[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) is a cofactor necessary for the activity of KCNQ1 channels. Some Long QT mutations of KCNQ1, including R243H, R539W and R555C have been shown to decrease KCNQ1 interaction with PIP2. A previous study suggested that R539W is paradoxically less sensitive to intracellular magnesium inhibition than the WT channel, despite a decreased interaction with PIP2. In the present study, we confirm this peculiar behavior of R539W and suggest a molecular mechanism underlying it.
COS-7 cells were transfected with WT or mutated KCNE1-KCNQ1 channel, and patch-clamp recordings were performed in giant-patch, permeabilized-patch or ruptured-patch configuration. Similar to other channels with a decreased PIP2 affinity, we observed that the R243H and R555C mutations lead to an accelerated current rundown when membrane PIP2 levels are decreasing. As opposed to R243H and R555C mutants, R539W is not more but rather less sensitive to PIP2 decrease than the WT channel. A molecular model of a fragment of the KCNQ1 C-terminus and the membrane bilayer suggested that a potential novel interaction of R539W with cholesterol stabilizes the channel opening and hence prevents rundown upon PIP2 depletion. We then carried out the same rundown experiments under cholesterol depletion and observed an accelerated R539W rundown that is consistent with this model.
We show for the first time that a mutation may shift the channel interaction with PIP2 to a preference for cholesterol. This de novo interaction wanes the sensitivity to PIP2 variations, showing that a mutated channel with a decreased affinity to PIP2 could paradoxically present a slowed current rundown compared to the WT channel. This suggests that caution is required when using measurements of current rundown as an indicator to compare WT and mutant channel PIP2 sensitivity.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(3):e93255. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiac voltage-gated Na+ (Nav) channels are key determinants of action potential waveforms, refractoriness and propagation, and Nav1.5 is the main Nav pore-forming (alpha) subunit in the mammalian heart. Although direct phosphorylation of the Nav1.5 protein has been suggested to modulate various aspects of Nav channel physiology and pathophysiology, native Nav1.5 phosphorylation sites have not been identified. In the experiments here, a mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic approach was developed to identify native Nav1.5 phosphorylation sites directly. Using an anti-NavPAN antibody, Nav channel complexes were immunoprecipitated from adult mouse cardiac ventricles. The MS analyses revealed that this antibody immunoprecipitates several Nav alpha subunits in addition to Nav1.5, as well as several previously identified Nav channel associated/regulatory proteins. Label-free comparative and data-driven phosphoproteomic analyses of purified cardiac Nav1.5 protein identified 11 phosphorylation sites, 8 of which are novel. All the phosphorylation sites identified except one in the N-terminus are in the first intracellular linker loop, suggesting critical roles for this region in phosphorylation-dependent cardiac Nav channel regulation. Interestingly, commonly used prediction algorithms did not reliably predict these newly identified in situ phosphorylation sites. Taken together, the results presented provide the first in situ map of basal phosphorylation sites on the mouse cardiac Nav1.5 alpha subunit.
Journal of Proteome Research 10/2012; · 5.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The channel pore-forming α subunit Kv4.2 is a major constituent of A-type (I(A)) potassium currents and a key regulator of neuronal membrane excitability. Multiple mechanisms regulate the properties, subcellular targeting, and cell-surface expression of Kv4.2-encoded channels. In the present study, shotgun proteomic analyses of immunoprecipitated mouse brain Kv4.2 channel complexes unexpectedly identified the voltage-gated Na⁺ channel accessory subunit Navβ1. Voltage-clamp and current-clamp recordings revealed that knockdown of Navβ1 decreases I(A) densities in isolated cortical neurons and that action potential waveforms are prolonged and repetitive firing is increased in Scn1b-null cortical pyramidal neurons lacking Navβ1. Biochemical and voltage-clamp experiments further demonstrated that Navβ1 interacts with and increases the stability of the heterologously expressed Kv4.2 protein, resulting in greater total and cell-surface Kv4.2 protein expression and in larger Kv4.2-encoded current densities. Together, the results presented here identify Navβ1 as a component of native neuronal Kv4.2-encoded I(A) channel complexes and a novel regulator of I(A) channel densities and neuronal excitability.
