Susanne Thiele

Universität zu Lübeck, Lübeck Hansestadt, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany

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Publications (15)50.04 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Loss-of-function GNAS mutations lead to hormone resistance and Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) when maternally inherited, i.e. pseudohypoparathyroidism-Ia (PHPIa), but cause AHO alone when located on the paternal allele, i.e. pseudoPHP (PPHP).
    Bone 02/2015; 71. · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Maternally inherited inactivating GNAS mutations are the most common cause of parathyroid hormone (PTH) resistance and Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) leading to pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia (PHPIa) due to Gsα deficiency. Paternally inherited inactivating mutations lead to isolated AHO signs characterizing pseudo-pseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP). Mutations are distributed throughout the Gsα coding exons of GNAS and there is a lack of genotype–phenotype correlation. In this study, we sequenced exon 1–13 of GNAS in a large cohort of PHPIa- and PPHP patients and identified 58 different mutations in 88 patients and 27 relatives. Thirty-three mutations including 15 missense mutations were newly discovered. Furthermore, we found three hot spots: a known hotspot (p.D190MfsX14), a second at codon 166 (p.R166C), and a third at the exon 5 acceptor splice site (c.435 + 1G>A), found in 15, 5, and 4 unrelated patients, respectively. Comparing the clinical features to the molecular genetic data, a significantly higher occurrence of subcutaneous calcifications in patients harboring truncating versus missense mutations was demonstrated. Thus, in the largest cohort of PHPIa patients described to date, we extend the spectrum of known GNAS mutations and hot spots and demonstrate for the first time a correlation between the genetic defects and the expression of a clinical AHO-feature.
    Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Pseudohypoparathyroidism is a rare endocrine disorder that can be caused by genetic (mainly maternally inherited inactivating point mutations, although intragenic and gross deletions have rarely been reported) or epigenetic alterations at GNAS locus. Clinical and molecular characterization of this disease is not that easy because of phenotypic, biochemical and molecular overlapping features between both subtypes of the disease. The European Consortium for the study of PHP (EuroPHP) designed the present work with the intention of generating the standards of diagnostic clinical molecular (epi)genetic testing in PHP patients. With this aim, DNA samples of eight independent PHP patients carrying GNAS genetic and/or epigenetic defects (three patients with GNAS deletions, two with 20q uniparental disomy and three with a methylation defect of unknown origin) without GNAS point mutations were anonymized and sent to the five participant laboratories for their routine genetic analysis (methylation-specific (MS)-MLPA, pyrosequencing and EpiTYPER) and interpretations. All laboratories were able to detect methylation defects and, after the data analysis, the Consortium compared the results to define technical advantages and disadvantages of different techniques. To conclude, we propose as first-level investigation in PHP patients copy number and methylation analysis by MS-MLPA. Then, in patients with partial methylation defect, the result should be confirmed by single CpG bisulphite-based methods (ie pyrosequencing), whereas in case of a complete methylation defect without detectable deletion, microsatellites or SNP genotyping should be performed to exclude uniparental disomy 20.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 9 July 2014; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.127.
    European journal of human genetics: EJHG 07/2014; · 3.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Disorders characterized by PTH resistance are grouped within the term pseudohypoparathyroidism type I (PHPI). Most subtypes of this disease are caused by genetic or epigenetic changes of the GNAS locus leading to deficiency of the α-subunit of stimulatory G proteins (Gsα). Because the in vitro measured Gsα protein activity is normal in pseudohypoparathyroidism Ic (PHPIc), it had previously been postulated that this subtype is caused by impairment of distinct components of the G protein-signaling pathway. However, recently, pathogenic GNAS mutations in a subset of PHPIc patients were found. Objective: To clarify the underlying pathogenic mechanism of GNAS exon 1-13 mutation-negative PHPIc cases by investigating the differentially methylated regions of GNAS for epigenetic abnormalities. Patients and Methods: The methylation pattern of GNAS exons A/B, AS, XL, and NESP from blood-derived leukocytes of 26 PHPIc patients was assessed by pyrosequencing of bisulfite-converted DNA. Results: Six patients presented with three different patterns of epigenetic changes. One patient had an exclusive loss of methylation of exon A/B associated with a STX16 deletion; four patients had an additional loss of methylation in XL and AS and a gain of methylation in NESP; and one patient presented with partial GNAS methylation changes concerning all differentially methylated regions. Conclusions: Our results confirm that PHPIc is a heterogeneous entity caused in part by impaired Gsα function, not only due to mutations, but also due to abnormal imprinting of GNAS. However, in the majority of cases of PHPIc, the underlying etiopathogenesis remains elusive.
