Marc N Potenza

Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, Connecticut, United States

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Publications (356)1581.36 Total impact

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    American Journal of Psychiatry 01/2016; In Press. · 13.56 Impact Factor
  • Guangheng Dong · Marc N Potenza
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    ABSTRACT: The ready availability of data via searches on the Internet has changed how many people seek and perhaps store and recall information, although the brain mechanisms underlying these processes are not well understood. This study investigated brain mechanisms underlying Internet-based versus non-Internet-based searching. The results showed that Internet searching was associated with lower accuracy in recalling information as compared to traditional book searching. During fMRI, Internet searching was associated with less regional brain activation in the left ventral stream, the association area of the temporal-parietal-occipital cortices, and the middle frontal cortex. When comparing novel items to remembered trials, Internet-based searching was associated with higher brain activation in right orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and lower brain activation in right middle temporal gyrus (MTG) when facing those novel trials. Brain activations in the MTG were inversely correlated with response times, and brain activations in the OFC were positively correlated with self-reported search impulses. Taken together, the results suggest that while Internet-based searching may have facilitated the information-acquisition process, this process may have been performed more hastily and be more prone to difficulties in recollection. In addition, people appear less confident in recalling information learned through Internet searching and that recent Internet searching may promote motivations to use the Internet. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    European Journal of Neuroscience 08/2015; DOI:10.1111/ejn.13039 · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined adolescent gambling on school grounds (GS+) and how such behavior was associated with gambling-related attitudes. Further, we examined whether GS+ moderated associations between at-risk problem-gambling (ARPG) and gambling behaviors related to gambling partners. Participants were 1988 high-school students who completed survey materials. Demographic, perceptions, attitudes, and gambling variables were stratified by problem-gambling severity (ARPG versus recreational gambling) and GS+ status. Chi-square and adjusted logistic regression models were used to examine relationships among study variables. Nearly 40% (39.58%) of students reported past-year GS+, with 12.91% of GS+ students, relative to 2.63% of those who did not report gambling on school grounds (GS-), meeting DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling (p<0.0001). In comparison to GS- students, GS+ students were more likely to report poorer academic achievement and more permissive attitudes towards gambling behaviors. Weaker links in GS+ students, in comparison with GS-, students, were observed between problem-gambling severity and gambling with family members (interaction odds ratio (IOR)=0.60; 95% CI=0.39-0.92) and gambling with friends (IOR=0.21; 95% CI=0.11-0.39). GS+ is common and associated with pathological gambling and more permissive attitudes towards gambling. The finding that GS+ (relative to GS-) youth show differences in how problem-gambling is related to gambling partners (friends and family) warrants further investigation regarding whether and how peer and familial interactions might be improved to diminish youth problem-gambling severity. The high frequency of GS+ and its relationship with ARPG highlights a need for school administrators and personnel to consider interventions that target school-based gambling. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Addictive behaviors 07/2015; 51:57-64. DOI:10.1016/j.addbeh.2015.07.006 · 2.44 Impact Factor
  • Songli Mei · Jiansong Xu · Kathleen M Carroll · Marc N Potenza
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    ABSTRACT: Although impulsivity has been associated with cocaine dependence and other addictive behaviors, the biological factors underlying impulsivity have yet to be precisely determined. This study aimed to examine relationships between impulsivity and volumes of the amygdala and hippocampus in cocaine-dependent and healthy comparison individuals. The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) was used to assess impulsivity. FreeSurfer was used to assess amygdalar and hippocampal volumes from high-resolution structural magnetic resonance images. Relative to healthy comparison subjects, cocaine-dependent individuals scored higher on all three subscales of BIS-11 but did not differ from healthy comparison subjects in amygdalar or hippocampal volumes. Cocaine-dependent individuals showed significant negative correlations between amygdalar volumes and scores on the BIS-11 Attentional subscale, and this relationship differed significantly from the non-significant relationship in healthy comparison subjects. As individual differences in amygdalar structure may contribute to the high impulsivity observed in cocaine-dependent individuals, the findings suggest that future studies should assess the extent to which therapies that target impulsivity in cocaine dependence may operate through the amygdala or alter its structure or function. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2015.07.013