Journal of Neuroscience 04/2012; 32(17):5716-27. · 6.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Members of the K(+) channel-interacting protein (KChIP) family bind the distal N termini of members of the Shal subfamily of voltage-gated K(+) channel (Kv4) pore-forming (α) subunits to generate rapidly activating, rapidly inactivating neuronal A-type (I(A)) and cardiac transient outward (I(to)) currents. In heterologous cells, KChIP co-expression increases cell surface expression of Kv4 α subunits and Kv4 current densities, findings interpreted to suggest that Kv4·KChIP complex formation enhances forward trafficking of channels (from the endoplasmic reticulum or the Golgi complex) to the surface membrane. The results of experiments here, however, demonstrate that KChIP2 increases cell surface Kv4.2 protein expression (∼40-fold) by an order of magnitude more than the increase in total protein (∼2-fold) or in current densities (∼3-fold), suggesting that mechanisms at the cell surface regulate the functional expression of Kv4.2 channels. Additional experiments demonstrated that KChIP2 decreases the turnover rate of cell surface Kv4.2 protein by inhibiting endocytosis and/or promoting recycling. Unexpectedly, the experiments here also revealed that Kv4.2·KChIP2 complex formation stabilizes not only (total and cell surface) Kv4.2 but also KChIP2 protein expression. This reciprocal protein stabilization and Kv4·KChIP2 complex formation are lost with deletion of the distal (10 amino acids) Kv4.2 N terminus. Taken together, these observations demonstrate that KChIP2 differentially regulates total and cell surface Kv4.2 protein expression and Kv4 current densities.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2010; 285(43):33413-22. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pathological biomechanical stresses cause cardiac hypertrophy, which is associated with QT prolongation and arrhythmias. Previous studies have demonstrated that repolarizing K(+) current densities are decreased in pressure overload-induced left ventricular hypertrophy, resulting in action potential and QT prolongation. Cardiac hypertrophy also occurs with exercise training, but this physiological hypertrophy is not associated with electrical abnormalities or increased arrhythmia risk, suggesting that repolarizing K(+) currents are upregulated, in parallel with the increase in myocyte size, to maintain normal cardiac function. To explore this hypothesis directly, electrophysiological recordings were obtained from ventricular myocytes isolated from two mouse models of physiological hypertrophy, one produced by swim-training of wild-type mice and the other by cardiac-specific expression of constitutively active phosphoinositide-3-kinase-p110α (caPI3Kα). Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings revealed that repolarizing K(+) current amplitudes were higher in ventricular myocytes isolated from swim-trained and caPI3Kα, compared with wild-type, animals. The increases in K(+) current amplitudes paralleled the observed cellular hypertrophy, resulting in normalized or increased K(+) current densities. Electrocardiographic parameters, including QT intervals, as well as ventricular action potential waveforms in swim-trained animals/myocytes were indistinguishable from controls, demonstrating preserved electrical function. Additional experiments revealed that inward Ca(2+) current amplitudes/densities were also increased in caPI3Kα, compared with WT, left ventricular myocytes. The expression of transcripts encoding K(+), Ca(2+) and other ion channel subunits was increased in swim-trained and caPI3Kα ventricles, in parallel with the increase in myocyte size and with the global increases in total cellular RNA expression. In contrast to pathological hypertrophy, therefore, the functional expression of repolarizing K(+) (and depolarizing Ca(2+)) channels is increased with physiological hypertrophy, reflecting upregulation of the underlying ion channel subunit transcripts and resulting in increased current amplitudes and the normalization of current densities and action potential waveforms. Taken together, these results suggest that activation of PI3Kα signalling preserves normal myocardial electrical functioning and could be protective against the increased risk of arrhythmias and sudden death that are prevalent in pathological cardiac hypertrophy.