    The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP), PTH resistance results from impairment of signal transduction of G protein-coupled receptors caused by a deficiency of the Gsα-cAMP signaling cascade due to diminished Gsα activity in maternally imprinted tissues. In PHP-Ia, inactivating mutations of the GNAS gene lead to haploinsufficiency in some tissues with biallelic expression, so in addition to PHP, Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) is also present. In PHP-Ib, caused by methylation defects at the GNAS locus, diminished Gsα activity was thought to be limited to maternally imprinted tissues, such as the renal proximal tubule and the thyroid, leading to a lack of AHO. Recently, we demonstrated methylation defects in patients with AHO signs, indicating a connection between epigenetic changes and AHO. Our objective was to determine Gsα activity in erythrocyte membranes in patients with epigenetic defects at the GNAS locus compared to normal controls and patients with inactivating GNAS mutations. Gsα activity and expression, mutation of the GNAS locus, and methylation status were studied in patients with PHP and mild signs of AHO (PHP-Ia: 12; PHP-Ib: 17, of which 8 had some features of AHO). Then, we statistically compared the Gsα activity of the different PHP subtypes. Patients with methylation defects at the GNAS locus show a significant decrease in erythrocyte Gsα activity compared to normal controls (PHP-Ib versus controls, p < .001). This was significantly lower in patients with AHO signs (PHP-Ib + mild-AHO versus PHP-Ib, p < .05). Our research shows that PHP-Ia and PHP-Ib classification is not only overlapped genetically, as reported, but also in terms of Gsα activity. Reduced expression of GNAS due to methylation defects could downregulate Gsα activity in other tissues beyond those described and could also be causative of AHO.
    Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 08/2011; 26(8):1864-70. · 6.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia (PHPIa) is caused by GNAS mutations leading to deficiency of the α-subunit of stimulatory G proteins (Gsα) that mediate signal transduction of G protein-coupled receptors via cAMP. PHP type Ic (PHPIc) and PHPIa share clinical features of Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO); however, in vitro activity of solubilized Gsα protein is normal in PHPIc but reduced in PHPIa. We screened 32 patients classified as PHPIc for GNAS mutations and identified three mutations (p.E392K, p.E392X, p.L388R) in four unrelated families. These and one novel mutation associated with PHPIa (p.L388P) were introduced into a pcDNA3.1(-) expression vector encoding Gsα wild-type and expressed in a Gsα-null cell line (Gnas(E2-/E2-) ). To investigate receptor-mediated cAMP accumulation, we stimulated the endogenous expressed β(2) -adrenergic receptor, or the coexpressed PTH or TSH receptors, and measured the synthesized cAMP by RIA. The results were compared to receptor-independent cholera toxin-induced cAMP accumulation. Each of the mutants associated with PHPIc significantly reduced or completely disrupted receptor-mediated activation, but displayed normal receptor-independent activation. In contrast, PHPIa associated p.L388P disrupted both receptor-mediated activation and receptor-independent activation. We present a new subgroup of PHP that is caused by Gsα deficiency and selectively affects receptor coupling functions of Gsα.