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    ABSTRACT: Previous work in healthy non-human primates and humans has shown that social status correlates positively with dopamine 2/3 receptor (D2/3R) availability imaged with antagonist radioligands and positron emission tomography (PET). Further work in non-human primates suggests that this relationship is disrupted by chronic cocaine administration. This exploratory study examined the relationship between social status and D2/3R availability in healthy (HH) and cocaine dependent (CD) humans using the D3-preferring, agonist radioligand, [(11)C](+)PHNO. Sixteen HH and sixteen CD individuals completed the Barratt Simplified Measure of Social Status (BSMSS) and underwent [(11)C](+)PHNO scanning to measure regional brain D2/3R binding potentials (BPND). Correlations between BPND and BSMSS scores were then assessed within each group. Within HH and CD groups, inverse associations between BSMSS score and BPND were observed in the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA) and the ventral striatum, and for the CD group alone, the amygdala. After adjusting for body mass index and age, negative correlations remained significant in the SN/VTA for HH and in the amygdala for CD subjects. These preliminary data utilizing a dopamine agonist tracer demonstrate, for the first time, an inverse association between social status and D2/3R availability in the D3R rich extrastriatal regions of HH and CD humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Drug and alcohol dependence 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.06.039 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although craving states are important to both cocaine dependence (CD) and pathological gambling (PG), few studies have directly investigated neurobiological similarities and differences in craving between these disorders. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess brain activity in 103 participants (30 CD, 28 PG, and 45 Controls) while they watched videos depicting cocaine, gambling, and sad scenarios to investigate the neural correlates of craving. We observed a three-way urge type x video-type x diagnostic group interaction in self-reported craving, with CD participants reporting strong cocaine cravings to cocaine videos, and PG participants reporting strong gambling urges to gambling videos. Neuroimaging data revealed a diagnostic group x video interaction in anterior cingulate cortex/ventromedial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activating predominantly to cocaine videos in CD participants, and a more dorsal mPFC region that was most strongly activated for cocaine videos in CD participants, gambling videos in PG participants, and sad videos in control participants. Gender x diagnosis x video interactions identified dorsal mPFC and a region in posterior insula/caudate in which female but not male PG participants showed increased responses to gambling videos. Findings illustrate both similarities and differences in the neural correlates of drug cravings and gambling urges in CD and PG. Future studies should investigate diagnostic- and gender-specific therapies targeting the neural systems implicated in craving/urge states in addictions.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 29 June 2015. doi:10.1038/npp.2015.193.
    Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 06/2015; DOI:10.1038/npp.2015.193 · 7.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Compulsive sexual behavior: Individual, neurobiological, and psychological considerations Chair: Shane W. Kraus VISN 1 MIRECC, VA CT Healthcare System Yale University School of Medicine The current symposium will review data from four studies discussing the role of individual, neurobiological, and psychological factors in the assessment and treatment of compulsive sexual behavior. Abstract (2500 characters) Compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) is characterized by inappropriate or excessive sexual fantasies or behaviors that lead to subjective distress or impairment in one’s daily functioning across several important life domains. Currently, there is no widely accepted framework on how to best conceptualize and/or treat individuals with CSB, and it is debated as to whether to view CSB as an impulse-control disorder, a feature of hypersexual disorder, or a behavioral addiction. Recent data suggest that “behavioral addictions” (e.g., gambling, shopping, sex) may share clinical, genetic, neurobiological, and phenomenological (e.g., escalation of behavior over time, craving, attentional bias) parallels with substance addictions, raising questions about how best to classify, prevent and treat CSB. The symposium will describe data on individual, neurobiological, and psychological factors in CSB. Dr. Voon will present data on cue reactivity, cue conditioning, and attentional bias in CSB, with findings providing support for incentive motivation theories underlying CSB. Dr. Gola will present data on brain reward pathways in individuals with CSB. Individuals with CSB as compared to those without had increased activation of the ventral striatum for erotic but not monetary incentives. Mr. Grubbs will present data from two samples examining the relationship between pornography users’ behaviors and their perceptions of what constitutes “pornography addiction.” Individual difference variables such as religious and spiritual struggles and conservative sexual values were associated with perceived addiction to pornography. Dr. Kraus will present data from a sample of US Veterans and describe the psychometric properties of a newly developed questionnaire designed to identify behaviors, thoughts, and experiences associated with compulsive use of pornography. Item loadings from a principal component analysis, a high internal consistency