J M Martínez-Martos

Universidad de Jaén, Jaén, Andalusia, Spain

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Publications (74)153.36 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We evaluate here the redox status in pre- and post-menopausal healthy women and in women with breast cancer in order to understand the consequences of the hormonal alterations of menopause for the oxidative stress status, its modifications with breast cancer and the influence of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NC). To that, serum oxidative stress parameters (total antioxidant capacity (TAC), lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and protein oxidation), non-enzyme antioxidant defenses (total glutathione (GSH), uric acid and bilirubin) and enzyme antioxidant defenses (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities) were measured in women with breast cancer divided according to their menopausal status and that received or not NC (premenopausal women without NC n=39; with NC n=63; postmenopausal women without NC n=44; with NC n=52). The control group consisted in premenopausal healthy women with regular menstrual periods (n=38) and postmenopausal women with spontaneous menopause for at least one year (n=40). Circulating estradiol, progesterone, FSH and LH were also analyzed. We found that menopause itself modifies the redox status of healthy women, being most of these differences also reflected in women with breast cancer. However, several changes occur as a consequence of the disease in the oxidative stress status, non-enzyme and enzyme antioxidant defense systems. Furthermore, NC increases oxidative damage, decreases antioxidant defenses and eliminate the differences found with menopause. We conclude that the normal redox balance is disrupted by breast cancer but is also affected by the hormonal status promoted by menopause. In fact, NC nullifies the differences found between pre- and postmenopausal women in several antioxidant defense systems.
    Experimental gerontology. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The analysis in vitro of both antiproliferative efficacy and effects on RAS-regulating APA and APN activities of new disilver-6-hydroxyiminolumazine complexes on the human neuroblastoma and glioma cell lines NB69 and U373-MG allow us to propose them as compounds with specific antitumor activity against brain tumor cells, mainly glioma.
    Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: An association between breast cancer and thyroid dysfunction exist although the mechanisms underlying remains to be elucidated. Numerous studies have characterized the role of thyroid hormones in controlling the synthesis and secretion of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) components, but little information is available on the putative role of the local RAS on thyroid function. Here we analyze several soluble and membrane-bound RAS-regulating aminopeptidase activities in thyroid gland from rats with mammary tumours and the relationship with the circulating levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxin (fT4). We analyse soluble and membrane-bound RAS-regulating aminopeptidase activities fluorometrically using their corresponding aminoacyl-β-naphthylamide as the substrate. We have found in rats with mammary tumours a concomitant change of thyroid RAS-regulating enzymes and thyroid hormones production. We suggest that existence of alterations in the regulatory mechanisms mediated by the angiotensins of the local tissue RAS as a consequence of the carcinogenic process which could act alone or in combination with alterations at a higher level of regulation such as the hypothalamus-pituitary axis.
    Life sciences 10/2013; · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Essential hypertension is one of the major contributors to premature morbidity and mortality due to the incresased risk for coronary heart disease, stroke, renal disease, peripheral vascular disease and vascular dementia for both men and women. However, its basic causes remain unknown. In the present work we studied the activity of several proteolytic regulatory enzymes related to renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) (aminopeptidase A, APA; aminopeptidase N, APN; aminopeptidase B, APB; and insulin-regulated aminopeptidase, IRAP); with oxytocin regulation (oxytocinase); with the metabolism of GnRH and TRH (pyrrolidone carboxypeptidase, Pcp); and with enkephalins metabolism (enkephalin-degrading activity, EDA), to elucidate their role in the mechanisms responsible of essential hypertension and to discuss the possible gender differences. Serum samples of 53 individuals with essential hypertension and 60 healthy volunteers were collected and used to assay enzyme activities, gonad hormones testosterone and estradiol, TSH and free thyroxin (fT4). Differences were observed in APA, APN, Pcp and EDA specific activities, and in serum gonad hormone levels between hypertensive and control groups. Only Pcp activity showed gender differences. Regarding the RAS, APA is reduced while APN is increased, suggesting increased levels of angiotensin II and a facilitation of the conversion of angiotensin III in angiotensin IV. Thus, the changes in several RAS-regulating specific activities and other enzyme activities involved in the neuroendocrine modulation of gonad and stress-related functions are related to essential hypertension with minor gender differences. Therefore, aminopeptidases constitute new elements for the knowledge of the causes of essential hypertension and an alternative as therapeutic targets against the illness.
