A.F.T. Amarante

São Paulo State University, San Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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Publications (78)131.21 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effects of Diet and corticosteroid-induced immune suppression during infection by Haemonchus contortus, 28 lambs were allocated to one of four groups treated as follows: Group Basal Diet - Normal; Group Basal Diet - Immune-Suppressed; Group Supplemented Diet - Normal; and Group Supplemented Diet - Immune-Suppressed. The Basal Diet contained Cynodon dactylon (cv. coast cross) hay with 82g crude protein (CP)/kg dry matter (DM), which was provided to the lambs in all groups ad libitum. In addition, animals on the Supplemented Diet received daily a commercial concentrate containing 171g CP/kg DM, which was offered in an amount corresponding to 3% of the animal's live weight. The Immune-Suppressed groups received treatments with the glucocorticoid methylprednisolone sodium succinate (1.33mg/kg of body weight), administered weekly. All lambs received a single infection with 4000 H. contortus infective larvae (L3) and were euthanised 28 days post-infection. Differences in pH and in the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations occurred in rumen as a result of the distinct Diets offered to lambs. Such changes, however, did not have any apparent effect on larvae exsheathment and/or larvae survival inside the rumen, with all groups presenting similar worm burdens. However, animals on the Supplemented Diet presented reductions in worm growth and faecal egg counts. There was a significant effect of the Diet on the IgG levels against total antigens of H. contortus L3 from 7 to 27 days post-infection, with supplemented animals showing higher overall mean values (P<0.05). The immunosuppressive treatments had no effect on worm burden despite the reduction in the numbers of inflammatory cells in the abomasal mucosa of the Immune-Suppressed groups. These groups showed longer worms and females with more eggs in comparison with their counterparts fed each Diet; however, only the length of males was significantly affected (P<0.05). In conclusion, the changes caused in the rumen contents by supplementation with concentrate did not impair H. contortus establishment.
    Veterinary Parasitology 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.vetpar.2015.09.012 · 2.46 Impact Factor
  • José Henrique das Neves · Nadino Carvalho · Alessandro F.T. Amarante ·
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    ABSTRACT: Dermatobia hominis is an ectoparasite that infests various species of mammals, including cattle, impairing the quality of cowhides and leather. After observing natural infestation with D. hominis larvae in cattle on two farms in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, we evaluated the efficacy of two macrocyclic lactones, ivermectin and moxidectin, against this parasite. The drugs were administered to 10 animals in each group, following the manufacturer's instructions. The groups were: Group 1-treated with ivermectin (0.2mg/kg of body weight (BW)); Group 2-treated with moxidectin (0.2mg/kg BW); and Group 3-control (untreated). On the farm in Pardinho, a total of 12 and 16 live larvae were found in 6 and in 8 animals 10 days after the treatment with ivermectin and moxidectin, respectively, while in the control group 4 bovines had a total of 7 live larvae. On the farm in Anhembi, 2, 4 and 6 live larvae were extracted from ivermectin, moxidectin and control groups, respectively, after the treatment. This is the first report of the presence of live D. hominis larvae after the treatment of cattle with ivermectin and moxidectin in Brazil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Veterinary Parasitology 07/2015; 212(3). DOI:10.1016/j.vetpar.2015.06.029 · 2.46 Impact Factor
  • C C Bassetto · A F T Amarante ·
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    ABSTRACT: Vaccines against gastrointestinal nematodes are one potential option for the control of parasitic gastroenteritis in ruminants. Excretory/secretory (E/S) and hidden antigens are being studied as candidates for vaccines against Haemonchus spp., which is a major parasite in cattle and small ruminants that are raised in warm climates. Protection has been observed after vaccination with some E/S proteases, particularly cysteine proteases and with some glycans that are abundant on the surfaces and in the secretory products of helminths. However, the most promising results are being obtained with glycoprotein antigens extracted from the microvillar surfaces of the Haemonchus contortus intestinal cells. These antigens are called ‘hidden′ because they are not exposed to the host's immune system during infection. Thus far, recombinant forms of these antigens have not been usefully protective. However, because only 5 μg of antigen is required per dose, production of a native antigen vaccine from adult parasites has been found to be practical and commercially viable. Trials indicate that a vaccine made from one particular isolate will cross-protect against geographically distant isolates.
