[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: We used Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate the causal relationship between maternal homocysteine level, as represented by maternal methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T genotype, with the birth weight of offspring.Methods: We recruited women at 24 to 28 weeks' gestation who visited Ewha Womans University Hospital for prenatal care during the period from August 2001 to December 2003. A total of 473 newborns with a gestational age of at least 37 weeks were analyzed in this study. We excluded twin births and children of women with a history of gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, or chronic renal disease. The association of maternal homocysteine concentration with the birth weight of infants was analyzed using 2-stage regression.Results: MTHFR C677T genotype showed a dose-response association with homocysteine concentration for each additional T allele (Ptrend < 0.01). Birth weight decreased from 120 to 130 grams as maternal homocysteine level increased, while controlling for confounding factors; however, the association was of marginal significance (P = 0.06).Conclusions: Our results suggest an adverse relationship between maternal homocysteine level and birth weight. A reduction in homocysteine levels might positively affect birth outcomes.
Journal of Epidemiology 07/2013; · 2.11 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Background and Objective: We aimed to investigate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and anthropometric indicators of adiposity among Korean preadolescent children aged 7-9 years. Subjects and Methods: Children aged 7 to 9 from the Ewha Birth & Growth Cohort were followed up from July to August 2011. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was measured using radio immunoassay. We assessed the magnitude of cross-sectional association with vitamin D concentrations and indicators of adiposity [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), mid-arm circumference (MAC), body fat mass (BFM), percent body fat (PBF), and triceps skinfold thickness (TSF)] using multiple linear and logistic regression analyses adjusted for sex, age, birth order, maternal education, and fruit/fruit juice intake. Results: Thirty-two (16%) out of a total of 205 children showed an optimal level of serum 25(OH)D, but most children did not reach a sufficient level (<30 ng/mL) even in summer. The level of 25(OH)D was inversely associated with BMI (β=-0.10, p<0.01), WC (β=-0.28, p<0.01), and BFM (β=-0.12, p=0.02) after adjusting for confounding factors and showed marginal boundary with PBF (β=-0.20, p=0.06) and TSF (β=-0.11, p=0.08). Regarding the risk of overweight, a 13% protective effect per 1 ng/mL increase of 25(OH)D was shown even after adjusting for relevant confounding factors (adjusted odds ratio=0.87, 95% confidence interval 0.78-0.98). Conclusions: We found that the 25(OH)D concentrations were inversely associated with adiposity indices in preadolescent children. This study suggests that adequate vitamin D intake in growing children is crucial to maintain an optimal vitamin D level to prevent obesity and obesity-related health problems later in life.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is thought to contribute to pulmonary hypertension. We aimed to investigate the effect of infliximab (TNF-α antagonist) treatment on pathologic findings and gene expression in a monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension rat model.
Six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to 3 groups: control (C), single subcutaneous injection of normal saline (0.1 mL/kg); monocrotaline (M), single subcutaneous injection of monocrotaline (60 mg/kg); and monocrotaline + infliximab (M+I), single subcutaneous injection of monocrotaline plus single subcutaneous injection of infliximab (5 mg/kg). The rats were sacrificed after 1, 5, 7, 14, or 28 days. We examined changes in pathology and gene expression levels of TNF-α, endothelin-1 (ET-1), endothelin receptor A (ERA), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)2, and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP).
The increase in medial wall thickness of the pulmonary arteriole in the M+I group was significantly lower than that in the M group on day 7 after infliximab treatment (P<0.05). The number of intra-acinar muscular arteries in the M+I group was lower than that in the M group on days 14 and 28 (P<0.05). Expression levels of TNF-α, ET-1, ERA, and MMP2 were significantly lower in the M+I group than in the M group on day 5, whereas eNOS and TIMP expressions were late in the M group (day 28).
Infliximab administration induced early changes in pathological findings and expression levels of TNF-α, and MMP2 in a monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension rat model.
Korean Journal of Pediatrics 03/2013; 56(3):116-24.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the effect of urinary bisphenol A (BPA) on repeated measurements of androgenic hormones and metabolic indices, we used multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) adjusted for potential confounders at baseline. During July to August 2011, 80 preadolescent girls enrolled in the Ewha Birth & Growth Cohort study participated in a follow-up study and then forty-eight of them (60.0%) came back one year later. Baseline levels of estradiol and androstenedione were higher in the BPA group than in the non-BPA group. One year later, girls in the high BPA exposure group showed higher levels of androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol, and insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, than those in the other groups (p < 0.05). In MANOVA, estradiol and androstenedione showed significant differences among groups, while dehydroepiandrosterone, insulin, and HOMA-IR showed marginally significant differences. Exposure to BPA may affect endocrine metabolism in preadolescents. However, further investigation is required to elucidate the mechanisms linking BPA with regulation of androgenic hormones.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 01/2013; 10(11):5737-49. · 2.00 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Korea, there hasn't been any previous literature that describes auscultatory blood pressure (BP) normative tables for adolescents. Using BP data, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), we created normative auscultatory BP percentile tables for Korean adolescents.
