[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Testosterone exerts both beneficial and harmful effects on the cardiovascular system. Considering that testosterone induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and ROS activate cell death signaling pathways, we tested the hypothesis that testosterone induces apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) via mitochondria-dependent ROS generation. Cultured VSMC were stimulated with testosterone (10(-7) mol/L) or vehicle (2-12h) in the presence of flutamide (10(-5) mol/L), CCCP (10(-6) mol/L), MnTMPyP (3x10(-5) mol/L), Z-IETD-FMK (10(-5) mol/L) or vehicle. ROS were determined with lucigenin and dichlorodihydrofluorescein; apoptosis with annexin V and calcein; O2 consumption with a Clark-type electrode, and procaspases, caspases, cytochrome c, Bax and Bcl-2 levels by immunoblotting. Testosterone induced ROS generation [(rlu/mg protein, 2h), 162.6 ± 16 vs. 100] and procaspase 3 activation [(arbitrary units, au, 6h), 166.2 ± 19 vs. 100]. CCCP, MnTMPyP and flutamide abolished these effects. Testosterone increased annexin V fluorescence [(au) 197.6 ± 21.5 vs. 100] and decreased calcein fluorescence [(au), 34.4 ± 6.4 vs. 100] and O2 consumption [(nmol O2/min) (18.6 ± 2.0 vs. 34.4 ± 3.9). Testosterone also reduced Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, but not cytochrome c release from mitochondria. Moreover, testosterone (6 h) induced cleavage of procaspase 8 [(au) 161.1 ± 13.5 vs. 100) and increased gene expression of FasL [(2(ΔΔCt)) 3.6 ± 1.2 vs. 0.7 ± 0.5] and TNF-alpha (1.7 ± 0.4 vs. 0.3 ± 0.1). CCCP, MnTMPyP and flutamide abolished these effects. These data indicate that testosterone induces apoptosis in VSMC via the extrinsic apoptotic pathway with the involvement of androgen receptor activation and mitochondria-generated ROS.
AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 03/2014; · 4.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated that increased rates of superoxide generation by extra-mitochondrial enzymes induce the activation of the mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel (mitoKATP) in the livers of hypertriglyceridemic (HTG) mice. The resulting mild uncoupling mediated by mitoKATP protects mitochondria against oxidative damage. In this study, we investigate whether immune cells from HTG mice also present increased mitoKATP activity and evaluate the influence of this trait on cell redox state and viability. METHODS: Oxygen consumption (Clark-type electrode), reactive oxygen species production (dihydroethidium and H2-DCF-DA probes) and cell death (annexin V, cytocrome c release and Trypan blue exclusion) were determined in spleen mononuclear cells RESULTS: HTG mice mononuclear cells displayed increased mitoKATP activity, as evidenced by higher resting respiration rates that were sensitive to mitoKATP antagonists. Whole cell superoxide production and apoptosis rates were increased in HTG cells. Inhibition of mitoKATP further increased the production of reactive oxygen species and apoptosis in these cells. Incubation with HTG serum induced apoptosis more strongly in WT cells than in HTG mononuclear cells. Cytochrome c release into the cytosol and caspase 8 activity were both increased in HTG cells, indicating that cell death signaling starts upstream of the mitochondria but does involve this organelle. Accordingly, a reduced number of blood circulating lymphocytes was found in HTG mice. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that spleen mononuclear cells from hyperlipidemic mice have more active mitoKATP channels, which downregulate mitochondrial superoxide generation. The increased apoptosis rate observed in these cells is exacerbated by closing the mitoKATP channels. Thus, mitoKATP opening acts as a protective mechanism that reduces cell death induced by hyperlipidemia.
Lipids in Health and Disease 06/2013; 12(1):87. · 2.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Determination of the SET protein levels in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) tissue samples and the SET role in cell survival and response to oxidative stress in HNSCC cell lineages.
