Qing-Ri Cao

Soochow University (PRC), Wu-hsien, Jiangsu Sheng, China

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Publications (24)66.28 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to optimize the process variables of zanamivir-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) and to predict their cellular transport across Caco-2 cell monolayers. Zanamivir-loaded SLNs were prepared by a double emulsion solvent evaporation method. The effects of process variables on the mean particle size and zeta potential of SLNs were investigated and the physicochemical properties of SLNs were characterized. In addition, the cytotoxicity and transport ability of SLNs were also studied in Caco-2 cell model. The mean particle size of drug-loaded SLNs was significantly affected by the process variables. The SLNs were prepared using glyceryl monosterate (1% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) or 1.5% poloxamer 188 as surfactant) had a regular shape with a relatively lower mean particle size (324.2 and 224.9 nm, respectively), higher encapsulation efficacy (55.7 and 42.4%, respectively) and sustained drug release over 12 h. The crystalline form of drug had been partly changed and no physicochemical interaction had occurred between drug and carriers in SLNs. The cell viability was approximately 100% even at a high concentration of blank SLNs. There was no remarkable difference in drug permeation between drug-loaded SLNs and drug solution at 2 h, while drug-loaded SLNs showed a significant decrease in drug permeation compared with the drug solution at 4 h. The process variables of zanamivir-loaded SLNs were successfully optimized in this study. However, these SLNs significantly reduced the transport ability of zanamivir across Caco-2 cell monolayers. Further studies are needed to fully understand the real absorption mechanism of developed SLNs.
    International Journal of Pharmaceutics 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2014.11.017 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Valsartan (VAL) shows poor oral bioavailability mainly as a result of its low water solubility at low pH. This study is designed to investigate the dissolution properties and physicochemical characteristics of novel PVP-based solid dispersions (SDs) containing VAL. The SDs were prepared with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP-K30) as a hydrophilic polymer, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as an alkalizer, and poloxamer 188 (F68) as a surfactant, without using any organic solvents by a freeze-drying method. The dissolution study was carried out and the physicochemical properties of SDs were also characterized by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The dissolution rates of SDs were significantly improved at pH1.2 and pH6.8 compared to that of pure drug. The results of physicochemical properties suggested that some interactions between VAL and carriers had occurred in the molecular level and the drug presented in the SDs was amorphous. It was concluded that the novel PVP-based SDs has been successfully prepared by a freeze-drying method, resulting in significant dissolution improvement of VAL.
    Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences 11/2014; 27(6):1799-1804. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This work was aimed to develop novel sildenafil citrate (SC)-loaded polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-polyethylene glycol (PEG) graft copolymer (Kollicoat(®) IR)-based orally dissolving films (ODFs) using a solvent casting method. Formulation factors such as plasticizers and disintegrants were optimized on the basis of characteristics of blank ODFs. The SC-loaded ODF with a loading capacity up to 6.25mg in an area of 6cm(2) was prepared and evaluated in terms of mechanical properties, disintegration time and dissolution rate. The physicochemical properties of drug-loaded ODF were also investigated using the scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The blank ODF composed of Kollicoat(®) IR, sodium alginate (ALG-Na) and glycerol (10:2:1.5, w/w) had a remarkably short disintegration time of about 20s. The SC-loaded ODF showed a delayed disintegration time (about 25s), but exhibited improved mechanical properties when compared to the blank ODF. SC was homogenously dispersed throughout the ODF and the crystalline form of drug had been partly changed, existing strong hydrogen bonding between the drug and carriers. The Kollicoat(®) IR/ALG-Na based ODFs containing SC might be an alternative to conventional tablet for the treatment of male erectile dysfunction.