reliability coefficient, and a moderate mean inter-item correlation supported interpreting the screening instrument as a single scale that demonstrated construct, convergent and discriminant validity. Finally, Dr. Potenza will serve as discussant and explore the findings in the settings of DSM-5 and ICD-11, and describe the implications for classification, assessment, prevention, treatment, and policy. Subject Area: Clinical Neuroimaging studies in compulsive sexual behaviours Valerie Voon Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge Increased erotic incentives sensitivity but not diminished reactivity for other rewards underlies compulsive sexual behaviors. Mateusz Gola Institute of Psychology, Polish Academy of Science and Institute for Neural Computations, University of California San Diego Małgorzata Wordecha, Laboratory of Brain Imaging, Neurobiology Center, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Polish Academy of Science, Warsaw University Guillaume Sescousse, Radboud University, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour Bartosz Kossowski, Laboratory of Brain Imaging, Neurobiology Center, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Polish Academy of Science and Institute of Radioelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology Artur Marchewka, Laboratory of Brain Imaging, Neurobiology Center, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Polish Academy of Science Predicting perceived addiction to internet pornography over time: The role of personality and religious beliefs Joshua B. Grubbs Case Western Reserve University Joshua Wilt, Case Western Reserve University Julie J. Exline, Case Western Reserve University Kenneth I. Pargament, Bowling Green State University Pornography Use Screener: Psychometric properties Shane W. Kraus, VISN 1 MIRECC, VA CT Healthcare System and Yale University School of Medicine Steve Martino, VISN 1 MIRECC, VA CT Healthcare System and Yale University School of Medicine Rani A. Hoff, VISN 1 MIRECC, VA CT Healthcare System and Yale University School of Medicine Elizabeth Dombrowski, VA CT Healthcare System Marc N. Potenza, Yale University School of Medicine Discussant Marc N. Potenza Yale University School of Medicine
    Association of Psychological Science, New York City; 05/2015
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    ABSTRACT: This article highlights the research presentations at the satellite symposium on "Brain Pathways to Recovery from Alcohol Dependence" held at the 2013 Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting. The purpose of this symposium was to provide an up to date overview of research efforts focusing on understanding brain mechanisms that contribute to recovery from alcohol dependence. A panel of scientists from the alcohol and addiction research field presented their insights and perspectives on brain mechanisms that may underlie both recovery and lack of recovery from alcohol dependence. The four sessions of the symposium encompassed multilevel studies exploring mechanisms underlying relapse and craving associated with sustained alcohol abstinence, cognitive function deficit and recovery, and translational studies on preventing relapse and promoting recovery. Gaps in our knowledge and research opportunities were also discussed. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Alcohol 05/2015; 49(5). DOI:10.1016/j.alcohol.2015.04.006 · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Findings from uncontrolled studies suggest that the COMT Val108/158Met polymorphism may affect response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in some populations. Using data from a randomized controlled trial evaluating computerized CBT (CBT4CBT), we evaluated treatment response by COMT genotype, with the a priori hypothesis that Val carriers would have improved response to computerized delivery of CBT. 101 cocaine-dependent individuals, of whom 81 contributed analyzable genetic samples, were randomized to standard methadone maintenance treatment plus CBT4CBT or standard treatment alone in an 8 week trial. There was a significant genotype by time effect on frequency of cocaine use from baseline to the end of the 6 month follow-up, suggesting greater reductions over time for Val carriers relative to individuals with the Met/Met genotype. There was a significant treatment condition by genotype interactions for rates of participants attaining 21 or more days of continuous abstinence as well as self-reported percent days of abstinence, suggesting less cocaine use among Val carriers when assigned to CBT compared to standard treatment. Exploration of possible mechanisms using measures of attentional biased also pointed to greater change over time in these measures among the Val carriers assigned to CBT. These are the first data from a randomized controlled trial indicating significant interactions of COMT polymorphism and behavioral therapy condition on treatment outcome, where Val carriers appeared to respond particularly well to computerized CBT. These preliminary data point to a potential biomarker of response to CBT linked to its putative mechanism of action, enhanced cognitive control. (Am J Addict 2015;XX:XX -XX). © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