SET protein was analyzed in 372 HNSCC tissue samples by immunohistochemistry using tissue microarray and HNSCC cell lineages. Oxidative stress was induced with the pro-oxidant tert-butylhydroperoxide (50 and 250μM) in the HNSCC HN13 cell lineage either with (siSET) or without (siNC) SET knockdown. Cell viability was evaluated by trypan blue exclusion and annexin V/propidium iodide assays. It was assessed caspase-3 and -9, PARP-1, DNA fragmentation, NM23-H1, SET, Akt and phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) status. Acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs) were assessed by the acridine orange assay. Glutathione levels and transcripts of antioxidant genes were assayed by fluorometry and real time PCR, respectively.
SET levels were up-regulated in 97% tumor tissue samples and in HNSCC cell lineages. SiSET in HN13 cells (i) promoted cell death but did not induced caspases, PARP-1 cleavage or DNA fragmentation, and (ii) decreased resistance to death induced by oxidative stress, indicating SET involvement through caspase-independent mechanism. The red fluorescence induced by siSET in HN13 cells in the acridine orange assay suggests SET-dependent prevention of AVOs acidification. NM23-H1 protein was restricted to the cytoplasm of siSET/siNC HN13 cells under oxidative stress, in association with decrease of cleaved SET levels. In the presence of oxidative stress, siNC HN13 cells showed lower GSH antioxidant defense (GSH/GSSG ratio) but higher expression of the antioxidant genes PRDX6, SOD2 and TXN compared to siSET HN13 cells. Still under oxidative stress, p-Akt levels were increased in siNC HN13 cells but not in siSET HN13, indicating its involvement in HN13 cell survival. Similar results for the main SET effects were observed in HN12 and CAL 27 cell lineages, except that HN13 cells were more resistant to death.
SET is potential (i) marker for HNSCC associated with cancer cell resistance and (ii) new target in cancer therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitrosyl ruthenium complexes are promising NO donor agents with numerous advantages for the biologic applications of NO. We have characterized the NO release from the nitrosyl ruthenium complex [Ru(NO(2))(bpy)(2)(4-pic)](+) (I) and the reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS)-mediated NO actions on isolated rat liver mitochondria. The results indicated that oxidation of mitochondrial NADH promotes NO release from (I) in a manner mediated by NO(2) formation (at neutral pH) as in mammalian cells, followed by an oxygen atom transfer mechanism (OAT). The NO released from (I) uncoupled mitochondria at low concentrations/incubation times and inhibited the respiratory chain at high concentrations/incubation times. In the presence of ROS generated by mitochondria NO gave rise to peroxynitrite, which, in turn, inhibited the respiratory chain and oxidized membrane protein-thiols to elicit a Ca(2+)-independent mitochondrial permeability transition; this process was only partially inhibited by cyclosporine-A, almost fully inhibited by the thiol reagent N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) and fully inhibited by the NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO). These actions correlated with the release of cytochrome c from isolated mitochondria as detected by Western blotting analysis. These events, typically involved in cell necrosis and/or apoptosis denote a potential specific action of (I) and analogs against tumor cells via mitochondria-mediated processes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SET protein (I2PP2A) is an inhibitor of PP2A, which regulates the phosphorylated Akt (protein kinase B) levels. We assessed the effects of SET overexpression in HEK293T cells, both in the presence and the absence of mild oxidative stress induced by 50 μM tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Immunoblotting assays demonstrated that SET accumulated in HEK293T cells and increased the levels of phosphorylated Akt and PTEN; in addition, SET decreased glutathione antioxidant defense of cell and increased expression of genes encoding antioxidant defense proteins. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated that accumulated SET was equally distributed in cytoplasm and nucleus; however, in cells that had been exposed to oxidative stress, SET was found in large aggregates in the cytoplasm. SET accumulation in HEK293T cells correlated with inhibition of basal apoptosis as evidenced by a decrease in annexin V staining and activity of caspases; under mild oxidative stress, SET accumulation correlated with caspase-independent cell death, as evidenced by increased PI and annexin V/PI double staining. The results suggest that accumulated SET could act via Akt/PTEN either as cell survival signal or as oxidative stress sensor for cell death.