A total of 3508 adolescents (boys 1852, girls 1656), aged 10-17 in 2001, 2005 and 2007 from the KNHANES database years, were included. Auscultatory BP measurement was performed, using a Baumanometer Mercury Gravity Sphygmomanometer.
The mean systolic BP of boys was higher than that of girls in adolescents older than 13 years of age, and the mean diastolic BP of boys was higher than that of girls in those older than 15 years. Systolic and diastolic BP was correlated with weight, height and age. Age-specific normative auscultatory systolic and diastolic BP percentiles for boys and girls were completed. The graph that showed age-specific prehypertensive and hypertensive systolic and diastolic BP for boys and girls was presented. For adolescents, the height-specific auscultatory BP percentiles for boys and girls were completed. A graph that shows the height-specific prehypertensive and hypertensive BP for boys and girls was also made.
The auscultatory age-and height-specific BP percentiles for Korean adolescents are established. These can be useful in screening the prehypertension and hypertension of Korean adolescents in a clinical setting.
Korean Circulation Journal 12/2012; 42(12):809-15.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity has reached epidemic proportions globally and affects people of all ages. Recent studies have shown that visceral adipose tissue measured by magnetic resonance imaging and/or computed tomography correlates positively with epicardial adipose tissue. Epicardial fat, which is correlated to several metabolic parameters, can be assessed by echocardiography. The aim of this study was to evaluate epicardial fat thickness and other metabolic parameters in obese adolescents and investigate the correlation between epicardial fat thickness and other metabolic parameters in obese adolescents.
We selected 99 subjects, between ages 15-17 years of age, to be enrolled in this study. Sixty five obese adolescents with a body mass index (BMI) >95 percentile and 34 control subjects were included in this study. Echocardiographic measurements including epicardial fat thickness as well as anthropometric and blood pressure (BP) measurements were performed. The following parameters were estimated: blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, free fatty acid, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, leptin, adiponectin and high sensitive C reactive protein.
The obese group showed a statistically significant correlation with echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness and, BMI, waist circumference, obesity index, fat percentage, systolic BP, insulin level, leptin and adiponectin. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed epicardial fat thickness as the most significant independent parameter to correlate with obese adolescents.
These data suggest that epicardial fat thickness measured by echocardiography is a practical and accurate parameter for predicting visceral obesity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dyslipidemia is one of the important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Thus, to know the prevalence of dyslipidemia is the 1(st) step to make guidelines of screening and management plan. Although, American Academy of Pediatrics updated the guidelines for lipid in childhood, Asian study is rare.
The authors aimed to make a reference of each serum lipid level of Korean children and adolescents (2,363 subjects aged 10 to 18 years) from the data of Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV (2007-2009).
The mean serum concentrations for total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were 158 mg/dL, 90 mg/dL, 90 mg/dL, and 49 mg/dL, respectively. The 95th percentile values for TC, LDL-C, and TG were 203 mg/dL, 129 mg/dL, and 185 mg/dL, respectively. The 5th percentile value for HDL-C was 36 mg/dL. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, high LDL-C, high TG, and low HDL-C was 6.5%, 4.7%, 10.1%, and 7.1%, respectively. Considering the risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, smoking, and diabetes, approximately 0.41% of the subjects were potentially eligible for pharmacological treatment.
This information may be useful in not only Korean but also Asian planning programs for the prevention of cardiovascular disease through lipid control from childhood.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(12):e49253. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The growth assessment of bone age (BA) is an essential feature in diagnosing various diseases in children. In the clinic, the Tanner and Whitehouse (TW3) method and the Greulich-Pyle (GP) method are used to estimate bone age. Because those methods were developed for foreign children, it is necessary to evaluate the applicability of those methods to Koreans.
This study was designed (1) to compare the skeletal maturity score (SMS) in Koreans to the SMS in foreign children, and (2) to establish a correlation between the BA and chronological age (CA) on the basis of gender and age in normal Korean children.
We estimated the SMS and BA for 378 healthy children (141 boys and 237 girls) who visited the pediatrics clinic in Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital (Seoul, Korea) from 2000 to 2009. The SMS and BA were estimated using the TW3 and GP methods.
The SMS in Koreans was higher than in foreign children, and on average, the BA measured by both methods was higher than the CA. The correlation between the BA and CA were different according to gender and age.