    Journal of Helminthology 04/2015; 89(5):1-9. DOI:10.1017/S0022149X15000279 · 1.42 Impact Factor
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  • José Henrique das Neves · Nadino Carvalho · Laura Rinaldi · Giuseppe Cringoli · Alessandro F. T. Amarante ·
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    ABSTRACT: The occurrence of anthelmintic resistance to levamisole, albendazole, ivermectin and moxidectin was investigated in cattle from 10 farms located in São Paulo State, Brazil, using two techniques for counting eggs in faeces: McMaster with a sensitivity of 50 eggs per gram (EPG) and FLOTAC with a sensitivity of two EPG. We also evaluated the use of different mathematical and test design approaches to determine the efficacy of the anthelmintic treatments: one formula/design that compares post-treatment arithmetic mean EPG counts for the treated and control groups (FECRT1) and two methods to analyse data from pre- and post-treatment EPG counts in the same group (FECRT2 and FECRT3, respectively). Treatment groups received either ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg of body weight (BW); moxidectin (0.2 mg/kg BW); albendazole (2.5 mg/kg BW); levamisole (4.7 mg/kg BW); or no treatment (control group). The number of animals in each group ranged from 8 to 11. Faecal samples from each animal were collected 2 days before the treatment and again 10 and 28 days post-treatment. The FEC reduction (FECR) confidence intervals were usually wider when based on data obtained using the McMaster method than when data were obtained using the FLOTAC method. Efficacy estimated from pre- and post-treatment EPG counts in the same group presented smaller confidence intervals. Ivermectin proved to be totally ineffective in all herds evaluated. Cooperia spp. was the major parasite displaying resistance, followed by Haemonchus spp. The results also indicated the presence of Oesophagostomum spp. and Trichostrongylus spp., meaning they, too, were resistant to ivermectin. Resistance to moxidectin was found on nine of the 10 farms investigated; however, only three farms had previously used moxidectin. In contrast, albendazole and levamisole demonstrated high efficacy on the majority of farms. In surveys for anthelmintic resistance in cattle, the use of a diagnostic method with higher sensitivity to detect eggs is recommended, as is the case with the FLOTAC method. This study indicates that by using techniques with high sensitivity and by testing the same animals pre- and post-treatment, good precision can be achieved with group sizes from 8 to 11 animals.
    Veterinary Parasitology 10/2014; 206(3-4). DOI:10.1016/j.vetpar.2014.10.015 · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A vaccine containing integral membrane glycoproteins from the intestine of Haemonchus contortus was evaluated in three groups of grazing sheep each containing 13 ewes and their 16 lambs naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. Two groups were vaccinated with either 5 or 50 μg of the antigen per immunisation, while the third, the control group, received adjuvant alone. The sheep were immunised six times at 3 week intervals, partly because the vaccine antigens are hidden and thus no immunological boost would be delivered by subsequent infection and partly because the level of Haemonchus spp. challenge was expected to be high. The vaccinated ewes, first immunised approximately 1 month before lambing, showed a circulating antibody response but no signs of reduced anaemia or Haemonchus spp. egg counts, compared with control ewes. Several ewes with severe haemonchosis in all three groups had to be given precautionary treatment with anthelmintic drugs. In contrast, vaccinating their lambs with either 5 or 50 μg of the antigen per immunisation resulted in 10 fold higher antibody titres. In the case of the lower antigen dose this was associated with significantly less anaemia, 72% reduction in the overall number of Haemonchus spp. eggs produced and significantly fewer worms compared with control lambs. It is hypothesised that the heavily pregnant or lactating ewes did not have sufficient physiological reserves to mount a protective response following vaccination in the tropical weather and high challenge conditions that prevailed. Nevertheless, the vaccine could afford useful protection for lambs against H. contortus.