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 12/2011; 363(1-2):65-74. · 2.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The vitamin E derivative (+)α-tocopheryl succinate (α-TOS) exerts pro-apoptotic effects in a wide range of tumors and is well tolerated by normal tissues. Previous studies point to a mitochondrial involvement in the action mechanism; however, the early steps have not been fully elucidated. In a model of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) derived from hCG-PML-RARα transgenic mice, we demonstrated that α-TOS is as effective as arsenic trioxide or all-trans retinoic acid, the current gold standards of therapy. We also demonstrated that α-TOS induces an early dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential in APL cells and studies with isolated mitochondria revealed that this action may result from the inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I. Moreover, α-TOS promoted accumulation of reactive oxygen species hours before mitochondrial cytochrome c release and caspases activation. Therefore, an in vivo antileukemic action and a novel mitochondrial target were revealed for α-TOS, as well as mitochondrial respiratory complex I was highlighted as potential target for anticancer therapy.
Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 08/2011; 26(3):451-60. · 10.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Guttiferone-A (GA) is a natural occurring polyisoprenylated benzophenone with cytotoxic action in vitro and anti-tumor action in rodent models. We addressed a potential involvement of mitochondria in GA toxicity (1-25 μM) toward cancer cells by employing both hepatic carcinoma (HepG2) cells and succinate-energized mitochondria, isolated from rat liver. In HepG2 cells GA decreased viability, dissipated mitochondrial membrane potential, depleted ATP and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. In isolated rat-liver mitochondria GA promoted membrane fluidity increase, cyclosporine A/EGTA-insensitive membrane permeabilization, uncoupling (membrane potential dissipation/state 4 respiration rate increase), Ca²⁺ efflux, ATP depletion, NAD(P)H depletion/oxidation and ROS levels increase. All effects in cells, except mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation, as well as NADPH depletion/oxidation and permeabilization in isolated mitochondria, were partly prevented by the a NAD(P)H regenerating substrate isocitrate. The results suggest the following sequence of events: 1) GA interaction with mitochondrial membrane promoting its permeabilization; 2) mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation; 3) NAD(P)H oxidation/depletion due to inability of membrane potential-sensitive NADP+ transhydrogenase of sustaining its reduced state; 4) ROS accumulation inside mitochondria and cells; 5) additional mitochondrial membrane permeabilization due to ROS; and 6) ATP depletion. These GA actions are potentially implicated in the well-documented anti-cancer property of GA/structure related compounds.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 06/2011; 253(3):282-9. · 3.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The reduction of neutrophil migration to an infectious focus is associated with a high mortality in severe sepsis. Previously, we showed that heme oxygenase (HO) products downregulate neutrophil recruitment in a noninfectious inflammatory model. The present study was designed to determine the role of HO in sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model. We demonstrated that pretreatment, but not the combination of pretreatment plus posttreatment with zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP IX), an HO inhibitor, prevented the reduction of CXCR2 on circulating neutrophils and the failure of intraperitoneal neutrophil migration to the site of infection. Consequently, bacterial dissemination, systemic inflammatory response, and organ injury were prevented. In addition, pretreatment with the HO inhibitor avoided hypotension and consequently increased survival. Moreover, in mice subjected to severe CLP, the pretreatment, but not the combination of pretreatment plus posttreatment with ZnPP IX, prevented the increase of plasmatic free heme observed in nontreated severe CLP. The administration of exogenous hemin to mice subjected to moderate sepsis consistently increased the mortality rate. Furthermore, hemin resulted in a reduction of neutrophil migration both in vivo and in vitro. Altogether, our results demonstrated that pretreatment with the HO inhibitor prevents the pathological findings in severe CLP. However, the combination of pretreatment plus posttreatment with ZnPP IX enhances sepsis severity because of an increase in circulating levels of heme, which is deleterious to the host tissues and also inhibits neutrophil migration.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have used two different probes with distinct detection properties, dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and Amplex Red/horseradish peroxidase, as well as different respiratory substrates and electron transport chain inhibitors, to characterize the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by the respiratory chain in calcium-overloaded mitochondria. Regardless of the respiratory substrate, calcium stimulated the mitochondrial generation of ROS, which were released at both the mitochondrial-matrix side and the extra-mitochondrial space, in a way insensitive to the mitochondrial permeability transition pores inhibitor cyclosporine A. In glutamate/malate-energized mitochondria, inhibition at complex I or complex III (ubiquinone cycle) similarly modulated ROS generation at either mitochondrial-matrix side or extra-mitochondrial space; this also occurred when the backflow of electrons to complex I in succinate-energized mitochondria was inhibited. On the other hand, in succinate-energized mitochondria the modulation of ROS generation at mitochondrial-matrix side or extra-mitochondrial space depends on the site of complex III which was inhibited. These results allow a straight comparison between the effects of different respiratory substrates and electron transport chain inhibitors on ROS generation at either mitochondrial-matrix side or extra-mitochondrial space in calcium-overloaded mitochondria.
