Marc N Potenza

Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, Connecticut, United States

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Publications (270)1198.31 Total impact

  • Marc N Potenza
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    ABSTRACT: Functional imaging is offering powerful new tools to investigate the neurobiology of cognitive functioning in people with and without psychiatric conditions like gambling disorder. Based on similarities between gambling and substance-use disorders in neurocognitive and other domains, gambling disorder has recently been classified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th edn) (DSM-5) as a behavioral addiction. Despite the advances in understanding, there exist multiple unanswered questions about the pathophysiology underlying gambling disorder and the promise for translating the neurobiological understanding into treatment advances remains largely unrealized. Here we review the neurocognitive underpinnings of gambling disorder with a view to improving prevention, treatment, and policy efforts.
    Trends in Cognitive Sciences 06/2014; · 16.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Substance use disorders (SUDs) are among the most common sequelae of childhood maltreatment, yet the independent contributions of SUDs and childhood maltreatment to neurobiological changes and the effect of the latter on relapse risk (a critical variable in addiction treatment) are relatively unknown. OBJECTIVES To identify structural neural characteristics independently associated with childhood maltreatment (CM; a common type of childhood adversity), comparing a sample with SUD with a demographically comparable control sample, and to examine the relationship between CM-related structural brain changes and subsequent relapse. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Structural magnetic resonance imaging study comparing 79 treatment-engaged participants with SUD in acute remission in inpatient treatment at a community mental health center vs 98 healthy control participants at an outpatient research center at an academic medical center. Both groups included individuals with a range of CM experiences. Participants with SUD were followed up prospectively for 90 days to assess relapse and relapse severity. INTERVENTION Standard 12-step, recovery-based, inpatient addiction treatment for all participants with SUD. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Gray matter volume (GMV), subsequent substance use relapse, days to relapse, and severity of relapse. RESULTS Controlling for SUD and psychiatric comorbidity, CM (dichotomously classified) was uniquely associated with lower GMV across all participants in the left hippocampus (cornu ammonis 1-3, dentate gyrus), parahippocampus (presubiculum, parasubiculum, prosubiculum, subiculum, and entorhinal cortex), and anterior fusiform gyrus (corrected P < .05; uncorrected P = .001). Among the sample with SUD, CM prospectively predicted a shorter relapse to use of any drug (P = .048), while CM-related GMV reductions predicted severity of substance use relapse (P = .04). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Findings indicate that CM was related to decreased GMV in limbic regions, which in turn predicted increased risk of relapse in SUD. These results suggest that CM may significantly affect the course of SUD treatment outcomes and that SUD treatment planning may benefit from identifying and addressing CM.
    JAMA Psychiatry 06/2014; · 12.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Preclinical research has demonstrated effects of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) on brain regions involved in emotional regulation, motivational control and addiction vulnerability - e.g., the ventral striatum (VS), anterior cingulate (ACC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, little is known about the function of these regions in human adolescents with PCE. Twenty-two adolescents with PCE and 22 age-, gender-, and IQ-matched non-cocaine exposed (NCE) adolescents underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during exposure to individually personalized neutral/relaxing, stressful and favorite-food cues. fMRI data were compared using group-level two-tailed t-tests in BioImage Suite. In comparison to NCE adolescents, PCE adolescents had reduced activity within cortical and subcortical brain regions including the VS, ACC and medial and dorslolateral PFC during exposure to favorite-food cues, but did not differ in neural responses to stress cues. Subjective food craving was inversely related to dorsolateral PFC activation among PCE adolescents. Among PCE adolescents, subjective anxiety ratings correlated inversely with activations in the orbitofrontal cortex and brainstem during the stress condition, and with ACC, dorsolateral PFC and hippocampus activity during the neutral-relaxing condition. Thus, adolescents with PCE display hypoactivation of brain regions involved in appetitive processing, with subjective intensities of craving and anxiety correlating inversely with extent of activation. These findings suggest possible mechanisms by which PCE might predispose to the development of addictions and related disorders; e.g., substance-use disorders, binge-eating.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 6 June 2014; doi:10.1038/npp.2014.133.
    Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 06/2014; · 8.68 Impact Factor
  • Sarah W. Yip, Marc N. Potenza
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    ABSTRACT: Preclinical and clinical research implicate several neurotransmitter systems in the pathophysiology of gambling disorder (GD). In particular, neurobiological research suggests alterations in serotonergic, dopaminergic, glutamatergic and opioidergic functioning. The relative efficacy of medications targeting these systems remains a topic of ongoing research, and there is currently no Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved medication with an indication for GD. Considering co-occurring disorders may be particularly important when devising a treatment plan for GD: extant data suggest that the opioid antagonist naltrexone may by the most effective form of current pharmacotherapy for GD, particularly for individuals with a co-occurring substance-use disorder (SUD) or with a family history of alcoholism. In contrast, lithium or other mood stabilizers may be most effective for GD for patients presenting with a co-occurring bipolar spectrum disorder (BSD). Further, serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) may be efficacious in reducing GD symptoms for individuals also presenting with a (non-BSD) mood or anxiety disorder. Finally, elevated rates of GD (and other impulse control disorders; ICDs) have been noted among individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD), and clinicians should assess for vulnerability to GD when considering treatment options for PD. Reducing levodopa or dopamine agonist (DA) dosages may partially reduce GD symptoms among patients with co-occurring PD. For GD patients not willing to consider drug treatment, n-acetyl cysteine or behavioral therapies may be effective. Ongoing research into the effectiveness of combined behavioral and pharmacotherapies is being conducted; thus combined treatments should also be considered.
    Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry. 06/2014; 1(2).
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    ABSTRACT: Attentional bias to threat is a key endophenotype that contributes to the chronicity of trauma-related psychopathology. However, little is known about the neurobiology of this endophenotype and no known in vivo molecular imaging study has been conducted to evaluate candidate receptor systems that may be implicated in this endophenotype or the phenotypic expression of trauma-related psychopathology, which is comprised of threat (i.e., re-experiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal) and loss (i.e., emotional numbing, depression/dysphoria, generalized anxiety) symptomatology. Using the radioligand [(11)C]OMAR and positron emission tomography (PET), we evaluated the relationship between in vivo cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) receptor availability in the amygdala, and performance on a dot-probe measure of attentional bias to threat, and clinician interview-based measures of trauma-related psychopathology. The sample was comprised of adults presenting with a broad spectrum of trauma-related psychopathology, ranging from non-trauma-exposed, psychiatrically healthy adults to trauma-exposed adults with severe trauma-related psychopathology. Results revealed that increased CB1 receptor availability in the amygdala was associated with increased attentional bias to threat, as well as increased severity of threat, but not loss, symptomatology; greater peripheral anandamide levels were associated with decreased attentional bias to threat. A mediation analysis further suggested that attentional bias to threat mediated the relationship between CB1 receptor availability in the amygdala and severity of threat symptomatology. These data substantiate a key role for compromised endocannabinoid function in mediating both the endophenotypic and phenotypic expression of threat symptomatology in humans. They further suggest that novel pharmacotherapies that target the CB1 system may provide a more focused, mechanism-based approach to mitigating this core aspect of trauma-related psychopathology.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 13 May 2014; doi:10.1038/npp.2014.110.
    Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 05/2014; · 8.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective The primary purpose of this study was to examine neurobiological underpinnings of reward processing that may relate to treatment outcome for binge-eating disorder (BED).Method Prior to starting treatment, 19 obese persons seeking treatment for BED performed a monetary incentive delay task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Analyses examined how the neural correlates of reward processing related to binge-eating status after 4-months of treatment.ResultsTen individuals continued to report binge-eating (BEpost-tx) following treatment and 9 individuals did not (NBEpost-tx). The groups did not differ in body mass index. The BEpost-tx group relative to the NBEpost-tx group showed diminished recruitment of the ventral striatum and the inferior frontal gyrus during the anticipatory phase of reward processing and reduced activity in the medial prefrontal cortex during the outcome phase of reward processing.DiscussionThese results link brain reward circuitry to treatment outcome in BED and suggest that specific brain regions underlying reward processing may represent important therapeutic targets in BED. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2014; 47:376–384)
    International Journal of Eating Disorders 05/2014; 47(4). · 2.88 Impact Factor
  • Galit Erez, Corey E Pilver, Marc N Potenza
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    ABSTRACT: Sexual impulsivity (SI) has been associated with conditions that have substantial public health costs, such as sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies. However, SI has not been examined systematically with respect to its relationships to psychopathology. We aimed to investigate associations between SI and psychopathology, including gender-related differences. We performed a secondary data analysis of Wave-2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a national sample of 34,653 adults in the United States. DSM-IV-based diagnoses of mood, anxiety, drug and personality disorders were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Scheduled DSM-IV Version. The prevalence of SI was considerable (14.7%), with greater acknowledgment by men than women (18.9% versus 10.9%; p < 0.0001). For both women and men, SI was positively associated with most Axis-I and Axis-II psychiatric disorders (OR range: Women, Axis-I:1.89-6.14, Axis-II:2.10-10.02; Men, Axis-I:1.92-6.21, Axis-II:1.63-6.05). Significant gender-related differences were observed. Among women as compared to men, SI was more strongly associated with social phobia, alcohol abuse/dependence, and paranoid, schizotypal, antisocial, borderline, narcissistic, avoidant and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders. The robust associations between SI and psychopathology across genders suggest the need for screening and interventions related to SI for individuals with psychiatric concerns. The stronger associations between SI and psychopathology among women as compared to men emphasize the importance of a gender-oriented perspective in targeting SI. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the extent to SI predates, postdates or co-occurs with specific psychiatric conditions.
    Journal of psychiatric research 04/2014; · 3.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cannabis is among the most frequently-abused substances in the United States. Cognitive control is a contributory factor in the maintenance of substance use disorders and may relate to treatment response. Therefore, we assessed whether cognitive-control-related neural activity prior to treatment differs between treatment-seeking cannabis-dependent and healthy individuals and relates to cannabis-abstinence measures during treatment and one-year follow-up. Cannabis-dependent males (N=20) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) cognitive-control (Stroop) task prior to a 12-week randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioral therapy and/or contingency management. A healthy-comparison group (N=20) also completed the fMRI task. Cannabis-use was assessed by urine toxicology and self-report during treatment, and by self-report across a 1-year follow-up period (N=18). The cannabis-dependent group displayed diminished Stroop-related neural activity relative to the healthy-comparison group in multiple regions including those strongly implicated in cognitive control and addiction-related processes (e.g. dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum). The groups did not significantly differ in response times (cannabis-dependent N=12; healthy-comparison N=14). Within the cannabis-dependent group, greater Stroop-related activity in regions including the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex was associated with less cannabis use during treatment. Greater activity in regions including the ventral striatum was associated with less cannabis use during one-year post-treatment follow-up. These data suggest that lower cognitive-control-related neural activity in classic "control" regions (e.g., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate) and classic "salience/reward/learning" regions (e.g., ventral striatum) differentiates cannabis-dependent from healthy individuals and relates to less abstinence within-treatment and during long-term follow-up. Clinically, results suggest that treatment development efforts that focus on enhancing cognitive control in addition to abstinence may improve treatment outcomes in cannabis dependence.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article peview online, 07 April 2014; doi:10.1038/npp.2014.82.
    Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 04/2014; · 8.68 Impact Factor
  • Adolescent medicine: state of the art reviews 04/2014; 25(1):15-32.