    Human Mutation 06/2011; 32(6):653-60. · 5.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP), PTH resistance results from impairment of signal transduction of G protein-coupled receptors caused by a deficiency of the Gsα-cAMP signaling cascade due to diminished Gsα activity in maternally imprinted tissues. In PHP-Ia, inactivating mutations of the GNAS gene lead to haploinsufficiency in some tissues with biallelic expression, so in addition to PHP, Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) is also present. In PHP-Ib, caused by methylation defects at the GNAS locus, diminished Gsα activity was thought to be limited to maternally imprinted tissues, such as the renal proximal tubule and the thyroid, leading to a lack of AHO. Recently, we demonstrated methylation defects in patients with AHO signs, indicating a connection between epigenetic changes and AHO. Our objective was to determine Gsα activity in erythrocyte membranes in patients with epigenetic defects at the GNAS locus compared to normal controls and patients with inactivating GNAS mutations. Gsα activity and expression, mutation of the GNAS locus, and methylation status were studied in patients with PHP and mild signs of AHO (PHP-Ia: 12; PHP-Ib: 17, of which 8 had some features of AHO). Then, we statistically compared the Gsα activity of the different PHP subtypes. Patients with methylation defects at the GNAS locus show a significant decrease in erythrocyte Gsα activity compared to normal controls (PHP-Ib versus controls, p < .001). This was significantly lower in patients with AHO signs (PHP-Ib + mild-AHO versus PHP-Ib, p < .05). Our research shows that PHP-Ia and PHP-Ib classification is not only overlapped genetically, as reported, but also in terms of Gsα activity. Reduced expression of GNAS due to methylation defects could downregulate Gsα activity in other tissues beyond those described and could also be causative of AHO.
    Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 02/2011; 26(8):1864-70. · 6.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) is characterized by hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia in association with an increased secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) due to decreased target tissue responsiveness to PTH. Patients with PHP type Ia are not only resistant to PTH, but also to other hormones that bind to receptors coupled to stimulatory G protein (Gsalpha). PHP Ia and Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) are caused by a reduced activity of the Gsalpha protein. Heterozygous inactivating Gs alpha (GNAS) gene mutations have been identified in these patients. We studied a boy with PHP Ia. During follow-up the patient developed elevated liver enzyme serum levels and abdominal discomfort. Gsalpha activity was measured in erythrocyte membranes from the patient and the GNAS coding region of Gsalpha sequenced. Gsalpha activity was reduced (62%) and molecular analysis revealed a new heterozygous GNAS gene mutation (D196N). Gallstones were diagnosed and cholecystectomy was performed. Biochemical analysis revealed cholesterol stones, a condition that was not reported before in PHP Ia. Cholesterol gallstones may rarely be associated with PHP Ia and should be taken into account.
    Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism: JPEM 01/2011; 24(5-6):297-301. · 0.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) and Pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia (PHPIa) are caused by an inherited deficiency of Gsalpha, encoded by the GNAS gene. Apart from an exclusive first exon, Gsalpha shares part of the transcribed regions with NESP55, Exon A/B and XLalphas, whose gene products utilize alternative promoter regions of this complex gene locus. However, it is not known, whether the deficiency of all gene products contributes to the AHO and PHPIa phenotype or if they are even causative for some specific symptoms. In these cases, mutations affecting selectively GNAS exon 1, coding only for Gsalpha, would lead to a different phenotype than mutations affecting the common exons 2-13. Clinical and molecular genetic analysis of a patient with features of AHO and review of exclusive exon 1 mutations of GNAS. We detected a novel heterozygous 1 bp deletion of a guanine in codon 31 in exon 1 of the GNAS gene leading to a frame shift and premature termination of Gsalpha. The female patient demonstrated a fully expressed AHO and PHPIa phenotype and a decreased Gsalpha protein activity of 62% compared to the wild type. Mutations in exon 1 are almost exclusively disruptive and lead to an AHO phenotype that does not show obvious differences from those provoked by missense or nonsense mutations in exon 2-13. Disruptive mutations in exon 1 indicate that exclusive deficiency of Gsalpha is sufficient for the expression of an AHO phenotype, which cannot be compensated by alternative products of GNAS.
    Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes 09/2009; 118(2):127-32. · 1.56 Impact Factor
  • Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism: JPEM 03/2009; 22(2):107-8. · 0.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib (PHPIb) is characterized by parathyroid hormone (PTH) resistance, which can lead to hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and increased serum PTH. The disorder is caused by mutations in regulatory regions of the GNAS gene (GNAS complex locus) that lead to interferences in the methylation status of alternative GNAS promoters, such as exon A/B, NESP55, and XL alpha-s. PHPIb comprises disorders that show distinctive changes in methylation status but share the same clinical phenotype: (a) loss of methylation only at exon A/B of the GNAS gene and involving no other obvious epigenetic abnormalities [e.g., those caused by heterozygous microdeletions in the STX16 (syntaxin 16) region and found in many patients with autosomal dominant (AD) PHPIb]; (b) methylation abnormalities at several differentially methylated regions (DMRs), which are observed in most patients with sporadic PHPIb and some families with AD PHPIb. To permit early and reliable diagnosis of suspected PHPIb, we designed methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme-based and bisulfite deamination-based PCR tests for exon A/B and NESP55 DMRs. Both PCR strategies permit proper methylation testing of GNAS and NESP55 DMRs and elucidate different disease subtypes. We have identified a novel microsatellite repeat polymorphism within GNAS exon A/B, and pedigree analyses have shown its presence to be conclusive evidence for familial disease. We provide a simple diagnostic test for PHPIb, an imprinting disorder caused by different molecular changes within the GNAS complex locus. PHPIb, a complex and diagnostically challenging clinical phenotype, can be treated successfully by taking steps before the manifestation of symptoms to avoid clinical complications in affected patients or asymptomatic members of affected families who show positive results in genetic tests.