    Current Medicinal Chemistry 08/2013; · 3.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Seventeen new palladium(II) complexes of general formulaes PdCl2L, PdCl(LH-1)(solvent) and PdCl2(PPh3)2L containing pyrimidine ligands derived from 6-amino-5-nitrosouracil and violuric acid have been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and NMR ((1)H and (13)C) methods and, two of them, PdCl(DANUH-1)(CH3CN)]·½H2O and [PdCl(2MeOANUH-1)(CH3CN)] by X-ray single-crystal diffraction (DANU: 6-amino-1,3-dimethyl-5-nitrosouracil; 2MeOANU: 6-amino-2-methoxy-5-nitroso-3H-pyrimidin-4-one). The coordination environment around palladium is nearly square planar in the two compounds with different supramolecular arrangements. Crystallographic and spectral data are consistent with a bidentate coordination mode through N5 and O4 atoms when the ligands act in neutral form and N5 and N6 atoms in the monodeprotonated ones. The cytotoxicity of the complexes against human neuroblastoma (NB69) and human glioma (U373-MG) cell lines has been tested showing a considerable antiproliferative activity. Also, the study of the effects of palladium(II) complexes on the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) regulating proteolytic regulatory enzymes aminopeptidase A (APA), aminopeptidase N (APN) and insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) shows a strong dependence on the compound tested and the tumoral cell type, also affecting different catalytic routes; the compounds affect in a different way the activities of enzymes of the RAS system, changing their functional roles as initiators of cell proliferation in tumors as autocrine/paracrine mediators.
    Journal of inorganic biochemistry 06/2013; 126C:118-127. · 3.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Highlights ► The oleuropein inhibited of cellular growth of C6 cells with micromolar doses by 40%. ► The oleuropein behaves as an antioxidant in prostate normal cell. ► The oleuropein acts as pro-oxidant in neoplastic cells. ► The metabolites of the phenolic compounds across the blood–brain barrier. ► Oleuropein and HT show no toxic effects and possess cytostatic and anti-angiogenic roles.
    Trends in Food Science & Technology. 06/2013; 31(2):92–99.
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: There is no evidence that supports the recommendation of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in patients with breast cancer who have treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) to downsize tumors in order to allow breast conservation surgery, because NAC induces anatomical alterations of the lymphatic drainage. We evaluated the effectiveness of SLNB using intraoperative one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) method to detect microscopic metastases or isolated tumor cells after NAC in patients with clinically negative axillary nodes at initial presentation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We evaluated in patients with breast cancer and clinically negative axilla at presentation, the effectiveness of SLNB by OSNA after NAC (71 patients) or prior to NAC (40 patients). RESULTS: The rate of SLN identification was 100% in both groups. 17 women with SLNB prior to systemic treatment showed positive nodes (14 macrometastases and 3 micrometastases), and positive SLNB were detected in 15 women with SLNB after NAC, which were 14 macrometastases and 1 micrometastase. The negative predictive value of ultrasonography was 57.5% in patients with SLNB prior to neoadjuvant therapy and 78.9% in patients with chemotherapy followed by SLNB. CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative SLNB using OSNA in women with clinically negative axillary lymph nodes at initial presentation who received NAC could predict axillary status with high accuracy. Also it allows us to take decisions about the indication or not to perform an axillary dissection at the moment, thus avoiding delay in the administration of chemotherapy and benefiting the patients from a single surgical procedure.