    International Journal of Pharmaceutics 07/2014; 473(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2014.07.037 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this work, we developed a sildenafil citrate (SC)-loaded polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/sodium alginate (ALG-Na) based orodispersible film (ODF) using a solvent casting method. Formulation factors such as the type and amount of plasticizers and disintegrants were optimized on the basis of characteristics of blank ODF, including the disintegration time, elastic modulus (EM) and percentage of elongation (E%). SC-loaded ODF with a loading capacity up to 25 mg in an area of 6 cm2 was prepared and evaluated in terms of mechanical properties, disintegration time and dissolution rate. The surface morphology of ODF was visualized under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The physicochemical properties of ODF were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The blank ODF composed of PVA, polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400) and ALG-Na (20:5:2, w/w) had a remarkably short disintegration time of about 20 s. However, the loading of drug extended the disintegration time (100 s) of ODF, while it still maintained satisfactory mechanical properties. SC was homogenously dispersed throughout the films and the crystalline form of drug changed, with strong hydrogen bonding between the drug and carriers. The PVA/ALG-Na based ODF containing SC prepared by the simple solvent casting method might be an alternative to conventional SC tablets for the treatment of male erectile dysfunction.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract This study aimed to improve the dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of valsartan (VAL), a poorly soluble drug using solid dispersions (SDs). The SDs were prepared by a freeze-drying technique with polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000) and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC 100KV) as hydrophilic polymers, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as an alkalizer, and poloxamer 188 as a surfactant without using any organic solvents. In vitro dissolution rate and physicochemical properties of the SDs were characterized using the USP paddle method, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, respectively. In addition, the oral bioavailability of SDs in rats was evaluated by using VAL (pure drug) as a reference. The dissolution rates of the SDs were significantly improved at pH 1.2 and pH 6.8 compared to those of the pure drug. The results from DSC, XRD showed that VAL was molecularly dispersed in the SDs as an amorphous form. The FT-IR results suggested that intermolecular hydrogen bonding had formed between VAL and its carriers. The SDs exhibited significantly higher values of AUC0-24 h and Cmax in comparison with the pure drug. In conclusion, hydrophilic polymer-based SDs prepared by a freeze-drying technique can be a promising method to enhance dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of VAL.
    Drug Delivery 04/2014; DOI:10.3109/10717544.2014.903012 · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although the taste-masking of bitter drug using ion exchange resin has been recognized, in vitro testing using an electronic tongue (e-Tongue) and in vivo bitterness test by human panel test was not fully understood. In case of orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) containing bitter medicine, in vitro and in vivo disintegration is also importance for dosage performance. Donepezil hydrochloride was chosen as a model drug due to its bitterness and requires rapid disintegration for the preparation of ODT. In this study, ion exchange resin drug complex (IRDC) at three different ratios (1:2, 1:1, 2:1) was prepared using a spray-drying method and then IRDC-loaded ODT containing superdisintegrants (crospovidone, croscarmellose sodium, and sodium starch glycolate) were prepared by the direct compression method. The physical properties and morphologies were then characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (PXRD) and electrophoretic laser scattering (ELS), respectively. The in vitro taste-masking efficiency was measured with an electronic tongue (e-Tongue). In vivo bitterness scale was also evaluated by human volunteers and then we defined new term, "bitterness index (BI)" to link in vitro e-Tongue. There was a good correlation of IRDC between in vitro e-Tongue values and in vivo BI. Furthermore, IRDC-loaded ODT showed good in vitro/in vivo correlation in the disintegration time. The optimal IRDC-loaded ODTs displayed similar drug release profiles to the reference tablet (Aricept(®) ODT) in release media of pH 1.2, pH 4.0, pH 6.8 and distilled water but had significantly better palatability in vivo taste-masking evaluation. The current IRDC-loaded ODT according to the in vitro and in vivo correlation of disintegration and bitter taste masking could provide platforms in ODT dosage formulations of donepezil hydrochloride for improved patient compliances.