We suggest that there are differences between the SMS in Korean and foreign children and between the BA and CA. Therefore, the results can be used in evaluating the skeletal maturity of Koreans, and a correlation between the BA and CA would be a useful reference in diagnosis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our study aimed to evaluated sex differences in clinical features of obese high school students.
One hundred three obese high school students (body mass index [BMI]≥85th percentile) and 51 control students (BMI<85th percentile) were enrolled in this study. Anthropometric measurements were performed. Fasting serum glucose, insulin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and high-sensitive C-reactive protein were measured. Abdominal fat thickness, degree of fatty liver, and carotid intima-media thickness were measured by ultrasound.
In control and obese groups, waist circumference was significantly longer in boys but body fat mass was significantly higher in girls. In the control group, total cholesterol and LDL-C were higher in girls. In the obese group, however, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and triglyceride were higher and HDL-C was lower in boys. Preperitoneal fat thickness was significantly higher in obese girls. In obese group, the degree of fatty liver was significantly higher in boys. Carotid intima-media thickness was not significantly different between boys and girls.
Obese adolescents had distinguishable sex differences in body measurements, metabolic abnormalities, abdominal fat thickness and fatty liver. We can infer that these characteristics may extend into adult obesity.
Korean Journal of Pediatrics 07/2011; 54(7):292-7.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kawasaki disease (KD) is the main cause of acquired heart disease in children. In addition to cardiovascular involvement, many complications have been recognized in KD. However, respiratory complications have been rarely reported. We investigated the differences in clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, radiography findings, and echocardiography findings of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection and other types of pneumonia in KD patients.
Among 358 patients with KD, 54 developed concurrent pneumonia. Among the 54 patients, 12 (22.2%) with high titers of anti-M. pneumoniae antibody (AMA) (>1:640) were grouped in the M. pneumoniae group and 42 were included in the control group. Serum AMA was measured in each patient. Clinical laboratory findings and total duration of fever were analyzed.
The duration of fever, serum hemoglobin, white blood cell count, platelet count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein level, albumin level, and the incidence of coronary arterial lesions showed no statistical difference in the 2 groups. Neutrophil count was significantly higher in the M. pneumoniae group than in the control group. Among various radiography findings observed in pneumonia, consolidation and pleural effusion were more frequent in the M. pneumoniae group than in the control group. On the other hand, parahilar peribronchial opacification, diffuse interstitial lesion, and normal findings prevailed in the control group.
KD patients can have concurrent infections, especially pulmonary symptoms. The cause of KD is likely to be associated with M. pneumoniae infection. Thus, immediate treatment of M. pneumoniae infection in KD patients is very important.
Korean Journal of Pediatrics 03/2011; 54(3):123-7.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of hyponatremia (serum sodium <135 mEq/L) in Kawasaki disease (KD) remains unclear. We investigated the clinical significance of hyponatremia, and the role of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β in the development of hyponatremia and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) in KD.
Fifty KD patients were prospectively enrolled and analyzed for clinical and laboratory variables according to the presence of hyponatremia or SIADH.
Thirteen KD patients (26%) had hyponatremia and 6 of these had SIADH. In patients with hyponatremia, the percentage of neutrophils (% neutrophils), C-reactive protein (CRP), and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were higher than in those without hyponatremia, while serum triiodothyronine (T3) and albumin were lower. Patients with hyponatremia had a higher incidence of intravenous immunoglobulin-resistance but this was not statistically significant. No differences existed between patients with and without SIADH with regard to clinical or laboratory variables and the incidence of IVIG-resistance. Serum sodium inversely correlated with % neutrophils, CRP, and NT-proBNP, and positively correlated with T3 and albumin. Serum IL-6 and IL-1β levels increased in KD patients and were higher in patients with hyponatremia. Plasma antidiuretic hormone increased in patients with SIADH, which tended to positively correlate with IL-6 and IL-1β levels.
Hyponatremia occurs in KD patients with severe inflammation, while increased IL-6 and IL-1β may activate ADH secretion, leading to SIADH and hyponatremia in KD.
Korean Circulation Journal 10/2010; 40(10):507-13.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endothelin (ET)-1, a potent endothelium-derived vasoconstrictor peptide, has a potential pathophysiologic role in pulmonary hypertension. Bosentan, a dual ET receptor (ET(A)/ET(B)) antagonist, is efficacious in treatment of pulmonary hypertension. The objectives of this study were to investigate the expression of ET-1 and ET receptor A (ERA) genes and to evaluate the effect of bosentan in monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary hypertension.
Four-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated as follows: control (n=36), subcutaneous (sc) injection of saline; MCT (n=36), sc injection of MCT (60 mg/kg); and bosentan (n=36), sc injection of MCT (60 mg/kg) plus 25 mg/kg/day bosentan orally.