    American Journal on Addictions 05/2015; DOI:10.1111/ajad.12238 · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Smoking is associated with more severe/extensive gambling in adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between smoking and gambling in adolescents. Analyses utilized survey data from 1591 Connecticut high-school students. Adolescents were classified by gambling (Low-Risk Gambling [LRG], At Risk/Problem Gambling [ARPG]) and smoking (current smoker, non-smoker). The main effects of smoking and the smoking-by-gambling interactions were examined for gambling behaviors (e.g., type, location), and gambling attitudes. Data were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression; the latter controlled for gender, race/ethnicity, grade, and family structure. For APRG adolescents, smoking was associated with greater online, school, and casino gambling; gambling due to anxiety and pressure; greater time spent gambling; early gambling onset; perceived parental approval of gambling; and decreased importance of measures to prevent teen gambling. For LRG adolescents, smoking was associated with non-strategic gambling (e.g., lottery gambling); school gambling; gambling in response to anxiety; gambling for financial reasons; greater time spent gambling; and decreased importance of measures to prevent teen gambling. Stronger relationships were found between smoking and casino gambling, gambling due to pressure, earlier onset of gambling, and parental perceptions of gambling for ARPG versus LRG adolescents. Smoking is associated with more extensive gambling for both low- and high-risk adolescent gamblers. Smoking may be a marker of more severe gambling behaviors in adolescents and important to consider in gambling prevention and intervention efforts with youth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Psychiatric Research 04/2015; 65. DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2015.04.006 · 4.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: "Food addiction" is an emerging area, and behavioral and biological overlaps have been observed between eating and addictive disorders. Potential misconceptions about applying an addiction framework to problematic eating behavior may inhibit scientific progress. Critiques of "food addiction" that focus on descriptive differences between overeating and illicit drugs are similar to early criticisms of the addictiveness of tobacco. Although food is necessary for survival, the highly processed foods associated with addictive-like eating may provide little health benefit. Individual differences are important in determining who develops an addiction. If certain foods are addictive, the identification of possible risk factors for "food addiction" is an important next step. Not all treatments for addiction require abstinence. Addiction interventions that focus on moderation or controlled use may lead to novel approaches to treating eating-related problems. Finally, addiction-related policies that focus on environmental (instead of educational) targets may have a larger public health impact in reducing overeating.
    Current Psychiatry Reports 04/2015; 17(4):563. DOI:10.1007/s11920-015-0563-3 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Impulsivity critically relates to many psychiatric disorders. Given the multifaceted construct that impulsivity represents, defining core aspects of impulsivity is vital for the assessment and understanding of clinical conditions. Choice impulsivity (CI), involving the preferential selection of smaller sooner rewards over larger later rewards, represents one important type of impulsivity. The International Society for Research on Impulsivity (InSRI) convened to discuss the definition and assessment of CI and provide recommendations regarding measurement across species. Commonly used preclinical and clinical CI behavioral tasks are described, and considerations for each task are provided to guide CI task selection. Differences in assessment of CI (self-report, behavioral) and calculating CI indices (e.g., area-under-the-curve, indifference point, and steepness of discounting curve) are discussed along with properties of specific behavioral tasks used in preclinical and clinical settings. The InSRI group recommends inclusion of measures of CI in human studies examining impulsivity. Animal studies examining impulsivity should also include assessments of CI and these measures should be harmonized in accordance with human studies of the disorders being modeled in the preclinical investigations. The choice of specific CI measures to be included should be based on the goals of the study and existing preclinical and clinical literature using established CI measures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
    Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment 04/2015; 6(2):182-198. DOI:10.1037/per0000099 · 3.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alexithymia, a characteristic marked by poor ability to identify, define and communicate emotions, has been associated with poorer treatment outcome, including traditional clinician delivered CBT. Computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT4CBT), an effective adjunct to treatment, may provide a means of conveying skills without requiring interaction with a clinician. Seventy-three methadone maintained, cocaine dependent individuals participating in an 8-week randomized clinical trial comparing standard methadone maintenance to methadone maintenance plus CBT4CBT completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) at pretreatment, post-treatment, and follow-ups conducted one, two, and 6 months after treatment. There were no statistically significant differences on baseline TAS-20 scores by multiple demographic and substance use variables including gender and substance use severity. Higher TAS-20 scores were associated with somewhat higher levels of distress as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory and multiple Brief Severity Index scales. TAS-20 scores remained relatively stable throughout the duration of treatment and follow-up. Indicators of treatment process, including treatment retention, adherence and therapeutic alliance, were not significantly correlated with TAS-20 scores. There was a significant interaction of alexithymia and treatment condition, such that individuals with higher baseline scores on the TAS-20 submitted significantly higher percentages of cocaine-negative urine toxicology specimens and reported a higher percentage of abstinence days, and longer periods of consecutive abstinence within treatment when assigned to CBT4CBT compared with treatment as usual. These findings suggest that individuals with increased alexithymia may benefit from computerized CBT; possibly via reduced demands on interpersonal skills and interactions associated with computerized therapies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Drug and Alcohol Dependence 04/2015; 152. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.04.004 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Impulsivity is a multifaceted construct that is a core feature of multiple psychiatric conditions and personality disorders. However, progress in understanding and treating impulsivity is limited by a lack of precision and consistency in its definition and assessment. Rapid-response impulsivity (RRI) represents a tendency toward immediate action that occurs with diminished forethought and is out of context with the present demands of the environment. Experts from the International Society for Research on Impulsivity (InSRI) met to discuss and evaluate RRI measures in terms of reliability, sensitivity, and validity, with the goal of helping researchers and clinicians make informed decisions about the use and interpretation of findings from RRI measures. Their recommendations are described in this article. Commonly used clinical and preclinical RRI tasks are described, and considerations are provided to guide task selection. Tasks measuring two conceptually and neurobiologically distinct types of RRI, "refraining from action initiation" (RAI) and "stopping an ongoing action" (SOA) are described. RAI and SOA tasks capture distinct aspects of RRI that may relate to distinct clinical outcomes. The InSRI group recommends that (a) selection of RRI measures should be informed by careful consideration of the strengths, limitations, and practical considerations of the available measures; (b) researchers use both RAI and SOA tasks in RRI studies to allow for direct comparison of RRI types and examination of their associations with clinically relevant measures; and (c) similar considerations be made for human and nonhuman studies in an effort to harmonize and integrate preclinical and clinical research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
    Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment 04/2015; 6(2):168-181. DOI:10.1037/per0000100 · 3.54 Impact Factor
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    Shane W Kraus · Jon E Grant · Rani A Hoff · Marc N Potenza
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    ABSTRACT: Compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) is generally characterized by inappropriate or excessive sexual fantasies or behaviors that lead to distress or impairment in a person’s daily functioning. Information will be presented on CSB and other psychopathology in two samples of adults recruited from the United States. In Sample 1, 103 men seeking treatment for CSB were assessed for psychopathology at a private and a public university clinic. In Sample 2, 626 male and female veterans were assessed for the prevalence of CSB and other co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Among treatment-seeking men, 94% met criteria for at least one Axis-I psychiatric disorder, and 57% of the sample met criteria for two or more psychiatric disorders. Among a national representative sample of returning veterans, approximately 11% (13.5% of men, 6.2% of women) endorsed symptoms associated with CSB. For the 71 veterans reporting problems managing their sexual behavior, high rates of co-occurring disorders such as PTSD (69%), insomnia (55%), depression (45%), panic (43%), alcohol dependence (17%), and drug dependence (17%) were observed. Areas in which additional research is needed to better understand the complex treatment needs of individuals seeking treatment for CSB will be discussed.
    2nd International Conference on Behavioral Addictions, Budapest, Hungary; 03/2015
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    ABSTRACT: Adults who abuse substances are at increased risk for contracting sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. Within this population, sexual risk behaviors have been associated with increased impulsivity. Studies in non-clinical populations showing gender-related differences in sexual decision-making and casual sexual partnering suggest impulsivity has a greater influence on men than women, but these differences have not been documented in substance-using patients. In a sample of 89 adults with recent cocaine use and receiving outpatient psychiatric treatment, we tested the hypothesis that gender moderates the effect of impulsivity on sexual risk-taking. Using logistic regression modeling, we tested the main and gender-moderated effects of task-related impulsivity on the probability of having a casual sexual partner and multiple sexual partners. Results confirmed a significant gender-by-impulsivity interaction; men who were more impulsive on a continuous performance task had significantly higher rates of sexual risk-taking than less impulsive men, but women’s impulsivity was unrelated to these outcomes. Impulsive men were over three times as likely as less impulsive men to have a recent casual partner. Implications of these results and suggestions for future research are discussed.