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence from animal models and postmortem human studies points to the importance of the dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) in cocaine dependence (CD). The objective of this pilot study was to use the D3R-preferring radioligand [(11)C](+)PHNO to compare receptor availability in groups with and without CD. Ten medically healthy, non-treatment seeking CD subjects (mean age 41±8) in early abstinence were compared to 10 healthy control (HC) subjects (mean age 41±6) with no history of cocaine or illicit substance abuse. Binding potential (BPND), a measure of available receptors, was determined with parametric images, computed using the simplified reference tissue model (SRTM2) with the cerebellum as the reference region. BPND in CD subjects was higher in D3R-rich areas including the substantia nigra ((SN) 29%; P=0.03), hypothalamus (28%; P=0.02) and amygdala (35%; P=0.03). No between-group differences were observed in the striatum or pallidum. BPND values in the SN (r=+0.83; P=0.008) and pallidum (r=+0.67; P=0.03) correlated with years of cocaine use. Between-group differences suggest an important role for dopaminergic transmission in the SN, hypothalamus and amygdala in CD. Such findings also highlight the potential relevance of D3R as a medication development target in CD.
    Drug and alcohol dependence 03/2014; · 3.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Impulsivity, a tendency toward immediate action without consideration of future consequences, is associated with a wide array of problematic behaviors. Response impulsivity, a type of behaviorally-assessed impulsivity characterized by behavioral disinhibition, is also associated with health risk behaviors. Response impulsivity is distinct from choice impulsivity, which is characterized by intolerance for delay. Lewis rats have higher levels of choice impulsivity than Fischer rats (Anderson & Woolverton, 2005; Madden et al., 2008; Stein et al., 2012). However, no studies have examined whether Lewis and Fischer rats have different levels of response impulsivity. The present research examined response impulsivity in the two rat strains. Subjects were 16 male Lewis and Fischer rats. Rats' response impulsivity was measured using the Five Choice Serial Reaction Time Task (5-CSRTT). In addition, their locomotor activity was measured in locomotor activity chambers. Lewis rats had more premature responses than Fischer rats during the 5-CSRTT assessment [F(1, 14)=5.34, p<0.05], indicating higher levels of response impulsivity. Locomotor activity did not differ between rat strain groups [F(1, 14)=3.05, p=.10], suggesting that overall movement did not account for group differences in response impulsivity on the 5-CSRTT. It can be concluded from this research that Lewis rats have higher levels of response impulsivity than Fischer rats, and therefore provide a valid rat model of individual differences in impulsivity.
    Addictive behaviors 02/2014; · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Impulsivity and compulsivity represent useful conceptualizations that involve dissociable cognitive functions, which are mediated by neuroanatomically and neurochemically distinct components of cortico-subcortical circuitry. The constructs were historically viewed as diametrically opposed, with impulsivity being associated with risk-seeking and compulsivity with harm-avoidance. However, they are increasingly recognized to be linked by shared neuropsychological mechanisms involving dysfunctional inhibition of thoughts and behaviors. In this article, we selectively review new developments in the investigation of the neurocognition of impulsivity and compulsivity in humans, in order to advance our understanding of the pathophysiology of impulsive, compulsive, and addictive disorders and indicate new directions for research.
    CNS spectrums 02/2014; 19(1):69-89. · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 2014). New developments in human neurocognition: clinical, genetic, and brain imaging correlates of impulsivity and compulsivity . CNS Spectrums, 19, pp 69-89 doi:10.1017/S1092852913000801 Request Permissions : Click here
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    Kristen R Hamilton, Rajita Sinha, Marc N Potenza
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    ABSTRACT: Stress has been associated with poor self-control. Individual differences in impulsivity and other behavioral tendencies may influence the relationship of stress with self-control, although this possibility has not been examined to date. The present research investigated whether cumulative stress is associated with poor self-control, and whether this relationship is mediated by impulsivity, behavioral approach, and behavioral inhibition in men and women. A community sample of 566 adults (319 women and 247 men) was assessed on the Cumulative Adversity Interview, Brief Self-control Scale, Barratt Impulsivity Scale, and Behavioral Activation System and Behavioral Inhibition System Scale (BIS/BAS). Data were analyzed using regression and bootstrapping techniques. In the total sample, the effects of cumulative stress on self-control were mediated by impulsivity. Neither behavioral inhibition nor behavioral approach mediated the association between cumulative stress and self-control in the total sample. Results were similar when men and women were considered separately, with impulsivity, but not behavioral inhibition or approach, mediating the association between cumulative stress and self-control. Impulsive individuals might benefit preferentially from interventions focusing on stress management and strategies for improving self-control.