    Clinical Chemistry 08/2008; 54(9):1537-45. · 7.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The GNAS gene encodes the alpha-subunit of stimulatory G proteins, which play a crucial role in intracellular signal transduction of peptide and neurotransmitter receptors. In addition to transcript variants that differ in their first exon due to different promoters, there are two long (Gsalpha-L) and two short (Gsalpha-S) splice variants, created by alternative splicing. Heterozygous inactivating maternally inherited mutations of GNAS lead to a phenotype in which Albright hereditary osteodystrophy is associated with pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia. The GNAS gene of a 10-yr-old girl with brachymetacarpia, mental retardation, normocalcemic pseudohypoparathyroidism, and hypothyroidism was investigated. We found a heterozygous insertion of an adenosine in exon 3 altering codon 85 and leading to a frame shift inducing a stop codon in exon 4. Molecular studies of cDNA from blood RNA demonstrated normal, biallelic expression of Gsalpha-S transcripts, whereas expression of Gsalpha-L transcripts from the maternal allele was reduced. Immunoblot analysis revealed a reduced Gsalpha-L protein level to about 50%, whereas the protein level of Gsalpha-S was unaltered. Furthermore, the Gsalpha protein activity in erythrocyte membranes was diminished to about 75% of normal. Both the reduced activity and the mutation were also found in the mother and the affected younger brother. This report demonstrates the first evidence for a pathogenic mutation in exon 3 of the GNAS gene. The mutation is associated with a phenotype of Albright hereditary osteodystrophy and pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia due to selective deficiency of Gsalpha-L and a partial reduction of Gsalpha activity.
    Journal of Clinical Endocrinology &amp Metabolism 06/2007; 92(5):1764-8. · 6.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD) and 5alpha-reductase isoenzymes play a crucial role in the formation and metabolism of sex steroids. Not only the key androgens testosterone and dihydrotestosterone but also their precursors are potent activators of the androgen receptor and are, therefore, likely to act as determinants of male sexual differentiation and maturation in a differentially regulated way. The aim of the present study was to relatively quantify the expression of the mRNA of 17beta-HSD isoenzymes, namely, type 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 10, together with the 5alpha-reductase type 1 and 2, and the androgen receptor in normal human males and females. RNA was isolated from peripheral blood cells of both sexes and from genital skin fibroblasts (GSFs) of two different localizations (foreskin and scrotal skin) obtained from phenotypically normal males. mRNA expression was semi-quantified by quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction with the LightCycler Instrument (Roche). The examined enzymes show statistically significant differences in their transcription pattern between the blood and the GSF RNA samples. Within the GSF samples, there are also significant variations between the two examined localizations in the transcription of 17beta-HSD type 1, 2, 4, and 5 as well as for the androgen receptor. We found large interindividual variation of enzyme transcription patterns in all investigated tissues. In peripheral blood cells, no sex-specific differences were seen. We conclude that sex steroid enzymes are expressed not only in genital primary target tissues but also in peripheral blood. The expression in different target tissues may contribute to both the individual sexual and tissue-specific phenotype in humans.