Redox report: communications in free radical research 01/2011; 16(3):108-13. · 1.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nemorosone, a natural-occurring polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinol, has received increasing attention due to its strong in vitro anti-cancer action. Here, we have demonstrated the toxic effect of nemorosone (1-25 μM) on HepG2 cells by means of the MTT assay, as well as early mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation and ATP depletion in this cancer cell line. In mitochondria isolated from rat liver, nemorosone (50-500 nM) displayed a protonophoric uncoupling activity, showing potency comparable to the classic protonophore, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP). Nemorosone enhanced the succinate-supported state 4 respiration rate, dissipated mitochondrial membrane potential, released Ca(2+) from Ca(2+)-loaded mitochondria, decreased Ca(2+) uptake and depleted ATP. The protonophoric property of nemorosone was attested by the induction of mitochondrial swelling in hyposmotic K(+)-acetate medium in the presence of valinomycin. In addition, uncoupling concentrations of nemorosone in the presence of Ca(2+) plus ruthenium red induced the mitochondrial permeability transition process. Therefore, nemorosone is a new potent protonophoric mitochondrial uncoupler and this property is potentially involved in its toxicity on cancer cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial membrane carriers containing proline and cysteine, such as adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT), are potential targets of cyclophilin D (CyP-D) and potential Ca(2+)-induced permeability transition pore (PTP) components or regulators; CyP-D, a mitochondrial peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase, is the probable target of the PTP inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA). In the present study, the impact of proline isomerization (from trans to cis) on the mitochondrial membrane carriers containing proline and cysteine was addressed using ANT as model. For this purpose, two different approaches were used: (i) Molecular dynamic (MD) analysis of ANT-Cys(56) relative mobility and (ii) light scattering techniques employing rat liver isolated mitochondria to assess both Ca(2+)-induced ANT conformational change and mitochondrial swelling. ANT-Pro(61) isomerization increased ANT-Cys(56) relative mobility and, moreover, desensitized ANT to the prevention of this effect by ADP. In addition, Ca(2+) induced ANT "c" conformation and opened PTP; while the first effect was fully inhibited, the second was only attenuated by CsA or ADP. Atractyloside (ATR), in turn, stabilized Ca(2+)-induced ANT "c" conformation, rendering the ANT conformational change and PTP opening less sensitive to the inhibition by CsA or ADP. These results suggest that Ca(2+) induces the ANT "c" conformation, apparently associated with PTP opening, but requires the CyP-D peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity for sustaining both effects.