    European journal of surgical oncology: the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology 05/2013; · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The synthesis and molecular and supramolecular structures of the compound (6-amino-1-methyl-5-nitrosouracilato-N3)-triphenylphosphine-gold(I) with interesting abilities to inhibit tumor growth in an animal model of experimental glioma are reported. Thus, its antitumor properties, effects on both enzyme and non-enzyme antioxidant defense systems and the response of several biochemical biomarkers have been analyzed. After seven days of treatment, the gold compound decreased the tumor growth to ca. one-tenth and reduced oxidative stress biomarkers (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and protein oxidation levels) compared to animals treated with the vehicle. Also, gold compound maintained non-enzyme antioxidant defense systems as in non-tumor animals and increased enzyme antioxidant defenses, such as superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, and decreased catalase activity. Analysis of serum levels of electrolytes, nitrogenous compounds, glucose, lipids, total protein, albumin, transaminases and alkaline phosphatase indicated that gold compound treatment showed few adverse effects, while effectively inhibiting tumor growth through mechanisms that involved endogenous antioxidant defenses.
    European journal of medicinal chemistry 04/2013; 64C:260-272. · 3.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alterations in blood pressure and components of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS) contribute to the development and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), resulting in changes that can lead or contribute to cognitive decline. Aspartyl aminopeptidase (ASAP), aminopeptidase A (APA), aminopeptidase N (APN) and aminopeptidase B (APB) catabolise circulating angiotensins, whereas insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) has been described as the AT4 receptor. We have found in AD patients a significant decrease of APA activity in men but not in women, and of APN, APB and IRAP in both genders, when compared with control subjects. No changes were found in ASAP activity. Also, APN, APB and IRAP but not APA correlated with the Mini–Mental test, but no relationship with APOE genotype was found. We conclude that several components of the RAS are modified in AD patients, with gender differences. Furthermore, ROC analysis indicates that APN, APB and IRAP activities could be useful non-invasive biomarkers of AD from the earliest stages.
    Experimental Gerontology 01/2013; 48(6):557-564. · 3.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Angiotensin peptides play roles in brain tumor infiltration and associated angiogenesis. We explored the roles of soluble and membrane-bound forms of renin-angiotensin system-regulating aminopeptidase N (APN)-, aminopeptidase B (APB)-, glutamate aminopeptidase- and aspartate aminopeptidase (AspAP)-specific activities on tumor growth in the rat C6 glioma model with implantation into the subcutaneous abdomen of Wistar rats, evaluating these activities as biological markers. The tumor volume was assessed for three weeks and a sample of tumor was obtained every seven days to obtain the soluble and membrane-bound fraction, in order to assay enzyme activities fluorometrically using their corresponding aminoacyl-β-naphthylamide as substrates. We found a time-dependent decrease in soluble and membrane-bound APN and APB. Soluble AspAP increases with tumor growth in a time-dependent manner. Although gliomas are heterogeneous tissues, angiotensin peptides are involved in this model of tumor growth and their role could be analyzed through their corresponding regulatory proteolytic enzymes.
    Anticancer research 09/2012; 32(9):3675-82. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is well known that oxidative stress is one of the earliest events in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis, indicating that may play a key role in this disease. In our study, we measured the levels of oxidative stress indicators (TBARS and protein carbonyls content) and the non-enzymatic (glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG)) and enzymatic (glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) defense systems in the plasma of 46 patients diagnosed of ATD and 46 age-matched controls. We found decreased levels in total GSH in ATD patients, although healthy control women showed lower levels of total GSH than healthy control men. On the contrary, we found increased levels of TBARS and carbonyl groups content in ATD patients in both genders. The activity of the plasma antioxidant enzymes showed no changes for SOD activity in ATD patients, independently of the gender, although western blot analysis showed an increase in SOD-1 protein. CAT activity was also decreased in ATD patients, although this decrease is mainly due to the decrease found in men but not in women. However, western blot analysis did not show differences in CAT protein between controls and ATD patients. Finally, a decrease of GPx activity was found in ATD patients in both genders. However, as with CAT protein, western blot analysis did not show differences in GPx protein between controls and ATD patients. Our results suggest that there is a defect in the antioxidant defense system that is incapable of responding to increased free radical production, which may lead to oxidative damage and the development of the pathological alterations that characterize the neurodegenerative disorder of patients with ATD. Thus, oxidative damage could be one important aspect for the onset of ATD and oxidative stress markers could be useful to diagnose the illness in their earliest stages through both non-invasive, reliable and cost-affordable methods.