    International Journal for Parasitology 08/2014; 44(14):1049. DOI:10.1016/j.ijpara.2014.07.007 · 3.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A vaccine containing integral membrane glycoproteins from the intestine of Haemonchus contortus was evaluated in three groups of eight 5 month old grazing calves, naturally infected by Haemonchus similis, Haemonchus placei and other gastrointestinal nematodes. Vaccinated calves received 5 μg or 50 μg of the antigen and 1 mg of saponin adjuvant, while the controls received adjuvant alone, initially three times, 3 weeks apart and then four more times at 6 weeks intervals. Three weeks after the last immunization all of the calves were euthanised for worm counts. Immunization stimulated high titre antibodies against the vaccine antigens, reduced the egg output of Haemonchus spp. by 85% and the numbers of H. placei and H. similis by 63% and 32%, respectively, compared with control calves. It was concluded that vaccination with intestinal membrane glycoproteins from H. contortus could substantially reduce the transmission of H. placei and H. similis, thus providing protective benefit downstream. This appears to be the first known successful demonstration of a vaccine protective for cattle naturally exposed to infection with any gastrointestinal nematode parasite.
    International Journal for Parasitology 06/2014; 44(10). DOI:10.1016/j.ijpara.2014.04.010 · 3.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two trials were conducted to determine the prepatent and the patent period of Haemonchus contortus and Haemonchus placei in Santa Ines crossbred sheep and to determine whether serial infections with both species confer protection against homologous or heterologous challenge. To evaluate the prepatent and patent periods of infection, five lambs received a single infection with 4,000 H. contortus-infective larvae (L3), and another five received a single infection with 4,000 H. placei L3. H. contortus presented patency earlier than H. placei. Animals infected with both species shed a large number of eggs in the faeces for several months with the highest counts, with means higher than 3,000 eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) between 24 and 106 days and between 38 and 73 days post infection with H. contortus and H. placei, respectively. H. contortus eggs were detected in the faeces for a minimum of 302 days and a maximum of 538 days post infection, while the H. placei patent period lasted from 288 to 364 days. In the second trial, one group of lambs (n = 12) was serially infected 12 times (three times per week for four weeks) with 500 L3 of H. placei and then challenged with either H. placei (n = 6) or with H. contortus (n = 6). The lambs in the second group (n = 12) were serially infected 12 times with 500 L3 of H. contortus and then challenged with H. contortus (n = 6) or with H. placei (n = 6), and a third group of lambs was single challenged with H. placei (n = 6), H. contortus (n = 6), or remained uninfected throughout the trial period (Control group, n = 6). Animals serially infected with H. placei and then challenged with the same species presented the most intense immune response with the highest levels of anti-parasitic immunoglobulin and number of inflammatory cells in the abomasal mucosa. As a result, this group had the lowest rate of parasite establishment (2.68% of the 4000 L3 given), but this phenomenon did not occur in animals single challenged with H. placei, in which the rate of establishment was relatively high (25.3%), confirming that the protective immune response to H. placei develops only when animals are repeatedly infected with this species. However, when the animals were previously serially infected with H. placei and then challenged with H. contortus, no evidence of significant protection was observed (establishment of 19.18%). The results of the trials showed an important role played by the immune response on parasite-host specificity.
    Veterinary Parasitology 06/2014; 203(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.vetpar.2014.02.048 · 2.46 Impact Factor
  • M R L Silva · M R V Amarante · K D S Bresciani · A F T Amarante ·
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    ABSTRACT: To better evaluate the usefulness of female Haemonchus specimens for specific identification, we undertook a detailed analysis of the morphology of a collection of worms obtained from cattle and sheep in shared pastures. Based on the results, we also more precisely evaluated the host-specificity of Haemonchus contortus, H. placei and H. similis occurring sympatrically in a farm located in the western region of São Paulo State, Brazil. A synlophe analysis was employed to identify the three species of Haemonchus. In cattle, the predominant species was H. similis (90.9%), followed by H. placei (9.1%). With the exception of one H. placei specimen, only H. contortus was found in sheep. The longest body length was found for H. placei specimens, followed by H. contortus and then H. similis. It was possible to distinguish H. similis females from H. contortus and H. placei on the basis of vulval structure. The synlophe analysis proved to be very useful for identification of H. contortus, H. placei and H. similis in epidemiological studies involving different species of ruminants in the same pastures. The finding that H. placei and H. similis were adapted to cattle and that H. contortus was adapted to sheep also confirmed the high host-specificity of the three nematodes species.