Journal of Bioenergetics 08/2010; 42(4):329-35. · 1.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Monocrotaline (MCT) is a pyrrolizidine alkaloid present in plants of the genus Crotalaria that causes cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in animals and humans. It is well established that the toxicity of MCT results from its hepatic bioactivation to dehydromonocrotaline (DHM), an alkylating agent, but the exact mechanism of action remains unknown. In a previous study, we demonstrated DHM's inhibition of mitochondrial NADH-dehydrogenase activity at micromolar concentrations, which is an effect associated with a significant reduction in ATP synthesis. As a follow-up study, we have evaluated the ability of DHM to induce mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) and its associated processes in isolated rat liver mitochondria. In the presence of 10 microM Ca(2+), DHM (50-250 microM) elicited MPT in a concentration-dependent, but cyclosporine A-independent manner, as assessed by mitochondrial swelling, which is associated with mitochondrial Ca(2+) efflux and cytochrome c release. DHM (50-250 microM) did not cause hydrogen peroxide accumulation but did deplete endogenous glutathione and NAD(P)H, while oxidizing protein thiol groups. These results potentially indicate the involvement of mitochondria, via apoptosis, in the well-documented cytotoxicity of monocrotaline.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The oxidation of critical cysteines/related thiols of adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) is believed to be an important event of the Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), a process mediated by a cyclosporine A/ADP-sensitive permeability transition pores (PTP) opening. We addressed the ANT-Cys(56) relative mobility status resulting from the interaction of ANT/surrounding cardiolipins with Ca(2+) and/or ADP by means of computational chemistry analysis (Molecular Interaction Fields and Molecular Dynamics studies), supported by classic mitochondrial swelling assays. The following events were predicted: (i) Ca(2+) interacts preferentially with the ANT surrounding cardiolipins bound to the H4 helix of translocase, (ii) weakens the cardiolipins/ANT interactions and (iii) destabilizes the initial ANT-Cys(56) residue increasing its relative mobility. The binding of ADP that stabilizes the conformation "m" of ANT and/or cardiolipin, respectively to H5 and H4 helices, could stabilize their contacts with the short helix h56 that includes Cys(56), accounting for reducing its relative mobility. The results suggest that Ca(2+) binding to adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT)-surrounding cardiolipins in c-state of the translocase enhances (ANT)-Cys(56) relative mobility and that this may constitute a potential critical step of Ca(2+)-induced PTP opening.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 02/2009; 1787(3):176-82. · 4.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ruthenium nitrosyl complex trans-[Ru(NO)(NH(3))(4)(py)](PF(6))(3) (pyNO), a nitric oxide (NO) donor, was studied in regard to the release of NO and its impact both on isolated mitochondria and HepG2 cells. In isolated mitochondria, NO release from pyNO was concomitant with NAD(P)H oxidation and, in the 25-100 microM range, it resulted in dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential, inhibition of state 3 respiration, ATP depletion and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. In the presence of Ca(2+), mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), an unspecific membrane permeabilization involved in cell necrosis and some types of apoptosis, was elicited. As demonstrated by externalization of phosphatidylserine and activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, pyNO (50-100 microM) induced HepG2 cell death, mainly by apoptosis. The combined action of the NO itself, the peroxynitrite yielded by NO in the presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the oxidative stress generated by the NAD(P)H oxidation is proposed to be involved in cell death by pyNO, both via respiratory chain inhibition and ROS levels increase, or even via MPT, if Ca(2+) is present.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondria are important intracellular sources and targets of reactive oxygen species (ROS), while flavonoids, a large group of secondary plant metabolites, are important antioxidants. Following our previous study on the energetics of mitochondria exposed to the flavonoids quercetin, taxifolin, catechin and galangin, the present work addressed the antioxidant activity of these compounds (1-50 micromol/L) on Fe(2+)/citrate-mediated membrane lipid peroxidation (LPO) in isolated rat liver mitochondria, running in parallel studies of their antioxidant activity in non-organelle systems. Only quercetin inhibited the respiratory chain of mitochondria and only galangin caused uncoupling. Quercetin and galangin were far more potent than taxifolin and catechin in affording protection against LPO (IC(50) = 1.23 +/- 0.27 and 2.39 +/- 0.79 micromol/L, respectively), although only quercetin was an effective scavenger of both 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide radicals. These results, together with the previous study, suggest that the 2,3-double bond in conjugation with the 4-oxo function in the flavonoid structure are major determinants of the antioxidant activity of flavonoids in mitochondria, the presence of an o-di-OH structure on the B-ring, as occurs in quercetin, favours this activity via superoxide scavenging, while the absence of this structural feature in galangin, favours it via a decrease in membrane fluidity and/or mitochondrial uncoupling.
Phytotherapy Research 09/2008; 22(9):1213-8. · 2.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An enantioselective method using liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) followed by HPLC analysis was developed for the determination of oxybutynin (OXY) and its major metabolite N-desethyloxybutynin (DEO) in rat liver microsomal fraction. The LPME procedure was optimized using multifactorial experiments. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the mean recoveries were 61 and 55% for (R)-OXY and (S)-OXY, respectively, and 70 and 76% for (R)-DEO and (S)-DEO, respectively. The validated method was employed to an in vitro biotransformation study using rat liver microsomal fraction. The results demonstrated the enantioselective biotransformation of OXY.