    Personality and Individual Differences 03/2015; 75:190-194. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2014.11.035 · 1.86 Impact Factor
  • Guangheng Dong · Xiao Lin · Marc N. Potenza
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Resting brain spontaneous neural activities across cortical regions have been correlated with specific functional properties in psychiatric groups. Individuals with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) demonstrate impaired executive control. Thus, it is important to examine executive control networks (ECNs) during resting states and their relationships to executive control during task performance. Methods: Thirty-five IGD and 36 healthy control participants underwent a resting-state fMRI scan and performed a Stroop task inside and outside of the MRI scanner. Correlations between Stroop effect and functional connectivity among ECN regions of interest (ROIs) were calculated within and between groups. Results: IGD subjects show lower functional connectivity in ECNs than do HC participants during resting state; functional-connectivity-measures in ECN swere negatively correlated with Stroop effect and positively correlated with brain activations in executive-control regions across groups. Within groups, negative trends were found between Stroop effect and functional connectivity in ECNs in IGD and HC groups, separately; positive trends were found between functional connectivity in ECNs and brain activations in Stroop task in IGD and HC groups, separately. Conclusions: Higher functional connectivity in ECNs may underlie better executive control and may provide resilience with respect to IGD. Lower functional connectivity in ECNs may represent an important feature in understanding and treating IGD.
    Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 03/2015; 57. DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2014.10.012 · 4.03 Impact Factor
  • Yvonne H C Yau · Marc N Potenza
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    ABSTRACT: Addiction professionals and the public are recognizing that certain nonsubstance behaviors-such as gambling, Internet use, video-game playing, sex, eating, and shopping-bear resemblance to alcohol and drug dependence. Growing evidence suggests that these behaviors warrant consideration as nonsubstance or "behavioral" addictions and has led to the newly introduced diagnostic category "Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders" in DSM-5. At present, only gambling disorder has been placed in this category, with insufficient data for other proposed behavioral addictions to justify their inclusion. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of behavioral addictions, describes treatment considerations, and addresses future directions. Current evidence points to overlaps between behavioral and substance-related addictions in phenomenology, epidemiology, comorbidity, neurobiological mechanisms, genetic contributions, responses to treatments, and prevention efforts. Differences also exist. Recognizing behavioral addictions and developing appropriate diagnostic criteria are important in order to increase awareness of these disorders and to further prevention and treatment strategies.
    Harvard Review of Psychiatry 03/2015; 23(2):134-46. DOI:10.1097/HRP.0000000000000051 · 2.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies traditionally use general linear model-based analysis (GLM-BA) and regularly report task-related activation, deactivation, or no change in activation in separate brain regions. However, several recent fMRI studies using spatial independent component analysis (sICA) find extensive overlap of functional networks (FNs), each exhibiting different task-related modulation (e.g., activation vs. deactivation), different from the dominant findings of GLM-BA. This study used sICA to assess overlap of FNs extracted from four datasets, each related to a different cognitive task. FNs extracted from each dataset overlapped with each other extensively across most or all brain regions and showed task-related concurrent increases, decreases, or no changes in activity. These findings indicate that neural substrates showing task-related concurrent but different modulations in activity intermix with each other and distribute across most of the brain. Furthermore, spatial correlation analyses found that most FNs were highly consistent in spatial patterns across different datasets. This finding indicates that these FNs probably reflect large-scale patterns of task-related brain activity. We hypothesize that FN overlaps as revealed by sICA might relate to functional heterogeneity, balanced excitation and inhibition, and population sparseness of neuron activity, three fundamental properties of the brain. These possibilities deserve further investigation.
    PLoS ONE 02/2015; 10(2):e0117029. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0117029 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    Marci R Mitchell · Marc N Potenza
    Frontiers in Psychiatry 02/2015; 6:24. DOI:10.3389/fpsyt.2015.00024

Publication Stats

11k Citations
1,581.36 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1992–2015
    • Yale-New Haven Hospital
      • Department of Laboratory Medicine
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 1991–2015
    • Yale University
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      • • Child Study Center
      • • Department of Cell Biology
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 2013
    • Texas State University
      San Marcos, Texas, United States
    • Texas Medical Center
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 2012
    • University of New Haven
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 2007–2011
    • University of Minnesota Twin Cities
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Minneapolis, MN, United States
  • 2010
    • University of Chicago
      • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2006–2010
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
    • New York College of Osteopathic Medicine
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2008
    • Boston University
      • Department of Psychology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2004
    • Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
    • Butler Hospital
      Providence, Rhode Island, United States
  • 2003
    • Vanderbilt University
      Нашвилл, Michigan, United States