The Journal of Physiology 10/2010; 588(Pt 24):5015-32. · 4.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels are key determinants of membrane excitability in the nervous and cardiovascular systems, functioning to control resting membrane potentials, shape action potential waveforms and influence the responses to neurotransmitters and neurohormones. Consistent with this functional diversity, multiple types of Kv currents, with distinct biophysical properties and cellular/subcellular distributions, have been identified. Rapidly activating and inactivating Kv currents, typically referred to as I(A) (A-type) in neurons, for example, regulate repetitive firing rates, action potential back-propagation (into dendrites) and modulate synaptic responses. Currents with similar properties, referred to as I(to,f) (fast transient outward), expressed in cardiomyocytes, control the early phase of myocardial action potential repolarization. A number of studies have demonstrated critical roles for pore-forming (α) subunits of the Kv4 subfamily in the generation of native neuronal I(A) and cardiac I(to,f) channels. Studies in heterologous cells have also suggested important roles for a number of Kv channel accessory and regulatory proteins in the generation of functional I(A) and I(to,f) channels. Quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis is increasingly recognized as a rapid and, importantly, unbiased, approach to identify the components of native macromolecular protein complexes. The recent application of proteomic approaches to identify the components of native neuronal (and cardiac) Kv4 channel complexes has revealed even greater complexity than anticipated. The continued emphasis on development of improved biochemical and analytical proteomic methods seems certain to accelerate progress and to provide important new insights into the molecular determinants of native ion channel protein complexes.
Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology 10/2010; 22(2):145-52. · 6.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Loss-of-function mutations in SCN5A, the gene encoding Na(v)1.5 Na+ channel, are associated with inherited cardiac conduction defects and Brugada syndrome, which both exhibit variable phenotypic penetrance of conduction defects. We investigated the mechanisms of this heterogeneity in a mouse model with heterozygous targeted disruption of Scn5a (Scn5a(+/-) mice) and compared our results to those obtained in patients with loss-of-function mutations in SCN5A.
Based on ECG, 10-week-old Scn5a(+/-) mice were divided into 2 subgroups, one displaying severe ventricular conduction defects (QRS interval>18 ms) and one a mild phenotype (QRS< or = 18 ms; QRS in wild-type littermates: 10-18 ms). Phenotypic difference persisted with aging. At 10 weeks, the Na+ channel blocker ajmaline prolonged QRS interval similarly in both groups of Scn5a(+/-) mice. In contrast, in old mice (>53 weeks), ajmaline effect was larger in the severely affected subgroup. These data matched the clinical observations on patients with SCN5A loss-of-function mutations with either severe or mild conduction defects. Ventricular tachycardia developed in 5/10 old severely affected Scn5a(+/-) mice but not in mildly affected ones. Correspondingly, symptomatic SCN5A-mutated Brugada patients had more severe conduction defects than asymptomatic patients. Old severely affected Scn5a(+/-) mice but not mildly affected ones showed extensive cardiac fibrosis. Mildly affected Scn5a(+/-) mice had similar Na(v)1.5 mRNA but higher Na(v)1.5 protein expression, and moderately larger I(Na) current than severely affected Scn5a(+/-) mice. As a consequence, action potential upstroke velocity was more decreased in severely affected Scn5a(+/-) mice than in mildly affected ones.
Scn5a(+/-) mice show similar phenotypic heterogeneity as SCN5A-mutated patients. In Scn5a(+/-) mice, phenotype severity correlates with wild-type Na(v)1.5 protein expression.
PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(2):e9298. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Somatodendritic A-type (I(A)) voltage-gated K(+) (K(V)) channels are key regulators of neuronal excitability, functioning to control action potential waveforms, repetitive firing and the responses to synaptic inputs. Rapidly activating and inactivating somatodendritic I(A) channels are encoded by K(V)4 alpha subunits and accumulating evidence suggests that these channels function as components of macromolecular protein complexes. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic approaches were developed and exploited here to identify potential components and regulators of native brain K(V)4.2-encoded I(A) channel complexes. Using anti-K(V)4.2 specific antibodies, K(V)4.2 channel complexes were immunoprecipitated from adult wild type mouse brain. Parallel control experiments were performed on brain samples isolated from (K(V)4.2(-/-)) mice harboring a targeted disruption of the KCND2 (K(V)4.2) locus. Three proteomic strategies were employed: an in-gel approach, coupled to one-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem MS (1D-LC-MS/MS), and two in-solution approaches, followed by 1D- or 2D-LC-MS/MS. The targeted in-gel 1D-LC-MS/MS analyses demonstrated the presence of the K(V)4 alpha subunits (K(V)4.2, K(V)4.3 and K(V)4.1) and the K(V)4 accessory, KChIP (KChIP1-4) and DPP (DPP6 and 10), proteins in native brain K(V)4.2 channel complexes. The more comprehensive, in-solution approach, coupled to 2D-LC-MS/MS, also called Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT), revealed that additional regulatory proteins, including the K(V) channel accessory subunit K(V)beta1, are also components of native brain K(V)4.2 channel complexes. Additional biochemical and functional approaches will be required to elucidate the physiological roles of these newly identified K(V)4 interacting proteins.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The identification of nearly a dozen ion channel genes involved in the genesis of human atrial and ventricular arrhythmias has been critical for the diagnosis and treatment of fatal cardiovascular diseases. In contrast, very little is known about the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human sinus node dysfunction (SND). Here, we report a genetic and molecular mechanism for human SND. We mapped two families with highly penetrant and severe SND to the human ANK2 (ankyrin-B/AnkB) locus. Mice heterozygous for AnkB phenocopy human SND displayed severe bradycardia and rate variability. AnkB is essential for normal membrane organization of sinoatrial node cell channels and transporters, and AnkB is required for physiological cardiac pacing. Finally, dysfunction in AnkB-based trafficking pathways causes abnormal sinoatrial node (SAN) electrical activity and SND. Together, our findings associate abnormal channel targeting with human SND and highlight the critical role of local membrane organization for sinoatrial node excitability.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2008; 105(40):15617-22. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is associated with electric remodeling and increased arrhythmia risk, although the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In the experiments here, functional voltage-gated (Kv) and inwardly rectifying (Kir) K(+) channel remodeling was examined in a mouse model of pressure overload-induced LVH, produced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Action potential durations (APDs) at 90% repolarization in TAC LV myocytes and QT(c) intervals in TAC mice were prolonged. Mean whole-cell membrane capacitance (C(m)) was higher, and I(to,f), I(K,slow), I(ss), and I(K1) densities were lower in TAC, than in sham, LV myocytes. Although the primary determinant of the reduced current densities is the increase in C(m), I(K,slow) amplitudes were decreased and I(ss) amplitudes were increased in TAC LV cells. Further experiments revealed regional differences in the effects of LVH. Cellular hypertrophy and increased I(ss) amplitudes were more pronounced in TAC endocardial LV cells, whereas I(K,slow) amplitudes were selectively reduced in TAC epicardial LV cells. Consistent with the similarities in I(to,f) and I(K1) amplitudes, Kv4.2, Kv4.3, and KChIP2 (I(to,f)), as well as Kir2.1 and Kir2.2 (I(K1)), transcript and protein expression levels were similar in TAC and sham LV. Unexpectedly, expression of I(K,slow) channel subunits Kv1.5 and Kv2.1 was increased in TAC LV. Biochemical experiments also demonstrated that, although total protein was unaltered, cell surface expression of TASK1 was increased in TAC LV. Functional changes in repolarizing K(+) currents with LVH, therefore, result from distinct cellular (cardiomyocyte enlargement) and molecular (alterations in the numbers of functional channels) mechanisms.