    Journal of Helminthology 03/2014; 89(03):1-5. DOI:10.1017/S0022149X14000078 · 1.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A criação de ovinos e caprinos depende de um manejo eficiente, devido, principalmente, ao prejuízo causado por parasitos em animais susceptíveis. Vários fatores colaboram para que os animais tolerem as infecções parasitárias, como: genética, nutrição, estado fisiológico e idade. O grave problema causado pela resistência anti-helmíntica promoveu a difusão de técnicas alterna-tivas de controle parasitário. Dentre essas novas estratégias incluem-se a adoção do tratamento parcial seletivo com o método FAMACHA, fitoterapia, controle biológico com o uso de fungos nematófagos e estratégias que ainda necessitam de mais dados como a homeopatia, a diluição da resistência com a introdução de parasitos sensíveis e a combinação de produtos químicos sem efeito antiparasitário. O objetivo central destes métodos é reduzir o uso de antiparasitários, retardando o desenvolvimento da resistência, e promover melhor utilização de produtos ainda eficazes na propriedade e de novos produtos que venham a ser lançados. Este artigo abordará as técnicas descritas acima para o controle de nematoides de pequenos ruminantes e é direcionado aos técnicos interessados em ampliar seu conhecimento sobre os mecanismos de resistência dos parasitos aos anti-helmínticos e de alternativas ao uso desses produtos. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Anti-helmíntico, homeopatia, fitoterapia, Famacha, controle biológico, resistência parasitária. ABSTRACT ALTERNATIVE TECHNIQUES FOR THE CONTROL OF GASTROINTESTINAL NEMATODES IN SMALL RUMINANTS. Sheep and goat farming requires an efficient management program, due to losses caused by parasites in susceptible animals. Many factors may collaborate to improve infection tolerance in the herd, such as: genetics, nutrition, physiological status, and age. The problem caused by resistance to antihelmintic agents has led to the spread of alternative techniques for parasite controls. The latest strategies include selective treatment with the FAMACHA method, phytotherapy, biological control with predatory fungi, and strategies that still await scientific confirmation, such as homeopathy, the dilution of resistance with the introduction of susceptible parasites, and the combination of drugs without antihelmintic effect. The main objective of these methods is to reduce the usage of antiparasitic agents, thus slowing the development of resistance and promoting the better use of effective products and newly released products. The objective of this article is to describe techniques for controlling nematodes in small ruminants, and it is aimed at technicians interested in increasing their knowledge about the mechanisms of resistance to antihelmintic agents as well as alternatives to the use of these products.
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    ABSTRACT: Sheep and goat farming requires an efficient management program, due to losses caused by parasites in susceptible animals. Many factors may collaborate to improve infection tolerance in the herd, such as: genetics, nutrition, physiological status, and age. The problem caused by resistance to antihelmintic agents has led to the spread of alternative techniques for parasite controls. The latest strategies include selective treatment with the FAMACHA method, phytotherapy, biological control with predatory fungi, and strategies that still await scientific confirmation, such as homeopathy, the dilution of resistance with the introduction of susceptible parasites, and the combination of drugs without antihelmintic effect. The main objective of these methods is to reduce the usage of antiparasitic agents, thus slowing the development of resistance and promoting the better use of effective products and newly released products. The objective of this article is to describe techniques for controlling nematodes in small ruminants, and it is aimed at technicians interested in increasing their knowledge about the mechanisms of resistance to antihelmintic agents as well as alternatives to the use of these products.
    06/2013; 80(2):253-263.
  • M R V Amarante · C C Bassetto · J H Neves · A F T Amarante ·
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    ABSTRACT: Agricultural ruminants usually harbour mixed infections of gastrointestinal nematodes. A specific diagnosis is important because distinct species can differ significantly in their fecundity and pathogenicity. Haemonchus spp. and Cooperia spp. are the most important gastrointestinal nematodes infecting ruminants in subtropical/tropical environments. In Brazil, C. punctata is more adapted to cattle than sheep. Additionally, C. spatulata appears to be more adapted to cattle, whereas C. curticei is more adapted to sheep. However, infection of sheep with C. punctata is common when cattle and sheep share the same pasture. Although morphological analyses have been widely used to identify nematodes, molecular methods can overcome technical limitations and help improve species-specific diagnoses. Genetic markers in the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2, respectively) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) have been used successfully to detect helminths. In the present study, the ITS-1 region was analysed and used to design a species-specific oligonucleotide primer pair to identify C. curticei. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product was sequenced and showed 97% similarity to C. oncophora partial ITS-1 clones and 99% similarity to the C. curticei sequence JF680982. The specificity of this primer pair was corroborated by the analysis of 17 species of helminths, including C. curticei, C. punctata and C. spatulata. Species-specific diagnosis, which has implications for rapid and reliable identification, can support studies on the biology, ecology and epidemiology of trichostrongylid nematodes in a particular geographical location.