    Addictive behaviors 01/2014; · 2.25 Impact Factor
  • Marc N Potenza
    Biological psychiatry 01/2014; 75(2):94-95. · 8.93 Impact Factor
  • Yvonne H C Yau, Sarah W. Yip, Marc N. Potenza
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    ABSTRACT: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies indicate that the brain organizes its activity into multiple functional networks (FNs) during either resting condition or task-performance. However, the functions of these FNs are not fully understood yet. To investigate the operation of these FNs, spatial independent component analysis (sICA) was used to extract FNs from fMRI data acquired from healthy participants performing a visual task with two levels of attention and working memory load. The task-related modulations of extracted FNs were assessed. A group of FNs showed increased activity at low-load conditions and reduced activity at high-load conditions. These FNs together involve the left lateral frontoparietal cortex, insula, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. A second group of FNs showed increased activity at high-load conditions and reduced activity at low-load conditions. These FNs together involve the intraparietal sulcus, frontal eye field, lateral frontoparietal cortex, insula, and dorsal anterior cingulate, bilaterally. Though the two groups of FNs showed opposite task-related modulations, they overlapped extensively at both the lateral and medial frontoparietal cortex and insula. Such an overlap of FNs would not likely be revealed using standard general-linear-model-based analyses. By assessing task-related modulations, this study differentiated the functional roles of overlapping FNs. Several FNs including the left frontoparietal network are implicated in task conditions of low attentional load, while another set of FNs including the dorsal attentional network is implicated in task conditions involving high attentional demands.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e87078. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Cannabis is widely abused, and efficacies of therapeutics for cannabis dependence remain suboptimal. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may aid in the identification of biological markers for successful treatment outcomes (i.e., abstinence). Methods Twenty men with cannabis dependence and twenty non-substance-using healthy comparison (HC) men underwent MRI scanning. Cannabis-dependent individuals then participated in a 12-week randomized clinical trial of behavioral treatments (contingency management (CM), cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) or both). Pretreatment functional and structural data were compared between the cannabis-dependent and HC participants. In addition, individuals with cannabis dependence were subdivided based on the successful achievement of 21 days of consecutive abstinence during treatment to assess whether abstinent versus non-abstinent cannabis-dependent participants displayed different pretreatment functional and structural characteristics when compared to HC participants. Results In comparison to HC participants, cannabis-dependent participants demonstrated greater ventral striatal activation during the receipt of losing outcomes and smaller putamenal volumes. Cannabis-dependent participants who did not subsequently achieved 21 days of consecutive abstinence had increased activity within the striatum during the receipt of losing outcomes, relative to HC participants. Cannabis-dependent participants who did not achieve 21 days of abstinence had decreased bilateral putamen volumes prior to treatment, relative to HC participants. Conclusions Individual differences in pretreatment striatal function and structure may relate to individual differences in treatment responses for cannabis dependence. While mechanisms underlying these associations require further exploration, the striatum might mediate treatment responses via its role in associative reward-learning (e.g., through skills training in CBT or reinforcement of abstinence in CM).