Circulation Research 07/2008; 102(11):1406-15. · 11.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetes is associated with increased risk of diastolic dysfunction, heart failure, QT prolongation and rhythm disturbances independent of age, hypertension or coronary artery disease. Although these observations suggest electrical remodeling in the heart with diabetes, the relationship between the metabolic and the functional derangements is poorly understood. Exploiting a mouse model (MHC-PPARalpha) with cardiac-specific overexpression of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), a key driver of diabetes-related lipid metabolic dysregulation, the experiments here were aimed at examining directly the link(s) between alterations in cardiac fatty acid metabolism and the functioning of repolarizing, voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels. Electrophysiological experiments on left (LV) and right (RV) ventricular myocytes isolated from young (5-6 week) MHC-PPARalpha mice revealed marked K(+) current remodeling: I(to,f) densities are significantly (P<0.01) lower, whereas I(ss) densities are significantly (P<0.001) higher in MHC-PPARalpha, compared with age-matched wild type (WT), LV and RV myocytes. Consistent with the observed reductions in I(to,f) density, expression of the KCND2 (Kv4.2) transcript is significantly (P<0.001) lower in MHC-PPARalpha, compared with WT, ventricles. Western blot analyses revealed that expression of the Kv accessory protein, KChIP2, is also reduced in MHC-PPARalpha ventricles in parallel with the decrease in Kv4.2. Although the properties of the endogenous and the "augmented" I(ss) suggest a role(s) for two pore domain K(+) channel (K2P) pore-forming subunits, the expression levels of KCNK2 (TREK1), KCNK3 (TASK1) and KCNK5 (TASK2) in MHC-PPARalpha and WT ventricles are not significantly different. The molecular mechanisms underlying I(to,f) and I(ss) remodeling in MHC-PPARalpha ventricular myocytes, therefore, are distinct.
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 06/2008; 44(6):1002-15. · 5.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accumulated evidence suggests that the heteromeric assembly of Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 alpha-subunits underlies the fast transient Kv current (I(to,f)) in rodent ventricles. Recent studies, however, demonstrated that the targeted deletion of Kv4.2 results in the complete elimination of I(to,f) in adult mouse ventricles, revealing an essential role for the Kv4.2 alpha-subunit in the generation of mouse ventricular I(to,f) channels. The present study was undertaken to investigate directly the functional role of Kv4.3 by examining the effects of the targeted disruption of the KCND3 (Kv4.3) locus. Mice lacking Kv4.3 (Kv4.3-/-) appear indistinguishable from wild-type control animals, and no structural or functional abnormalities were evident in Kv4.3-/- hearts. Voltage-clamp recordings revealed that functional I(to,f) channels are expressed in Kv4.3-/- ventricular myocytes, and that mean I(to,f) densities are similar to those recorded from wild-type cells. In addition, I(to,f) properties (inactivation rates, voltage dependences of inactivation and rates of recovery from inactivation) in Kv4.3-/- and wild-type mouse ventricular myocytes were indistinguishable. Quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analyses did not reveal any measurable changes in the expression of Kv4.2 or the Kv channel interacting protein (KChIP2) in Kv4.3-/- ventricles. Taken together, the results presented here suggest that, in contrast with Kv4.2, Kv4.3 is not required for the generation of functional mouse ventricular I(to,f) channels.