    Journal of Helminthology 05/2013; 88(4):1-6. DOI:10.1017/S0022149X13000412 · 1.42 Impact Factor
  • Alessandro F.T. Amarante ·
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    ABSTRACT: A high prevalence of nematodes, especially Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis, that exhibit multiple anthelmintics resistance has been reported in sheep in several South American countries. For this reason, the development of strategies that are less dependent on anthelmintic treatments is imperative for the prophylaxis of gastrointestinal nematode infections in small ruminants. Integrated grazing using cattle and sheep can be used for pasture decontamination with considerable reduction of H. contortus and T. colubriformis infective larvae after cattle grazing. Several breeds of sheep exhibit genetically related resistance against nematode infections, as is the case of “crioulo”, “native” or naturalised breeds of sheep. These breeds descend from livestock introduced by Portuguese and Spanish settlers and have been submitted to a long process of natural selection in various environmental conditions. In the South, the Crioula Lanada breed is more resistant to H. contortus than are Corriedale sheep. In tropical areas, where the minimum temperatures are usually higher than 20 °C, hair sheep flourish, especially the Santa Ines breed, which also display a higher level of resistance to nematode infections compared with certain breeds of European origin. However, Santa Ines sheep have inferior carcass quality compared with other commercial breeds. Recent studies showed that the crossbreeding of Santa Ines ewes with sires of breeds with high potential for growth and meat production, results in crossbred animals with high productivity and a satisfactory degree of resistance against nematode infections. Several studies have indicated that improvement in nutrition has a beneficial effect on the development of resistance in lambs that were naturally or artificially infected with nematodes. Therefore, supplementary feeding and breeding strategies to improve resistance to nematodes are feasible options in the effort to reduce dependence on anthelmintic drugs to control worm infections in sheep.
    Small Ruminant Research 01/2013; 118(1-3). DOI:10.1016/j.smallrumres.2013.12.016 · 1.13 Impact Factor
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    Cristina P Cardoso · Bruna F Silva · Luzia A Trinca · Alessandro F T Amarante ·
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    ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection is a major cause of production losses in cattle. This study was carried out to evaluate the natural resistance against nematode infection in Crioulo Lageano and crossbred Angus male calves. Crioulo Lageano is a local cattle breed in the state of Santa Catarina, in southern Brazil. Ten weaned calves of each breed were grazed together on pasture and naturally infected with nematodes between July 2009 and December 2010. Once every 28 days, we collected fecal and blood samples for parasitological and immunological tests, as well as recording body weights. After 19 samplings, all animals were slaughtered for quantification and identification of GINs. We found that the animals had been infected with the following nematode species, in decreasing order by the mean number of specimens: Trichostrongylus axei, Cooperia punctata, Ostertagia ostertagi, Haemonchus placei, Oesophagostomum radiatum, and Trichuris spp. There were no significant differences between the Crioulo Lageano and crossbred Angus groups in terms of worm burden or nematode fecal egg count, nor in terms of the mean levels of immunoglobulin (G and A) against C. punctata and H. placei antigens, except in IgA mean level in abomasal mucus against H. placei adult worms that was significantly higher in crossbred Angus cattle (p<0.05). At the end of the study, the crossbred Angus cattle were heavier than were the Crioulo Lageano cattle (mean live weight, 507.35 and 390.3kg, respectively). Comparative parasitological and immunological evaluation revealed no difference between two breeds in terms of their natural resistance against GINs.