Serum ET-1 concentrations in the MCT group were higher than the control group on day 28 and 42. Quantitative analysis of peripheral pulmonary arteries revealed that the increase in medial wall thickness after MCT injection was significantly attenuated in the bosentan group on day 28 and 42. In addition, the increase in the number of intra-acinar muscular arteries after MCT injection was reduced by bosentan on day 14, 28 and 42. The levels of ET-1 and ERA gene expression were significantly increased in the MCT group compared with control group on day 5, and bosentan decreased the expression of ET-1 on day 5.
ET-1 contributes to the progression of cardiopulmonary pathology in rats with MCT-induced pulmonary hypertension. Administration of bosentan reduced ET-1 gene expression in MCT-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) is a common viral illness in children, which is usually mild and self-limiting. However, in recent epidemics of HFMD in Asia, enterovirus 71 (EV71) has been recognized as a causative agent with severe neurological symptoms with or without cardiopulmonary involvement. HFMD was epidemic in Korea in the spring of 2009. Severe cases with complications including death have been reported. The clinical characteristics in children with neurologic manifestations of EV71 were studied in Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital.
Examinations for EV71 were performed from the stools, respiratory secretion or CSF of children who presented neurologic symptoms associated with HFMD by realtime PCR. Clinical and radiologic data of the patients were collected and analyzed.
EV71 was isolated from the stool of 16 patients but not from respiratory secretion or CSF. Among the 16 patients, meningitis (n=10) was the most common manifestation, followed by Guillain-Barré syndrome (n=3), meningoencephalitis (n=2), poliomyelitis-like paralytic disease (n=1), and myoclonus (n=1). Gene analysis showed that most of them were caused by EV71 subgenotype C4a, which was prevalent in China in 2008.
Because EV71 causes severe complications and death in children, a surveillance system to predict upcoming outbreaks should be established and maintained and adequate public health measures are needed to control disease.
Korean Journal of Pediatrics 05/2010; 53(5):639-43.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is a chronic disease that requires good eating habits and an active life style. Obesity may start in childhood and continue until adulthood. Severely obese children have complications such as diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension and atherosclerosis. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of exercise programs on anthropometric, metabolic, and cardiovascular parameters in obese children.
Fifty four obese children were included. Anthropometric data such as blood pressures, body mass index (BMI) and obesity index (OI) were measured. Blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), high sensitive-CRP (hs-CRP), brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (BaPWV) and ankle brachial index (ABI) were measured. Physical fitness measurements were done. Obese children were divided into three groups: an aerobic exercise group (n=16), a combined exercise group (n=20), and a control group (n=18). Obese children exercised in each program for 10 weeks while those in the control group maintained their former lifestyle. After 10 weeks, anthropometric data and cardiovascular parameters were compared with the data obtained before the exercise program.
LDL-C, waist circumference, and systolic blood pressure decreased significantly in the aerobic exercise group compared to the control group (p<0.05). Waist circumference and systolic blood pressure decreased significantly in the combined exercise group compared to controls (p<0.05). Physical fitness level increased significantly after the exercise programs (p<0.05 vs. control). PWV did not show a significant change after exercise.
A short-term exercise program can play an important role in decreasing BMI, blood pressure, waist circumference, LDL-C and in improving physical fitness. Future investigations are now necessary to clarify the effectiveness of exercise on various parameters.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: At birth, the fetal circulation must immediately adapt to extrauterine life. Our goal was to evaluate perinatal changes in the size of the aorta (Ao) and pulmonary artery (PA), and to investigate factors influencing these changes.
Aortic and PA diameters were measured by echocardiography in 50 healthy term babies one day before and 4 to 5 days after birth.
Compared with prenatal measurements, the Ao increased (from 7.4+/-0.6 mm to 8.4+/-0.6 mm, p<0.01) and the PA decreased (from 9.5+/-0.8 mm to 8.7+/-0.8 mm, p<0.01) in size after birth. The Ao/PA ratio increased from 0.78+/-0.07 before birth to 0.97+/-0.08 after birth (p<0.01), but there was no significant difference in the sum of the diameters of the great arteries between pre- and postnatal measurements. Postnatal increases in aortic size correlated negatively with prenatal aortic diameter (r=-0.37, p<0.05), but was not related to body weight. According to multiple regression analysis, significant variables for predicting perinatal changes in size of the Ao and PA were the prenatal Ao/PA ratio and the prenatal PA diameter, respectively.
Despite a difference existing in prenatal diameters between Ao and PA, circulatory changes at birth make the great artery sizes equal, and do so regardless of body weight.