Journal of Chromatography B 06/2008; 875(1):161-7. · 2.49 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toluene and xylene are chemicals present in various laboratory and other industrial products. Their toxicity to the nervous system and to the liver has been well documented. In the present work, we have studied in vitro effects of toluene and xylene on the respiration of succinate-energized isolated rat liver mitochondria, membrane potential, Ca2+ release, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and ATP levels. Also Ca2+-dependent, cyclosporine A-sensitive mitochondrial swelling, an indicator of mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), was studied. At 0.5-2.5 and 0.25-1mM concentrations respectively, toluene and xylene stimulated state 4 respiration in apparent association with mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation and Ca2+ release; these actions of both solvents are consistent with mitochondrial uncoupling. At higher concentrations (2.5 and 5mM, respectively) toluene and xylene also inhibited state 3 respiration. At 0.1-1mM concentrations, xylene elicited significant increase of ROS generation and partly Ca2+-dependent cyclosporine A-sensitive mitochondrial swelling. At 1 mM concentration, toluene or xylene caused depletions of mitochondrial ATP, amounting to 66.3% and 40.3%, respectively; depletions were only slightly dependent on Ca2+. It was concluded that mitochondrial uncoupling via ATP depletion might be responsible for the cell toxicity of toluene described earlier and in particular, of xylene. In the case of xylene, mitochondrial ROS generation and MPT also appear to be involved.
Toxicology in Vitro 09/2007; 21(5):782-8. · 2.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported that the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, nimesulide (N-[4-nitro-2-phenoxyphenyl]-methanesulfonamide), is an uncoupler and oxidizes NAD(P)H in isolated rat liver mitochondria, triggering mitochondrial Ca2+ efflux or, if this effect is inhibited, eliciting mitochondrial permeability transition (Mingatto et al., Br. J. Pharmacol. 131:1154-1160, 2000). We presently demonstrated that nimesulide's hydroxylated metabolite (4-hydroxy nimesulide) lacks the uncoupling property of the parent drug, while keeping its ability to oxidize mitochondrial NADPH. In the presence of 10 microM Ca2+, low (5-50 microM) concentrations of 4-hydroxy nimesulide elicited mitochondrial permeability transition, as assessed by cyclosporin A-sensitive mitochondrial swelling, associated with mitochondrial Ca2+ efflux/membrane potential dissipation (Deltapsi), apparently occurring on account of the oxidation of mitochondrial protein thiols; no involvement of reactive oxygen species was observed. While nimesulide (0.5 or 1 mM, 30 h incubation) did not lead to significant HepG2 cell death, 4-hydroxy nimesulide caused a low extent (approximately 15%) of cell necrosis, partly prevented by cyclosporine A, suggesting the involvement of mitochondrial permeability transition. Both nimesulide and 4-hydroxy nimesulide caused NADPH oxidation and Deltapsi dissipation in HepG2 cells. Because such Deltapsi dissipation induced by the metabolite was almost completely inhibited by cyclosporine A, it probably results from the mitochondrial permeability transition. Therefore, mitochondrial permeability transition, in apparent association with NADPH oxidation, constitutes the most probable cause of HepG2 cell death elicited by 4-hydroxy nimesulide.
European Journal of Pharmacology 08/2007; 566(1-3):43-9. · 2.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Environmental risks involved with the application of polybrominated diphenyl ethers as flame retardants Flame retardants are additives of combustible materials, such as plastics, textile, electronic circuitry, wood and paper providing resistance to the combustion process when exposed to fire and high temperature. The main flame retardants used are inorganic chemicals (such as antimony oxides), organic phosphate esters with or without halogens, and chlorinated and brominated organic compounds. The brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are largely used due to its efficiency and low cost. The most used flame retardants are the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), produced in large-scale whose degradation is very difficult. Thus, they have been found in many different environmental samples. These observations suggest the current destination of these substances is still devoid of recycling or specific treatment. Despite the increased application in oil polymers, little is known about its impact upon the ecosystem. In this review, we provide an overview about the use and risks related to PBDEs as a recognized toxicants found in industries.