    Veterinary Parasitology 10/2012; 192(1-3). DOI:10.1016/j.vetpar.2012.10.018 · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although tannin-rich forages are known to increase protein uptake and to reduce gastrointestinal nematode infections in grazing ruminants, most published research involves forages with condensed tannins (CT), while published literature lacks information on the anthelmintic capacity, nutritional benefits, and antioxidant capacity of alternative forages containing hydrolyzable tannins (HT). We evaluated the anthelmintic activity and the antioxidant capacity of plant extracts containing either mostly CT, mostly HT, or both CT and HT. Extracts were prepared with 70% acetone, lyophilized, redissolved to doses ranging from 1.0mg/mL to 25mg/mL, and tested against adult Caenorhabditis elegans as a test model. The extract concentrations that killed 50% (LC(50)) or 90% (LC(90)) of the nematodes in 24h were determined and compared to the veterinary anthelmintic levamisole (8mg/mL). Extracts were quantified for CT by the acid butanol assay, for HT (based on gallic acid and ellagic acid) by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and total phenolics, and for their antioxidant activity by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. Extracts with mostly CT were Lespedeza cuneata, Salix X sepulcralis, and Robinia pseudoacacia. Extracts rich in HT were Acer rubrum, Rosa multiflora, and Quercus alba, while Rhus typhina had both HT and CT. The extracts with the lowest LC(50) and LC(90) concentrations, respectively, in the C. elegans assay were Q. alba (0.75 and 1.06mg/mL), R. typhina collected in 2007 (0.65 and 2.74mg/mL), A. rubrum (1.03 and 5.54mg/mL), and R. multiflora (2.14 and 8.70mg/mL). At the doses of 20 and 25mg/mL, HT-rich, or both CT- and HT-rich, extracts were significantly more lethal to adult C. elegans than extracts containing only CT. All extracts were high in antioxidant capacity, with ORAC values ranging from 1800μmoles to 4651μmoles of trolox equivalents/g, but ORAC did not correlate with anthelmintic activity. The total phenolics test had a positive and highly significant (r=0.826, p≤0.01) correlation with total hydrolyzable tannins. Plants used in this research are naturalized to the Appalachian edaphoclimatic conditions, but occur in temperate climate areas worldwide. They represent a rich, renewable, and unexplored source of tannins and antioxidants for grazing ruminants, whereas conventional CT-rich forages, such as L. cuneata, may be hard to establish and adapt to areas with temperate climate. Due to their high in vitro anthelmintic activity, antioxidant capacity, and their adaptability to non-arable lands, Q. alba, R. typhina, A. rubrum, and R. multiflora have a high potential to improve the health of grazing animals and must have their anthelmintic effects confirmed in vivo in both sheep and goats.
    Veterinary Parasitology 10/2012; 192(1-3). DOI:10.1016/j.vetpar.2012.09.030 · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    B F Silva · C C Bassetto · A F T Amarante ·
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    ABSTRACT: This study was carried out to evaluate the immune response in young Ile de France (IF) and Santa Ines (SI) sheep naturally infected by Oestrus ovis and gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN). Mast cells, eosinophils and globule leucocytes were enumerated in the upper respiratory tract (septum, middle meatus and ventral nasal conchae) and in the mucosa of abomasum and small intestine. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels in serum samples and immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels in mucus from the nasal, abomasum and small intestinal mucosae were determined against O. ovis, Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis antigens. Significant positive correlation coefficients were observed in both breeds between the number of O. ovis larvae×IgG against Oestrus crude extract (IF: r=0.58; SI: r=0.66; P<0.05), and between O. ovis larvae x IgG against Oestrus excretory and secretory products (IF: r=0.59; SI: r=0.63; P<0.05). Apparently, the presence of antibodies in the serum or nasal mucus, as well as inflammatory cells, was not able to efficiently protect against O. ovis infestation. With regard to GIN, the levels of immunoglobulins and the inflammatory cell numbers in the gastrointestinal mucosa presented a significant inverse relationship with H. contortus worm burden in SI animals and this may have contributed to the fact that these animals presented the lowest FEC and worm burden compared to IF. In conclusion, the immune responses against O. ovis and GIN are very similar and involve the recruitment of inflammatory cells and production of immunoglobulins against the parasites.