    International Journal of Pharmaceutics 08/2013; 455(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2013.07.072 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To prepare and evaluate dry powder inhalation (DPI) of extraction of Trollius chinensis Bunge (TCB). Orthodox design was employed to optimize the parameters of spray drying to prepare micronized TCB powder, the DPI was prepared by mixing micronized TCB powder and lactose. The results showed that the fine particle fraction (FPF) and emitted dose (ED) of micronized TCB powder was (21.07 +/- 1.74)%, (75.31 +/- 21.05)%, respectively, and for DPI was (56.4 +/- 2.2)%, (95.9 +/- 3.0)%, respectively. Therefore, the prepared DPI meeted requirements in the Chinese Pharmacopeia, indicating a good application prospect.
    Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica 07/2013; 38(13):2096-100.
  • Qi Si, Dan Wu, Qing-Ri Cao, Jing-Hao Cui
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to improve the stability and cover the unpleasant odor of valerian oil by preparation of beta-cyclodextrin inclusion complex. The preparation method was established based on the yield of inclusion complex and entrapment efficiency of valerian volatile oil. After that, the formulation and processing parameters were optimized by uniform design table. The formations of inclusion complex were validated by DSC and X-RD method. The stability of valerian oil beta-cyclodextrin inclusion was studied under stressed conditions. In conclusion, relatively high yield of inclusion complex and entrapment efficiency were obtained by saturated solution-ultrasonication method. Inclusion complex yield and entrapment efficiency of the valerian oil were (84.78 +/- 3.23)% and (86.23 +/- 2.48)%, which were prepared under the optimized conditions, respectively. The results of DSC and X-RD were indicated the formation of inclusion complex. The stability of test showed that the valerian oil-beta-cyclodextrin inclusion complex was improved significantly.
    Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica 07/2013; 38(14):2309-13.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract This study was performed to investigate the in vitro release characteristics of levodropropizine (LDP) from novel dual-coated sustained release (SR) pellets, and evaluate the pharmacokinetics of a novel controlled release (CR) preparation composed of the dual-coated SR pellets and immediate release (IR) LDP pellets. The dual-coated SR pellets composed of a drug-loaded nonpareil core, a sub-coating layer (HPMC 6cps) and an SR-coating layer (Aquacoat® ECD, Eudragit® RS 30D or Kollicoat® SR 30D) were prepared by a bottom-spray fluidized bed-coating method. The drug release from the dual-coated SR pellets coated with Aquacoat® ECD followed a zero-order profile in water, and the drug release was not affected by the coating level of the sub-coating layer and stable under the accelerated storage condition (40 °C, 75% RH) for 6 months. The CR preparation showed significantly decreased values of maximum drug concentration (Cmax) and elimination rate (K) than the reference product (LEVOTUS® SYR) but the similar bioavailability (F = 95.43%). The novel CR preparation presents promising delivery of LDP with an immediate and sustained release manner, with similar clinical effect as the commercial IR product.
    Pharmaceutical Development and Technology 03/2013; DOI:10.3109/10837450.2013.778871 · 1.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aims to observe the effects of gestational stage on the pharmacokinetics of puerarin after oral administration in rats. The pharmacokinetics of puerarin was studied in pregnant rats using a sensitive and reproducible high-performance liquid chromatography/ultraviolet method. The concentration-time curves in both normal and pregnant rats were fit into a two-compartment model. The results indicated that gestation influences the pharmacokinetics of puerarin at different levels, especially during the early stages of pregnancy. Furthermore, puerarin penetrates the placental barrier and maintains high concentrations in fetal rat plasma. Therefore, puerarin administration should be carefully considered in pregnant women.
