC. The in vitro calcium channel blocking activities were evaluated using the high K+ concentration of Porcine Coronary Artery Smooth Muscles(PCASM) assay. Results: The compounds (1-2) failed to exhibit any blocking activity (IC50 = 10−7 to 10−5 M range), while the compounds 3-6 relaxed precontracted porcine coronary artery smooth muscles with pEC50 values ranging between 4.37±0.10 (compound 3) and 6.46±0.07 (compound 5), indicating that compounds 3-6 exhibit comparable potencies in blocking calcium channels to reference drug varapamil (6.97±0.15) and m-nifedipine (6.48±0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study showed that some of the developed new compounds possess maximal calcium channel blocking effects comparable to m-nifedipine. The developed compounds in the present study will predicatively show an increased metabolic stability and consequently longer duration of actions compared to m-nifedipine and could be, therefore, suitable candidates for further optimization to be evaluated as a new class of antihypertensive drugs.
    American Journal of Applied Sciences, Volume 8 , Issue 4, p.303-309 (2011). 01/2011; 8:303-309.
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    ABSTRACT: A series of 51 5-HT(2A) partial agonistic arylethylamines (primary or benzylamines) from different structural classes (indoles, methoxybenzenes, quinazolinediones) was investigated by fragment regression analysis (FRA), docking and 3D-QSAR approaches. The data, pEC(50) values and intrinsic activities (E(max)) on rat arteries, show high variability of pEC(50) from 4 to 10 and of E(max) from 15 to 70%. FRA indicates which substructures affect potency or intrinsic activity. The high contribution of halogens in para position of phenethylamines to pEC(50) points to a specific hydrophobic pocket. Other results suggest the significance of hydrogen bonds of the aryl moiety for activation and the contrary effect of benzyl groups on affinity (increasing) and intrinsic activity (decreasing). Results from fragment regression and data on all available mutants were considered to derive a common binding site at the rat 5-HT(2A) receptor. After generation and MD simulations of a receptor model based on the β(2)-adrenoceptor structure, typical derivatives were docked, leading to the suggestion of common interactions, e.g., with serines in TM3 and TM5 and with a cluster of aromatic amino acids in TM5 and TM6. The whole series was aligned by docking and minimization of the complexes. The pEC(50) values correlate well with Sybyl docking energies and hydrophobicity of the aryl moieties. With this alignment, CoMFA and CoMSIA approaches based on a training set of 36 and a test set of 15 compounds were performed. The correlation of pEC(50) with steric, electrostatic, hydrophobic and H-bond acceptor fields resulted in sufficient fit (q (2): 0.75-0.8, r (2): 0.92-0.95) and predictive power (r (pred) (2) : 0.85-0.88). The important interaction regions largely reflect the patterns provided by the putative binding site. In particular, the fit of the aryl moieties and benzyl substituents to two hydrophobic pockets is evident.
    Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design 11/2010; 25(1):51-66. · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A set of chiral imidazolylpropylguanidines and 2-aminothiazolylpropylguanidines bearing N(G)-3-phenyl- or N(G)-3-cyclohexylbutanoyl residues was synthesized and investigated for histamine H(2) receptor (H(2)R) agonism (guinea pig (gp) right atrium, GTPase assay on recombinant gp and human (h)H(2)R) and for hH(2)R selectivity compared to hH(1)R, hH(3)R and hH(4)R. In contrast to previous studies on arpromidine derivatives, the present investigation of acylguanidine-type compounds revealed only very low eudismic ratios (1.1-3.2), indicating the stereochemistry of the acyl moiety to play only a minor role in this series of H(2)R agonists.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 05/2010; 20(10):3173-6. · 2.65 Impact Factor
  • S. ELZ, A. KELLER
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    ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
    ChemInform 01/2010; 26(51).
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    ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
    ChemInform 01/2010; 31(34).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
    ChemInform 01/2010; 32(26).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
    ChemInform 01/2010; 30(2).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
    ChemInform 01/2010; 31(25).
  • ChemInform 01/2010; 31(25).
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    ABSTRACT: 3-(1H-Imidazol-4-yl)propylguanidine (SK&F 91486, 4) was identified as a potent partial agonist at the human histamine H(3) receptor (hH(3)R) and human histamine H(4) receptor (hH(4)R). With the aim to increase selectivity for the hH(4)R, the guanidine group in 4 was acylated. N(1)-Acetyl-N(2)-[3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)propyl]guanidine (UR-PI288, 13) was a potent full agonist at the hH(4)R (pEC(50) = 8.31; alpha = 1.00), possessing more than 1000- and 100-fold selectivity relative to the hH(1)R and hH(2)R, respectively, and possessing only low intrinsic activity (alpha = 0.27) at the hH(3)R.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 04/2009; 52(8):2623-7. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The inside cover picture shows the human histamine H(2) receptor and the H(2) and H(3)/H(4) receptor-selective ligands identified. Bioisosteric replacement of the imidazole ring of the N(G)-acyl-imidazolylpropylguanidine with 2-aminothiazole yielded potent and selective H(2) receptor agonists. In contrast, modification of the acyl group gave a high-affinity H(3)/H(4)-selective tritiated radioligand. For more details, see the Full Papers by A. Buschauer et al. on p. 225 ff and p. 232 ff.