    Veterinary Parasitology 06/2012; 190(1-2):120-6. DOI:10.1016/j.vetpar.2012.06.004 · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    Michelle C Santos · Bruna F Silva · Alessandro F T Amarante ·
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    ABSTRACT: Infection with the gastrointestinal nematode Haemonchus contortus causes considerable losses in the sheep industry. In this study, we evaluated the effect that climate has on third-stage larvae (L3) of H. contortus in terms of their migration from sheep feces to Brachiaria decumbens grass, as well as their distribution among the forage plants. Fecal samples containing H. contortus L3 was deposited on the soil among the herbage at an initial height of 30 cm. Sample collection began 24h after contamination and was performed on alternate days over 13 days. The L3 were recovered and quantified in three strata (heights) of grass (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm and >20 cm) as well as in the remaining feces and a superficial layer of soil, collected from beneath the feces. In order to obtain results under different environmental conditions, fecal samples containing H. contortus L3 were deposited on pasture in January (summer), in April (autumn), and July (winter). In all of the periods, the L3 were able to migrate from the feces to the herbage. However, rains, accompanied by high relative humidity and high temperatures, apparently favored migration. The highest L3 recovery rate in the pasture was in the summer observation period, which had the highest number of days with measurable precipitation, high relative humidity (>68.2%), and the highest temperatures at the soil level (minimum and maximum means of 19°C and 42°C, respectively). Under those conditions, larvae began to reach the upper stratum of the grass (>20 cm) by 24h after the deposition of fecal matter, the number of larvae having reached that stratum peaking at seven days after deposition. In the autumn observation period, there was no rainfall in the first five days post-contamination. During that period, high numbers of larvae were found in the fecal samples demonstrating that feces can act as a reservoir of larvae in the absence of rain. Except for two days in the summer observation period, when most of the L3 were recovered from the tops of blades of grass, L3 where located predominantly at the base of the herbage. In conclusion, rainfall favors the migration of L3 from feces to herbage. In addition, larval migration up and along blades of grass can occur relatively rapidly when the temperature is high.
    Veterinary Parasitology 04/2012; 188(3-4):277-84. DOI:10.1016/j.vetpar.2012.03.056 · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hematophagous gastrointestinal parasites cause significant economic losses in small ruminant grazing systems. The growing reports of multi-drug resistant parasites call for intensive research on alternative treatments for anthelmintics to help small ruminants cope with these parasites. Two-month-old lambs with mean body weight (BW) of 22.5 kg were experimentally infected with a multidrug-resistant Haemonchus contortus strain. Infected animals were dosed orally with Cymbopogon schoenanthus essential oil to evaluate its anthelmintic potential. Eighteen animals were allocated into three groups of six animals, and each received one of the following treatments: Group 1 - control (10 mL of water), Group 2 - C. schoenanthus essential oil (180 mg/kg BW); and Group 3 - C. schoenanthus essential oil (360 mg/kg BW). Animals received the oil once a day for 3 consecutive days. Lambs were evaluated clinically for blood biochemistry before, at 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 days after treatment, and then were euthanized to assess the total worm burden. No statistically significant reduction in fecal egg count, packed cell volume or total worm count was observed after treatments. Also, no statistical difference among group means for blood levels of urea, creatinine, albumin, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and gamma glutamyl transferase was found. Larval development assay (LDA) and egg hatch assay (EHA) were performed from feces of treated animals at 1, 5, 10 and 15 days after essential oil administration. An inhibition in LDA was observed 1 day after the 3-day treatment in larvae from feces of animals treated with 360 mg/kg essential oil. In conclusion, the essential oil at the doses of 180 mg/kg and 360 mg/kg was safe to sheep, but failed as an anthelmintic treatment when applied to young sheep artificially infected with a multidrug-resistant H. contortus strain.