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 02/2008; 44(1):95-104. · 5.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mice with genetic inhibition (AC3-I) of the multifunctional Ca(2+)/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) have improved cardiomyocyte survival after ischemia. Some K(+) currents are up-regulated in AC3-I hearts, but it is unknown if CaMKII inhibition increases the ATP sensitive K(+) current (I(KATP)) that underlies ischemic preconditioning (IP) and confers resistance to ischemia. We hypothesized increased I(KATP) was part of the mechanism for improved ventricular myocyte survival during ischemia in AC3-I mice. AC3-I hearts were protected against global ischemia due to enhanced IP compared to wild type (WT) and transgenic control (AC3-C) hearts. IKATP was significantly increased, while the negative regulatory dose-dependence of ATP was unchanged in AC3-I compared to WT and AC3-C ventricular myocytes, suggesting that CaMKII inhibition increased the number of functional I(KATP) channels available for IP. We measured increased sarcolemmal Kir6.2, a pore-forming I(KATP) subunit, but not a change in total Kir6.2 in cell lysates or single channel I(KATP) opening probability from AC3-I compared to WT and AC3-C ventricles, showing CaMKII inhibition increased sarcolemmal I(KATP) channel expression. There were no differences in mRNA for genes encoding I(KATP) channel subunits in AC3-I, WT and AC3-C ventricles. The I(KATP) opener pinacidil (100 microM) reduced MI area in WT to match AC3-I hearts, while the I(KATP) antagonist HMR1098 (30 microM) increased MI area to an equivalent level in all groups, indicating that increased I(KATP) and augmented IP are important for reduced ischemic cell death in AC3-I hearts. Our study results show CaMKII inhibition enhances beneficial effects of IP by increasing I(KATP).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The multifunctional Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is activated by elevated intracellular Ca(2+) (Ca(2+)(i)), and mice with chronic myocardial CaMKII inhibition (Inh) resulting from transgenic expression of a CaMKII inhibitory peptide (AC3-I) unexpectedly showed action potential duration (APD) shortening. Inh mice exhibit increased L-type Ca(2+) current (I(Ca)), because of upregulation of protein kinase A (PKA) activity, and decreased CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation of phospholamban (PLN). We hypothesized that CaMKII is a molecular signal linking Ca(2+)(i) to repolarization. Whole cell voltage-clamp recordings revealed that the fast transient outward current (I(to,f)) and the inward rectifier current (I(K1)) were selectively upregulated in Inh, compared with wild-type (WT) and transgenic control, mice. Breeding Inh mice with mice lacking PLN returned I(to,f) and I(K1) to control levels and equalized the APD and QT intervals in Inh mice to control and WT levels. Dialysis of AC3-I into WT cells did not result in increased I(to,f) or I(K1), suggesting that enhanced cardiac repolarization in Inh mice is an adaptive response to chronic CaMKII inhibition rather than an acute effect of reduced CaMKII activity. Increasing PKA activity, by cell dialysis with cAMP, or inhibition of PKA did not affect I(K1) in WT cells. Dialysis of WT cells with cAMP also reduced I(to,f), suggesting that PKA upregulation does not increase repolarizing K(+) currents in Inh mice. These findings provide novel in vivo and cellular evidence that CaMKII links Ca(2+)(i) to cardiac repolarization and suggest that PLN may be a critical CaMKII target for feedback regulation of APD in ventricular myocytes.
Circulation Research 12/2006; 99(10):1092-9. · 11.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have demonstrated a role for voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channel alpha subunits of the Kv4 subfamily in the generation of rapidly inactivating/recovering cardiac transient outward K+ current, I(to,f), channels. Biochemical studies suggest that mouse ventricular I(to,f) channels reflect the heteromeric assembly of Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 with the accessory subunits, KChIP2 and Kvbeta1, and that Kv4.2 is the primary determinant of regional differences in (mouse ventricular) I(to,f) densities. Interestingly, the phenotypic consequences of manipulating I(to,f) expression in different mouse models are distinct. In the experiments here, the effects of the targeted deletion of Kv4.2 (Kv4.2(-/-)) were examined. Unexpectedly, voltage-clamp recordings from Kv4.2(-/-) ventricular myocytes revealed that I(to,f) is eliminated. In addition, the slow transient outward K+ current, I(to,s), and the Kv1.4 protein (which encodes I(to,s)) are upregulated in Kv4.2(-/-) ventricles. Although Kv4.3 mRNA/protein expression is not measurably affected, KChIP2 expression is markedly reduced in Kv4.2(-/-) ventricles. Similar to Kv4.3, expression of Kvbeta1, as well as Kv1.5 and Kv2.1, is similar in wild-type and Kv4.2(-/-) ventricles. In addition, and in marked contrast to previous findings in mice expressing a truncated Kv4.2 transgene, the elimination I(to,f) in Kv4.2(-/-) mice does not result in ventricular hypertrophy. Taken together, these findings demonstrate not only an essential role for Kv4.2 in the generation of mouse ventricular I(to,f) channels but also that the loss of I(to,f) per se does not have overt pathophysiological consequences.