    Fitoterapia 03/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.fitote.2013.03.004 · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC)-based sustained release (SR) tablets for tolterodine tartrate with a low drug release variation. Methods: The SR tablets were prepared by formulating a combination of different grades of HPMC as the gelling agents. The comparative dissolution study for the HPMC-based SR tablet as a test and Detrusitol(®) SR capsule as a reference was carried out, and the bioequivalence study of the two products was also conducted in human volunteers. Results: The amount of HPMC, the grade of HPMC and the combination ratio of different grades of HPMC had remarkable effects on drug release from the SR tablets. Both the test and reference products had no significant difference in terms of comparative dissolution patterns in four different media (f(2) > 50). Furthermore, the dissolution method and rotation speed showed no effects on the drug release from the two products. The 90% confidence intervals of the AUC(0-36) and C(max) ratios for the test and reference products were within the acceptable bioequivalence intervals of log0.8-log1.25. Conclusions: A HPMC-based SR tablet for tolterodine tartrate with a low release variation was successfully developed, which was bioequivalent to Detrusitol(®) SR capsule.
    Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy 10/2012; DOI:10.3109/03639045.2012.730528 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to develop novel mucoadhesive pellets containing valsartan (VAL) with enhanced oral bioavailability. Two types of VAL loaded core pellets were prepared by an extrusion/spheronization method, and further dry-coated with a mixture of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and carbomer (CB) at different ratios. The effects of the pellet core composition, HPMC:CB ratio and coating level on the drug release from the coated pellets were investigated. The physicochemical properties of the core and coated pellets were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). In addition, the in vitro and in vivo mucoadhesion properties as well as the bioavailability of the coated pellets in rats were evaluated by using VAL suspension and core pellets as control preparations. The results of the release study demonstrated that the two types of core pellets, especially the pellets formulated with a solubilizer and a pH modulator gave considerably faster drug release than the VAL powder. However, the core and coated pellets exhibited similar release profiles indicating that the dry powder-coating did not retard the drug release. Strong molecular interactions were observed between the drug and the carriers in FT-IR analysis. The coated pellets displayed distinct mucoadhesive property in vitro and delayed gastrointestinal (GI) transit in vivo. Furthermore, the coated pellets exhibit significantly higher AUC(0-12h) and C(max), as compared to the core pellets and drug suspension. It was concluded that the mucoadhesive pellets could render poorly water soluble drugs like VAL with a rapid drug release, delayed GI transit and enhanced oral bioavailability.
    International Journal of Pharmaceutics 06/2012; 434(1-2):325-33. DOI:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2012.05.076 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mannose modified chitosan (MAN-CS) treated poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles were prepared by the double emulsification method and used for FITC-OVA delivery. The effects of incubation period, NPs concentration and mannose on the uptake of NPs by macrophages were studied with a fluorescence microplate reader, flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM).
    Journal of Controlled Release 11/2011; 152 Suppl 1:e190-1. DOI:10.1016/j.jconrel.2011.08.082 · 7.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of food components and dosing time on the oral exposure of nifedipine in rats. Nifedipine was given orally to rats with and without food components at 8:00a.m. (morning time) or 4:00p.m. (evening time) during winter periods. Food components included milk, sodium chloride, oleic acid, and sodium taurocholate. Plasma concentration profiles of nifedipine showed double peak phenomena which were generally retained regardless of food components, vehicle types and the dosing time. Sodium chloride, milk and sodium taurocholate significantly increased the AUC while oleic acid did not, when drug was dosed in the morning time. After the dosing in the evening time, milk and sodium chloride significantly increased the plasma concentrations of nifedipine but oleic acid and sodium taurocholate decreased them. Overall, the systemic in vivo exposure of nifedipine was invariably lower with the evening dosing compared to the dosing in the morning, but this circadian rhythm dependency was not reversed by the multiple dosing of food components in rats. Food components and dosing time significantly altered the oral pharmacokinetics of nifedipine in rats, implying that the altered bioavailability and higher plasma concentrations in the morning time may influence dosing regimens of nifedipine for hypertension patients.