    Experimental gerontology 06/2012; 47(8):625-30. · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The role of vasopressin (AVP) in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease is controversial, but this peptide hormone is elevated in heart failure and some forms of hypertension. Also, AVP has vasoconstrictor, mitogenic, hyperplasic and renal fluid retaining properties which, by analogy with angiotensin II, may have deleterious effects when present in chronic excess. Furthermore, cholesterol blood levels are also associated with hypertension, although the underlying mechanism is not known. Here we analyze the relationship between blood total cholesterol levels and serum vasopressin- degrading cystyl-aminopeptidase activity (AVP-DA) in healthy humans, and the differences between men and women. Linear correlation coefficients were calculated to test relationships between AVP-DA and blood total cholesterol levels. Sex differences were observed for AVP-DA, being this activity higher in men than in women. According to the linear model of the regression analysis, AVP-DA showed a significant negative correlation with blood total cholesterol levels in men, whereas no correlation was observed in women. Several studies in humans demonstrate the existence of greater plasma AVP concentrations in normal men compared to normal women, which could explain the gender-differences observed in the present work in relation with AVP-DA. However, AVP-DA is related to blood cholesterol levels only in men, although in our hands, women showed higher blood cholesterol levels than men. This could indicate that the risk of high cholesterol-related hypertension is more probable in men than in women. Although AVP-DA misregulation could be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension, its relation with cholesterol levels appears only in men, but not in women.
    Medicinal chemistry (Shāriqah (United Arab Emirates)) 04/2012; 8(4):749-52. · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aminopeptidase A (APA) and aspartyl aminopeptidase (ASAP) not only act as neuromodulators in the regional brain renin-angiotensin system, but also release N-terminal acidic amino acids (glutamate and aspartate). The hyperexcitability of amino acid neurotransmitters is responsible for several neurodegenerative processes affecting the central nervous system. The purpose of the present work was to study the influence of chronic ethanol intake, a well known neurotoxic compound, on APA and ASAP activity under resting and K(+)-stimulated conditions at the synapse level. APA and ASAP activity were determined against glutamate- and aspartate-β-naphthylamide respectively in mouse frontal cortex synaptosomes and in their incubation supernatant in a Ca(2+)-containing or Ca(2+)-free artificial cerebrospinal fluid. The neurotoxic effects were analyzed by determining free radical generation, peroxidation of membrane lipids and the oxidation of synaptosomal proteins. In addition, the bioenergetic behavior of synaptosomes was analyzed under different experimental protocols. We obtained several modifications in oxidative stress parameters and a preferential inhibitor effect of chronic ethanol intake on APA and ASAP activities. Although previous in vitro studies failed to show signs of neurodegeneration, these in vivo modifications in oxidative stress parameters do not seem to be related to changes in APA and ASAP, invalidating the idea that an excess of free acidic amino acids released by APA and ASAP induces neurodegeneration.
    Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.) 03/2012; 46(5):481-7. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the putative changes in serum angiotensinase activities (aminopeptidase N, APN; aminopeptidase B, APB; aminopeptidase A, APA; aspartyl aminopeptidase, ASAP) involved in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in women with breast cancer treated or not with a neoadjuvant therapy of paclitaxel and anthracycline and in healthy women volunteers. We fluorometrically analysed serum APN, APB, APA and ASAP activities using their corresponding aminoacyl-β-naphthylamides as substrates in women with breast cancer treated with a neoadjuvant therapy of paclitaxel and anthracycline. When compared with healthy controls, women with breast cancer not treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, showed a decrease in angiotensinase activity, which support the putative increase of angiotensin II (Ang II) levels, indicating that the tumour process would favour the development of the disease. Also, an increase in APN and APB activities was observed, which support a role for angiotensin IV (Ang IV). In women treated with a neoadjuvant therapy, we described an increase in ASAP and APA activities, supporting the idea that this treatment increases Ang II catabolism. The resulting decrease in Ang II level could lead to an inhibition of the tumour growth. Present results show changes in serum angiotensinase activities in women with breast cancer and in women with breast cancer treated with a neoadjuvant therapy of paclitaxel and anthracycline. Therefore, considerable attention should be focused on the development of RAS blockade therapy as a new strategy for breast cancer treatment.