    Drug and alcohol dependence 01/2014; · 3.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Data suggest that the amygdala and hippocampus contribute to cocaine seeking and use, particularly following exposure to cocaine-related cues and contexts. Furthermore, indices of pre-treatment cocaine-use severity have been shown to correlate with treatment outcome in cocaine-dependent patients. Methods The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between amygdalar and hippocampal volumes and cocaine use before and during treatment. High-resolution magnetic-resonance brain images were obtained from 23 cocaine-dependent patients prior to treatment and 54 healthy comparison individuals. Automated segmentation of the amygdala and hippocampus images was performed in FreeSurfer. Cocaine-dependent patients subsequently received behavioral therapy alone or combined with contingency management as part of a treatment trial, and cocaine-use indices (self-report, urine toxicology) were collected. Results Comparison participants and cocaine-dependent patients did not show significant difference in amygdalar and hippocampal volumes at pretreatment. Within the patient group, greater hippocampal volumes were correlated with more days of cocaine use before treatment and with poorer treatment outcome as indexed by shorter durations of continuous abstinence from cocaine and lower percentages of cocaine-negative urine samples during treatment. Mediation analysis indicated that pre-treatment hippocampal volumes mediated the relationships between pre-treatment cocaine use and treatment outcomes. Conclusions The finding of a significant correlation between hippocampal volume and pre-treatment cocaine-use severity and treatment response suggests that hippocampal volume should be considered when developing individualized treatments for cocaine dependence.
    Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Although compulsive sexual behaviour (CSB) has been conceptualized as a "behavioural" addiction and common or overlapping neural circuits may govern the processing of natural and drug rewards, little is known regarding the responses to sexually explicit materials in individuals with and without CSB. Here, the processing of cues of varying sexual content was assessed in individuals with and without CSB, focusing on neural regions identified in prior studies of drug-cue reactivity. 19 CSB subjects and 19 healthy volunteers were assessed using functional MRI comparing sexually explicit videos with non-sexual exciting videos. Ratings of sexual desire and liking were obtained. Relative to healthy volunteers, CSB subjects had greater desire but similar liking scores in response to the sexually explicit videos. Exposure to sexually explicit cues in CSB compared to non-CSB subjects was associated with activation of the dorsal anterior cingulate, ventral striatum and amygdala. Functional connectivity of the dorsal anterior cingulate-ventral striatum-amygdala network was associated with subjective sexual desire (but not liking) to a greater degree in CSB relative to non-CSB subjects. The dissociation between desire or wanting and liking is consistent with theories of incentive motivation underlying CSB as in drug addictions. Neural differences in the processing of sexual-cue reactivity were identified in CSB subjects in regions previously implicated in drug-cue reactivity studies. The greater engagement of corticostriatal limbic circuitry in CSB following exposure to sexual cues suggests neural mechanisms underlying CSB and potential biological targets for interventions.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(7):e102419. · 3.73 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

6k Citations
1,198.31 Total Impact Points


  • 2006–2014
    • Yale-New Haven Hospital
      • Department of Laboratory Medicine
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
    • New York College of Osteopathic Medicine
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2002–2014
    • Yale University
      • Department of Psychiatry
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 2013
    • Columbia University
      • Teachers College
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2012
    • Cross Cancer Institute
      Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    • Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine
      Erie, Pennsylvania, United States
    • Virginia Commonwealth University
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Richmond, VA, United States
    • University College London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • McKnight Brain Institute
      Gainesville, Florida, United States
  • 2011–2012
    • University of New Haven
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
    • Mount Sinai School of Medicine
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Manhattan, NY, United States
  • 2009–2011
    • Community Health Center, Connecticut
      Middletown, Connecticut, United States
    • The Queen Elizabeth Hospital
      Tarndarnya, South Australia, Australia
    • University of Mississippi Medical Center
      • School of Medicine
      Jackson, MS, United States
  • 2005–2011
    • University of Minnesota Twin Cities
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Minneapolis, MN, United States
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Division of General Internal Medicine
      Seattle, WA, United States
  • 2010
    • University of Florida
      Gainesville, Florida, United States
    • National Center for PTSD
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2009–2010
    • Hartford Hospital
      Hartford, Connecticut, United States
  • 2008–2010
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • • Department of Radiology
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
    • University of Maryland, College Park
      • Department of Psychology
      College Park, MD, United States
  • 2007
    • Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis
      • Institute of Psychiatric Research
      Indianapolis, IN, United States
  • 2004
    • Brown University
      • Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior
      Providence, RI, United States
    • Alpert Medical School - Brown University
      • Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior
      Providence, RI, United States