    International Journal of Pharmaceutics 08/2010; 396(1-2):39-44. DOI:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2010.06.002 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A ruman bypass delivery system was investigated to improve the delivery efficiency of L-carnitine in biological samples of cows. Highly water-soluble L-carnitine used for dietary supplement in ruminants was chosen. L-Carnitine-loaded compact pellets were prepared by extrusion method and then coated with various coating materials such as ethylcellulose (EC), Eudragit E100 (E100), Eudragit RS100 (RS100), stearyl alcohol and glyceryl monostearate, for single-layered coated pellets (SCP). Two types of dual-layered coated pellets (DCP) were also designed as DCP-A (inner E100/outer EC) or DCP-B (inner EC/outer E100). Preparation of compact pellet and methods of polymeric coatings are the most important strategies for modulated release and rumen bypass efficiency based on chewing behaviors and physiology of veterinary species. DCPs were more efficient in retarding L-carnitine release in rumen fluid (pH 6.8) than the SCP but DCP-B gave much faster release in abomasums fluid (pH 1.2). Both DCP-A and DCP-B showed high in vivo rumen bypass efficiency in cows compared with the nonprotected preparation and most of l-carnitine was readily absorbed. DCP-B was also efficient for delivering L-carnitine in biological samples of cows, mainly in muscle but no statistical differences were observed among the tested preparations after the multiple oral feeding to cows for 3 months. Interestingly, DCP-B produced higher L-carnitine levels in milk in a dose-dependent manner. However, delivery efficiency of L-carnitine preparations in biological samples of cows would rather be more dependent on feeding schedules.
    International Journal of Pharmaceutics 08/2008; 359(1-2):87-93. DOI:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2008.03.017 · 3.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was performed in order to validate an effective high performance liquid chromatograpy (HPLC) method to determine L-carnitine in biological samples such as plasma, milk and muscle in cows. An L-carnitine derivative for fluorescence absorption was synthesized with 1-aminoanthracene (16 mg/mL in acetone) and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDAC; 160 mg/mL in 0.01 M NaH2PO4 buffer) as a precolumn fluorescent derivative reagent. gamma-Butyrobetaine HCI was used as an internal standard. A reversed-phase column with fluorescence detection at the excitation and emission wavelengths of 248 and 418 nm were used. The mobile phase consisted of 30% acetonitrile with 0.1 M ammonium acetate in water (pH 3.5) adjusted with acetic acid and delivered at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/ min. The L-carnitine concentration in plasma, milk and muscle samples of cows after oral feeding with 24 g L-carnitine/day for 2 months was then determined. All biological samples were deproteinated by barium hydroxide and zinc sulfate heptahydrate before the derivative reaction. Blank cow plasma was dialyzed using cellulose membrane for standard calibration. The calibration curve showed good linearity (r2 > 0.999) over the concentration range of 50 to 5000 ng/mL. The precision and accuracy were also satisfactory with less than 15% intra- and interday coefficiency of variations. The peaks of L-carnitine and internal standard in HPLC chromatography were successfully separated in plasma, milk and muscle samples of cows. The current derivatization method of L-carnitine for fluorescence detection was simple and adequately sensitive and could be applied to determine L-carnitine in biological samples.
    Archives of Pharmacal Research 08/2007; 30(8):1041-6. DOI:10.1007/BF02993974 · 1.75 Impact Factor
  • Qing-Ri Cao, Tae-Wan Kim, Beom-Jin Lee
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    ABSTRACT: Two types of the carnauba wax-based lipophilic matrix tablet using spray-dried granules (SDT) or directly compressible powdered mixtures (DCT) were prepared for sustained release. The model drug was a highly water-soluble potassium citrate and loaded about 74% of the total tablet weight. The SDT slowly eroded and disintegrated during the release study without showing sustained release when the hydrophilic excipients were added. In contrast, the DCT was more efficient for sustained release. The release rate decreased with increasing carnauba wax concentration. In particular, the sustained release rate was markedly pronounced when the lipophilic stearyl alcohol and stearic acid were combined with the carnauba wax. The surface of the intact DCT appeared to be smooth and rusty. The DCT rose to the surface from the bottom of the vessel during the release test, and numerous pores and cracks with no signs of disintegration were also observed after the release test. The release profile was dependent on the formulation composition and preparation method of the matrix tablet. Diffusion-controlled leaching through the channels of the pores and cracks of the lipophilic matrix tablet (DCT) is a key to the sustained release.