Circulation Research 01/2006; 97(12):1342-50. · 11.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the effects of chronic and moderate heart rate (HR) reduction on ion channel expression in the mouse sinoatrial node (SAN) and ventricle. Ten-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were treated twice daily with either vehicle or ivabradine at 5 mg/kg given orally during 3 wk. The effects of HR reduction on cardiac electrical activity were investigated in anesthetized mice with serial ECGs and in freely moving mice with telemetric recordings. With the use of high-throughput real-time RT-PCR, the expression of 68 ion channel subunits was evaluated in the SAN and ventricle at the end of the treatment period. In conscious mice, ivabradine induced a mean 16% HR reduction over a 24-h period that was sustained over the 3-wk administration. Other ECG parameters were not modified. Two-way hierarchical clustering analysis of gene expression revealed a separation of ventricles from SANs but no discrimination between treated and untreated ventricles, indicating that HR reduction per se induced limited remodeling in this tissue. In contrast, SAN samples clustered in two groups depending on the treatment. In the SAN from ivabradine-treated mice, the expression of nine ion channel subunits, including Navbeta1 (-25%), Cav3.1 (-29%), Kir6.1 (-28%), Kvbeta2 (-41%), and Kvbeta3 (-30%), was significantly decreased. Eight genes were significantly upregulated, including K+ channel alpha-subunits (Kv1.1, +30%; Kir2.1, +29%; Kir3.1, +41%), hyperpolarization-activated cation channels (HCN2, +24%; HCN4, +52%), and connexin 43 (+26%). We conclude that reducing HR induces a complex remodeling of ion channel expression in the SAN but has little impact on ion channel transcripts in the ventricle.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The voltage-gated K+ channel KCNQ1 associates with the small KCNE1 beta subunit to underlie the IKs repolarizing current in the heart. Based on sequence homology, the KCNE family is recognized to comprise five members. Controversial data have indicated their participation in several K+ channel protein complexes, including KCNQ1. The expression level and the putative functions of the different KCNE subunits in the human heart still require further investigation.
We have carried out a comparative study of all KCNE subunits with KCNQ1 using the patch-clamp technique in mammalian cells. Real-time RT-PCR absolute quantification was performed on human atrial and ventricular tissue.
While KCNQ1/KCNE1 heteromultimer reached high current density with slow gating kinetics and pronounced voltage dependence, KCNQ1/KCNE2 and KCNQ1/KCNE3 complexes produced instantaneous voltage-independent currents with low and high current density, respectively. Co-expression of KCNE4 or KCNE5 with KCNQ1 induced small currents in the physiological range of voltages, with kinetics similar to those of the KCNQ1/KCNE1 complex. However, co-expression of these inhibitory subunits with a disease-associated mutation (S140G-KCNQ1) led to currents that were almost undistinguishable from the KCNQ1/KCNE1 canonical complex. Absolute cDNA quantification revealed a relatively homogeneous distribution of each transcript, except for KCNE4, inside left atria and endo- and epicardia of left ventricular wall with the following abundance: KCNQ1 > KCNE4 > or = KCNE1 > KCNE3 > KCNE2 > KCNE5. KCNE4 expression was twice as high in atrium compared to ventricle.
Our data show that KCNQ1 forms a channel complex with 5 KCNE subunits in a specific manner but only interactions with KCNE1, KCNE2, and KCNE3 may have physiological relevance in the human heart.
Cardiovascular Research 09/2005; 67(3):529-38. · 5.81 Impact Factor