    Veterinary Parasitology 12/2011; 186(3-4):312-8. DOI:10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.12.003 · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    B F Silva · C C Bassetto · R J Shaw · A M O Canavessi · A F T Amarante ·
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies showed that Santa Ines (SI) hair sheep were more resistant to gastrointestinal nematode infections (GIN) than Ile de France (IF) sheep. The present experiment aimed to evaluate if that reported resistance difference against GIN also occurred against Oestrus ovis infestation and also to evaluate the influence of O. ovis infestation on the gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infections. SI (n=12) and IF (n=12) young male lambs were weaned at 2 months of age and moved to a paddock (0.3 ha) with Brachiaria decumbens grass, where they also received concentrate ration. The animals were kept together during the experimental period (September to early December 2009). Fecal and blood samples were taken from all animals every 2 weeks and body weight and nasal discharge score (oestrosis clinic signs) were recorded on the same occasion. In early December 2009, all lambs were sacrificed and O. ovis larvae and GIN were recovered, counted and identified according to the larval stage. All animals were infested by different larval instars of O. ovis without any statistical difference between breeds (P>0.05). The SI lambs had an average of 24.8 larvae, and the intensity of infection ranged between 14 and 39 larvae, while the IF lambs showed an average of 23.5 larvae with the minimum and maximum from 11 to 36 larvae, respectively. SI lambs presented the lowest nematode fecal egg counts (FECs) and the lowest mean numbers of Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Strongyloides papillosus, however, there was no significant differences between group means (P>0.05). Inverse relationship between numbers of O. ovis larvae and gastrointestinal nematodes was observed in both breeds. SI sheep showed a significant increase in blood eosinophils and total IgE serum levels and these variables were negatively correlated with nematode FEC. A negative correlation was observed between total IgE serum level and H. contortus burden in both breeds. In conclusion, there was no breed difference regarding O. ovis infestation and in each breed, animals with more nasal bot fly larvae tended to display smaller worm burden.
    Veterinary Parasitology 11/2011; 186(3-4):437-44. DOI:10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.11.007 · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The indiscriminate use of anthelmintics has resulted in the establishment of parasite resistance. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antiparasitic effect of plant extracts on Haemonchus contortus in sheep and the in vivo effect on Strongyloides venezuelensis in Rattus norvegicus. The plant extracts from Piper tuberculatum, Lippia sidoides, Mentha piperita, Hura crepitans and Carapa guianensis, produced at different research institutions, were chemically analyzed and evaluated through the egg hatch test (EHT) and larval development test (LDT) in H. contortus. P. tuberculatum (150 and 250 mg kg(-1) of body weight) was evaluated for its anthelmintic action on R. norvegicus experimentally infected with S. venezuelensis. In the EHT, the LC(50) and LC(90) of the extracts were respectively as follows: 0.031 and 0.09 mg mL(-1) for P. tuberculatum, 0.04 and 0.13 mg mL(-1) for L. sidoides, 0.037 and 0.10 mg mL(-1) for M. piperita, 2.16 and 17.13 mg mL(-1) for H. crepitans and 2.03 × 10(-6) and 1.22 × 10(-12) mg mL(-1) for C. guianensis. In the LDT, the LC(50) and LC(90) were respectively: 0.02 and 0.031 mg mL(-1) for P. tuberculatum, 0.002 and 0.04 mg mL(-1) for L. sidoides, 0.018 and 0.03 mg mL(-1) for M. piperita, 0.36 and 0.91 mg mL(-1) for H. crepitans and 17.65 and 1890 mg mL(-1) for C. guianensis. The extract of P. tuberculatum showed the following substances: piperamides as (Z)-piplartine, (E)-piplartine, 8,9-dihydropiplartine, piperine, 10,11-dihydropiperine, 5,6 dihydropiperlongumine and pellitorine. The major compounds of the oils were thymol (76.6%) for L. sidoides, menthol (27.5%) for M. piperita and oleic acid (46.8%) for C. guianensis. Regarding the in vivo test, neither dose of P. tuberculatum caused any significant reduction (P>0.05) in worm burden and fecal egg counts compared with the control group. We conclude that the extracts of P. tuberculatum, L. sidoides and M. piperita have effective activity when tested in vitro, but the doses of the extract of P. tuberculatum have no effect when employed in in vivo tests.
    Veterinary Parasitology 08/2011; 183(3-4):260-8. DOI:10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.07.051 · 2.46 Impact Factor

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  • 1992-2015
    • São Paulo State University
      • Department of Parasitology
      San Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 2012
    • CEP America
      Емеривил, California, United States
  • 2011
    • Energy Biosciences Institute
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 2000-2008
    • Fatec Botucatu
      Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 1999
    • Texas A&M University
      • Department of Veterinary Pathobiology
      College Station, Texas, United States