    International Journal of Pharmaceutics 08/2007; 339(1-2):19-24. DOI:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2007.04.016 · 3.79 Impact Factor
  • Jing-Hao Cui, Qing-Ri Cao, Beom-Jin Lee
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    ABSTRACT: Enhanced delivery of bifidobacteria and fecal changes were compared following multiple oral administrations of protected bifidobacteria-loaded alginate poly-l-lysine microparticles (bap-microparticles) and unprotected bifidobacteria cultures over a period of 1 month to healthy human volunteers as preliminary in vivo studies. When bap-microparticles were orally administered, enhanced delivery of bifidobacteria was achieved. The viability of the bifidobacteria was significantly increased approximately 11.5-30 times (1.06-1.48 log cycles) during the ingestion period when compared with the bifidobacteria culture group (p < 0.05). However, other gut microflora such as bifidobacteria, enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria, and staphylococci in feces were not significantly different between the two groups. Encapsulated bifidobacteria resulted in more frequent defecation and decreased fecal viscosity.
    Drug Delivery 08/2007; 14(5):265-71. DOI:10.1080/10717540601067844 · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bifidobacteria-loaded alginate poly-l-lysine microparticles (bap microparticles) were prepared using an air atomization method and then freeze-dried. The viability of the bap microparticles was investigated as a function of the amount of the bifidobacteria cultures, and the addition of a yeast extract, cryoprotectants, antioxidants and neutralizer. The size of the bap microparticles with and without the bifidobacteria was 84.8 +/- 28.5 microm (mean +/- standard deviation) and 113.1 +/- 38.5 microm, respectively. The surface morphology was slightly ellipsoid and wrinkled regardless of the incorporating bifidobacteria. The viability gradually decreased with increasing freeze-drying time. Free-flowing powdered bap microparticles were obtained at least 12 h after freeze-drying the wetted slurry of bap microparticles. However, the particles tended to aggregate when either lactose or ascorbic acid was added. The addition of a yeast extract, cryoprotectants (glycerol and lactose), antioxidants (NaHSO3 and ascorbic acid) and neutralizer (Mg3(PO4)2) resulted in a significantly higher viability of the bifidobacteria in the bap microparticles after freeze-drying (0.34-1.84 log) compared with the culture alone.
    Archives of Pharmacal Research 09/2006; 29(8):707-11. DOI:10.1007/BF02968256 · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Circadian variations in the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and urinary excretion of nifedipine were examined in fasted rats after administering a single oral dose at three different dosing times (08:00 am, 16:00 pm, 00:00 am). The plasma concentrations, the areas under the plasma concentration-time curve from zero to 6 h (AUC(0-6 h)) and the peak plasma concentration (C(max)) were significantly higher in the rats dosed at 08:00 am (immediately inactive), and was lower at 16:00 pm (most inactive) and 00:00 am (most active). The time to reach the C(max) (T(max)) was the shortest in the rats dosed at 08:00 am. It was very interesting to observe the double peak phenomena in the plasma concentration profiles, showing a larger peak followed by a smaller peak. There was a dosing time dependency on the tissue distribution 30 min after administration, showing a similar tendency to the pharmacokinetic behavior. However, there was no distinct dosing time dependency observed at 2 h after administration due to the extensive disposition. The cumulative urine excretion of nifedipine in the rats dosed at 08:00 am was significantly higher (about two-fold) than in those dosed at 16:00 pm and 00:00 am. The pharmacokinetics of nifedipine in the rats was consistent with that observed in human subjects in terms of the day-night clock time but the biological time was the opposite, as marked by the rest-activity cycles. These results may help to explain the circadian time-dependency of nifedipine pharmacokinetics.
    Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition 01/2006; 26(9):427-37. DOI:10.1002/bdd.474 · 2.18 Impact Factor