    ChemMedChem 03/2009; 4(2):134. · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies revealed that phenylhistamines and histaprodifens possess higher potency and affinity at guinea pig histamine H(1)-receptor (gpH(1)R) than at human histamine H(1)-receptor (hH(1)R). However, we recently identified an imidazolylpropylguanidine [N(1)-(3-cyclohexylbutanoyl)-N(2)-[3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)-propyl]guanidine (UR-AK57)] with higher potency and efficacy at hH(1)R compared with gpH(1)R. The aim of this study was to reveal the molecular basis for the species differences of synthetic ligands. We studied 11 novel phenylhistamines and phenoprodifens. H(1)R species isoforms were expressed in Sf9 insect cells, and [(3)H]mepyramine competition binding and GTPase assays were performed. We identified bulky phenylhistamines with higher potency and affinity at hH(1)R compared with gpH(1)R. Molecular dynamics simulations of ligand-H(1)R interactions revealed four potential binding modes for phenylhistamines possessing an additional histamine moiety; the terminal histamine moiety showed a high flexibility in the binding pocket. There are striking similarities in ligand properties in bulky phenylhistamines and UR-AK57. Comparison of bulky phenylhistamine binding mode with binding mode of UR-AK57 suggests that only one of these four binding modes should be established. The higher potency is explained by more effective van der Waals interaction of the compounds with Asn(2.61) (hH(1)R) relative to Ser(2.61) (gpH(1)R). In addition, two stable binding modes for phenoprodifens with different orientations in the binding-pocket were identified. Depending on phenoprodifen orientation, the highly conserved Trp(6.48), part of the toggle switch involved in receptor activation, was found in an inactive or active conformation, respectively. We identified the first phenylhistamines with higher potency at hH(1)R than at gpH(1)R and obtained insight into the binding mode of bulky phenylhistamines and imidazolylpropylguanidines.
    Molecular pharmacology 01/2009; 75(3):454-65. · 4.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The bioisosteric replacement of the guanidino group in arpromidine-like histamine H(2) receptor (H(2)R) agonists by an acylguanidine moiety is a useful approach to obtain potent H(2)R agonists with improved oral bioavailability and blood-brain barrier penetration. Unfortunately, the selectivity of such N(G)-acylated imidazolylpropylguanidines for the H(2)R is poor, in particular versus histamine H(3) (H(3)R) and H(4) receptors (H(4)R). This drawback appears to depend on the "privileged" imidazolylpropylguanidine structure. The 2-amino-4-methylthiazol-5-yl moiety is a bioisostere of the imidazole ring in the moderately potent H(2)R-selective histamine analogue amthamine. This approach was successfully applied to acylguanidine-type H(2)R agonists. The aminothiazoles are nearly equipotent to the corresponding imidazoles as H(2)R agonists. Compared with histamine, the potency is increased up to 40-fold on the guinea pig right atrium, and up to 125- and 280-fold in GTPase assays with human and guinea pig H(2)R-G(salphaS) fusion proteins expressed in Sf9 insect cells, respectively. Docking studies on H(2)R models support the hypothesis that 2-aminothiazolyl and imidazolyl derivatives interact with H(2)Rs as bioisosteres. In contrast to the imidazoles, the aminothiazoles are devoid of agonistic or relevant antagonistic effects on H(1), H(3), and H(4) receptors. Moreover, unlike amthamine, the 4-methyl group does not significantly contribute to the H(2)R agonism of N(G)-acylated 2-amino-4-methylthiazol-5-ylpropylguanidines.
    ChemMedChem 01/2009; 4(2):232-40. · 2.84 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

544 Citations
209.00 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011–2013
    • United Arab Emirates University
      • Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics
      Al Ain, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
  • 2002–2012
    • Universität Regensburg
      • Institut für Pharmazie
      Regensburg, Bavaria, Germany
    • Mansoura University
      • Department of Medicinal Chemistry
      Ṭalkha, Muhafazat ad Daqahliyah, Egypt
  • 1988–2011
    • Freie Universität Berlin
      • Institute of Pharmacy
      Berlin, Land Berlin, Germany
  • 2010
    • Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main
      • Institut für Pharmazeutische Chemie
      Frankfurt, Hesse, Germany
  • 1987–2006
    • Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
      • Department of Pharmacology
      Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany
  • 2002–2005
    • Jagiellonian University
      • Department of Chemical Technology
      Kraków, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Poland
  • 2004
    • Ajman University of Science and Technology
      Ash Shāriqah, Ash Shāriqah, United Arab Emirates
  • 2003
    • University of Kansas
      • Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology
      Lawrence, KS, United States
    • Peking University
      • School of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Beijing, Beijing Shi, China
  • 1995–2001
    • University of Bonn
      • Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology
      Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
    • Clinical Hospital
      Ciudad de Montevideo, Montevideo, Uruguay
  • 2000
    • Collegium Medicum of the Jagiellonian University
      Cracovia, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Poland