    Maturitas 03/2012; 72(1):79-83. · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In breast cancer, hormonal changes are rather constant in post-menopausal women since they tend to vary only over long time spans. However, in pre-menopausal women, the development of breast cancer is associated with hormonal physiological variations. The aim of the present work was to analyse the changes in circulating levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in pre- and post-menopausal women that were healthy or with breast cancer, and their connection to serum pyrrolidone carboxypeptidase (Pcp) activity. We observed significant changes in the hormonal profile in post-menopausal women with breast cancer compared to the control group. In pre-menopausal women, we found significant changes in circulating GnRH levels with respect to the healthy group. Our present results support the existence of neuroendocrine misregulation that could be involved in tumour progression, with Pcp being a potentially new pharmacological target in breast cancer treatments.
    Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland) 02/2012; · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oxytocin (OT) is one of the important paracrine factors that prostate synthesizes. OT maintains its resting tone and stimulates its contractile activity. However, the involvement of OT in modulating cell proliferation of the prostate is being investigated. In fact, alterations in OT concentrations accompany both benign prostatic hyperplasia/hypertrophy and carcinoma of the prostate. The enzyme Insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) is the main responsible of OT levels regulation through its catabolism. To date, the long-acting selective α(1)-adrenergic receptor antagonist doxazosin is widely used to the treatment of BPH. Thus, our aim was to analyze the effects of doxazosin on IRAP specific activity and its putative effects on prostate OT regulation and functions. Fifteen male Wistar rats were treated subcutaneously with 10 mg/Kg doxazosin during 15 days and fifteen controls were treated with the vehicle only. After the treatment period, prostate was removed to obtain soluble and membrane-bound fractions. Soluble and membrane-bound IRAP specific activities were assayed fluorometrically using leucyl-ß-naphthylamide as substrate. Prostate OT content was assayed by enzyme immunoassay. Doxazosin treatment significantly increased membrane-bound IRAP specific activity in rat prostate by 59.4%, whereas no changes were observed in the soluble fraction. Treatment with doxazosin also significantly increased OT concentration by 26.3%. In vivo administration of doxazosin to male rats modify both prostatic IRAP activity and OT levels. Because there is now evidence that OT plays a physiological role in the regulation of growth and muscular contractility within the gland, more attention should be paid to IRAP activity, which could represent a new target for the regulation of the functions of OT under physiological or pathological conditions such as BPH and prostate cancer.
    Drug metabolism letters. 06/2011; 5(3):192-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Angiotensin peptides regulate vascular tone and natriohydric balance through the renin angiotensin system (RAS) and are related with the angiogenesis which plays an important role in the metastatic pathway. Estrogen influences the aminopeptidases (APs) involved in the metabolism of bioactive peptides of RAS through several pathways. We analyze RAS-regulating AP activities in serum of pre- and postmenopausal women with breast cancer to evaluate the putative value of these activities as biological markers of the development of breast cancer. We observed an increase in aminopeptidase N (APN) and aminopeptidase B (APB) activities in women with breast cancer; however, a decrease in aspartyl-aminopeptidase (AspAP) activity in premenopausal women. These results suggest a slow metabolism of angiotensin II (Ang II) to angiotensin III (Ang III) in premenopausal women and a rapid metabolism of Ang III to angiotensin IV (Ang IV) in pre- and postmenopausal women with breast cancer. An imbalance in the signals activated by Ang II may produce abnormal vascular growth with different response between pre- and postmenopausal women depending on the hormonal profile and the development of the disease.
    Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland) 05/2011; 20(5):444-7. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypercholesterolemia and low testosterone concentrations in men are associated with a high risk factor for atherosclerosis. It is known that cholesterol serves as the major precursor for the synthesis of the sex hormones. The bioactive peptides of the renin-angiotensin-system localized in the gonads play a key role in the relation between cholesterol and testosterone by modulating steroidogenesis and inhibiting testosterone production. In the present work, we evaluated the effects of diet-induced hypercholesterolemia on circulating testosterone levels and its relationship with the testicular RAS-regulating specific aminopeptidase activities in male mouse. A significant decrease in serum circulating levels of testosterone was observed after induced hypercholesterolemia. The changes found in aminopeptidase activities suggest a role of Ang III and Ang IV in the regulation of steroidogenesis.
    General and Comparative Endocrinology 04/2011; 173(1):15-9. · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Associations of breast cancer with diseases of the thyroid have been repeatedly reported, but the mechanism underlying this association remains to be elucidated. It has been reported that oxytocin (OXT) attenuates the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) release in response to thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH) and decreased plasma levels of TSH as well as the thyroid hormones by an effect mediated by the central nervous system. Oxytocinase (IRAP) is the regulatory proteolytic enzyme reported to hydrolyze OXT. Changes in IRAP activity have been reported in both human breast cancer and N-methyl-nitrosourea (NMU)-induced rat mammary tumours. Here, we measure IRAP activity fluorometrically using cystyl-β-naphthylamide as the substrate, in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis together with the circulating levels of OXT, and its relationship with circulating levels of TSH and free thyroxine (fT4), as markers of thyroid function in control rats and rats with breast cancer induced by NMU. We found decreased thyroid function in rats with breast cancer induced by NMU, supported by the existence of lower serum circulating levels of both TSH and fT4 than their corresponding controls. Concomitantly, we found a decrease of hypothalamic IRAP activity and an increase in circulating levels of OXT. We propose that breast cancer increases OXT pituitary release by decreasing its hypothalamic catabolism through IRAP activity, probably due to the alteration of the estrogenic endocrine status. Thus, high circulating levels of OXT decreased TSH release from the pituitary, and therefore, of thyroid hormones from the thyroid, supporting the association between breast cancer and thyroid function disruption.
    Tumor Biology 01/2011; 32(3):543-9. · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Angiotensin II in particular and/or the local renin-angiotensin system in general could have an important role in epithelial tissue growth and modelling; therefore, it is possible that it may be involved in breast cancer. In this sense, previous works of our group showed a predominating role of angiotensin II in tumoral tissue obtained from women with breast cancer. However, although classically angiotensin II has been considered the main effector peptide of the renin-angiotensin system cascade, several of its catabolism products such as angiotensin III and angiotensin IV also possess biological functions. These peptides are formed through the activity of several proteolytic regulatory enzymes of the aminopeptidase type, also called angiotensinases. The aim of this work was to analyse several specific angiotensinase activities involved in the renin-angiotensin system cascade in mammary tissue from control rats and from rats with mammary tumours induced by N-methyl-nitrosourea (NMU), which may reflect the functional status of their target peptides under the specific conditions brought about by the tumoural process. The results show that soluble and membrane-bound specific aspartyl aminopeptidase activities and membrane-bound glutamyl aminopeptidase activity increased in mammary tissue from NMU-treated animals and soluble aminopeptidase N and aminopeptidase B activities significantly decreased in mammary tissue from NMU-treated rats. These changes support the existence of a local mammary renin-angiotensin system and that this system and its putative functions in breast tissue could be altered by the tumour process, in which we suggest a predominant role of angiotensin III. All described data about the renin-angiotensin system in mammary tissue support the idea that it must be involved in normal breast tissue functions, and its disruption could be involved in one or more steps of the carcinogenesis process.
    Tumor Biology 12/2010; 31(6):583-8. · 2.52 Impact Factor