    Journal of Molecular Medicine 09/2006; 84(8):651-9. · 4.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 5alpha-reductase enzymes reduce testosterone (T) to the most potent androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Two isoenzymes are known to day. While the type 2-enzyme (5RII) is predominantly expressed in male genital tissues and mutations are known to cause a severe virilization disorder in genetic males, the role of the type 1-enzyme (5RI) in normal male androgen physiology is unclear. We investigated whether 5RI is transcribed in normal male genital skin fibroblasts (GSFs) and if the transcription is regulated by age or by androgens themselves. GSF from 14 normally virilized males of different ages, ranging from 8 months to 72 years, obtained at circumcision were cultured. Total RNA was isolated after incubation for 48 h with 100 nM T or without androgens. Each sample was amplified in triplicate by real-time PCR with porphobilinogen desaminase as a housekeeping gene used for semiquantification. Selected cultures were analyzed after incubation with 10 and 100 nM T and 1 and 100 nM DHT for 24, 48 and 120 h. 5RI was transcribed in all investigated samples with a 4.5-fold variability in the mRNA concentration of different individuals. However, neither age-related regulation nor significant influence of T or DHT on the transcription rate was discovered. Since 5RI is abundantly transcribed in GSFs, we hypothesize that this isoenzyme may play important roles in the androgen physiology of normally virilized males and may contribute to masculinization in 5RII-deficient males at the time of puberty.
    European Journal of Endocrinology 07/2005; 152(6):875-80. · 3.14 Impact Factor
  • S. Thiele, O. Hiort
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    ABSTRACT: Die Bezeichnung Pseudohypoparathyreoidismus (PHP) beschreibt eine heterogene Gruppe von Erkrankungen, die durch eine Endorganresistenz gegenüber Parathormon (PTH) gekennzeichnet sind. Sie werden durch eine Defizienz der α-Untereinheit stimulierender G-Proteine (Gsα) verursacht. Gsα ist essenziell für die Signalvermittlung durch extrazelluläre Liganden über mehr als 1000 verschiedene G-Protein-gekoppelte Rezeptoren in das Zellinnere. Durch eine gewebespezifische Prägung verursachen maternale, autosomal-dominant vererbte Mutationen in dem für Gsα kodierenden GNAS-Genlocus PTH-Resistenz und klinische Zeichen der hereditären Albright-Osteodystrophie (AHO), einschließlich Brachymetakarpie, Kleinwuchs, subkutaner Ossifikationen und mentaler Retardierung (PHP-TypIa). Paternal vererbte GNAS-Mutationen führen zu selektiven AHO-Zeichen ohne Parathormonresistenz (Pseudo-PHP). Der PHP-TypIb, bei dem eine isolierte PTH-Resistenz vorliegt, wird durch heterozygote, maternal vererbte Deletionen stromaufwärts vom oder innerhalb des GNAS-Locus hervorgerufen, die durch eine Störung des Imprintingmusters eine gewebespezifische Stilllegung der Gsα-Expression hervorrufen. Diese Patienten zeigen in der Regel keine Zeichen der AHO. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird ein Überblick über die Rolle epigenetischer Faktoren bei der Ätiopathogenese verschiedener PHP-Formen gegeben. The term pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) describes a heterogeneous group of related disorders characterized by end-organ resistance to parathyroid hormone (PTH). PHP is caused by deficiency of the α-subunit of stimulatory G proteins (Gsα), which is crucial for signal transduction of more than 1000 G protein-coupled receptors into the cell. PHP typeIa is caused by heterozygous, maternally inherited inactivating mutations involving those exons of the GNAS locus that encode Gsα. In addition, PHPIa and Ic patients present with features of Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO), which includes round face, short stature, brachymetacarpia, ectopic ossification, and mental retardation. Paternally inherited GNAS mutations lead to pseudo-PHP and are characterized by only some features of AHO in the absence of hormone resistance. PHP typeIb is caused by heterozygous, maternally inherited deletions up-stream of or within the GNAS locus that are associated with the loss of methylation at one or more maternally methylated regions within GNAS . Typically, these patients lack AHO features. This article provides an overview of the role of epigenetic factors for different PHP subtypes. SchlüsselwörterPseudohypoparathyreoidismus-Hereditäre Albright-Osteodystrophie-Humanes Protein des komplexen GNAS-Genlocus-Genetisches Imprinting-DNA-Methylierung KeywordsPseudohypoparathyroidism-Albright hereditary osteodystrophy- GNAS complex locus protein, human-Genomic imprinting-DNA methylation
    Medizinische Genetik 22(4):419-423. · 0.09 Impact Factor