[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biobehavioral features associated with binge-eating disorder (BED) have been investigated; however, few systematic reviews to date have described neuroimaging findings from studies of BED. Emerging functional and structural studies support BED as having unique and overlapping neural features as compared with other disorders. Neuroimaging studies provide evidence linking heightened responses to palatable food cues with prefrontal areas, particularly the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), with specific relationships to hunger and reward-sensitivity measures. While few studies to date have investigated non-food-cue responses; these suggest a generalized hypofunctioning in frontostriatal areas during reward and inhibitory control processes. Early studies applying neuroimaging to treatment efforts suggest that targeting neural function underlying motivational processes may prove important in the treatment of BED.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Excessive alcohol use in young adults is associated with greater impulsivity and neurobiological alterations in executive control systems. The maximum number of drinks consumed during drinking occasions ('MaxDrinks') represents a phenotype linked to vulnerability of alcohol use disorders, and an increase, or 'escalation', in MaxDrinks may be indicative of greater risk for problematic drinking. Thirty-six young adult drinkers performed a Go/No-Go task during fMRI, completed impulsivity-related assessments, and provided monthly reports of alcohol use during a 12-month follow-up period. Participants were characterized by MaxDrinks at baseline and after follow-up, identifying 18 escalating-drinkers and 18 constant-drinkers. Independent component analysis was used to investigate functional brain networks associated with response inhibition, and relationships with principal component analysis derived impulsivity-related domains were examined. Greater baseline MaxDrinks was associated with an average reduction in the engagement of a right-lateralized fronto-parietal functional network, while an escalation in MaxDrinks was associated with a greater difference in fronto-parietal engagement between successful inhibitions and error trials. Escalating-drinkers displayed greater impulsivity/compulsivity-related domain scores that were positively associated with fronto-parietal network engagement and change in MaxDrinks during follow-up. In young adults, an escalating MaxDrinks trajectory was prospectively associated with altered fronto-parietal control mechanisms and greater impulsivity/compulsivity scores. Continued longitudinal studies of MaxDrinks trajectories, functional network activity and impulsivity/compulsivity-related features may lend further insight into an intermediate phenotype vulnerable for alcohol use and addictive disorders.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 30 October 2015. doi:10.1038/npp.2015.332.
Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 10/2015; DOI:10.1038/npp.2015.332 · 7.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Internet provides a large source of novel and rewarding stimuli, particularly with respect to sexually explicit materials. Novelty-seeking and cue-conditioning are fundamental processes underlying preference and approach behaviors implicated in disorders of addiction. Here we examine these processes in individuals with compulsive sexual behaviors (CSB), hypothesizing a greater preference for sexual novelty and stimuli conditioned to sexual rewards relative to healthy volunteers. Twenty-two CSB males and forty age-matched male volunteers were tested in two separate behavioral tasks focusing on preferences for novelty and conditioned stimuli. Twenty subjects from each group were also assessed in a third conditioning and extinction task using functional magnetic resonance imaging. CSB was associated with enhanced novelty preference for sexual, as compared to control images, and a generalized preference for cues conditioned to sexual and monetary versus neutral outcomes compared to healthy volunteers. CSB individuals also had greater dorsal cingulate habituation to repeated sexual versus monetary images with the degree of habituation correlating with enhanced preference for sexual novelty. Approach behaviors to sexually conditioned cues dissociable from novelty preference were associated with an early attentional bias to sexual images. This study shows that CSB individuals have a dysfunctional enhanced preference for sexual novelty possibly mediated by greater cingulate habituation along with a generalized enhancement of conditioning to rewards. We further emphasize a dissociable role for cue-conditioning and novelty preference on the early attentional bias for sexual cues. These findings have wider relevance as the Internet provides a wide range of novel and potentially rewarding stimuli.
Journal of Psychiatric Research 10/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2015.10.017 · 3.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) studies often use one anode to increase cortical excitability in one hemisphere. However, mental processes may involve cortical regions in both hemispheres. This study's aim was to assess the safety and possible effects on affect and working memory of tDCS using two anodes for bifrontal stimulation. A group of healthy subjects participated in two bifrontal tDCS sessions on two different days, one for real and the other for sham stimulation. They performed a working memory task and reported their affect immediately before and after each tDCS session. Relative to sham, real bifrontal stimulation did not induce significant adverse effects, reduced decrement in vigor-activity during the study session, and did not improve working memory. These preliminary findings suggest that bifrontal anodal stimulation is feasible and safe and may reduce task-related fatigue in healthy participants. Its effects on neuropsychiatric patients deserve further study.
The Yale journal of biology and medicine 09/2015; 88(3):219-225.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Substance use during pregnancy and the postpartum period may have significant implications for both mother and the developing child. However, the neurobiological basis of the impact of substance use on parenting is less well understood. Here, we examined the impact of maternal substance use on cortical gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes and whether this was associated with individual differences in motivational systems of behavioral activation and inhibition. Mothers were included in the substance-using group if any addictive substance was used during pregnancy and/or in the immediate postpartum period (within 3 months of delivery). GM volume was reduced in substance-using mothers compared to non-substance-using mothers, particularly in frontal brain regions. In substance-using mothers, we also found that frontal GM was negatively correlated with levels of behavioral activation (i.e., the motivation to approach rewarding stimuli). This effect was absent in non-substance-using mothers. Taken together, these findings indicate a reduction in GM volume is associated with substance use and that frontal GM volumetric differences may be related to approach motivation in substance-using mothers.
The Yale journal of biology and medicine 09/2015; 88(3).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ready availability of data via searches on the Internet has changed how many people seek and perhaps store and recall information, although the brain mechanisms underlying these processes are not well understood. This study investigated brain mechanisms underlying Internet-based versus non-Internet-based searching. The results showed that Internet searching was associated with lower accuracy in recalling information as compared to traditional book searching. During fMRI, Internet searching was associated with less regional brain activation in the left ventral stream, the association area of the temporal-parietal-occipital cortices, and the middle frontal cortex. When comparing novel items to remembered trials, Internet-based searching was associated with higher brain activation in right orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and lower brain activation in right middle temporal gyrus (MTG) when facing those novel trials. Brain activations in the MTG were inversely correlated with response times, and brain activations in the OFC were positively correlated with self-reported search impulses. Taken together, the results suggest that while Internet-based searching may have facilitated the information-acquisition process, this process may have been performed more hastily and be more prone to difficulties in recollection. In addition, people appear less confident in recalling information learned through Internet searching and that recent Internet searching may promote motivations to use the Internet. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
European Journal of Neuroscience 08/2015; DOI:10.1111/ejn.13039 · 3.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although craving states are important to both cocaine dependence (CD) and pathological gambling (PG), few studies have directly investigated neurobiological similarities and differences in craving between these disorders. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess brain activity in 103 participants (30 CD, 28 PG, and 45 Controls) while they watched videos depicting cocaine, gambling, and sad scenarios to investigate the neural correlates of craving. We observed a three-way urge type x video-type x diagnostic group interaction in self-reported craving, with CD participants reporting strong cocaine cravings to cocaine videos, and PG participants reporting strong gambling urges to gambling videos. Neuroimaging data revealed a diagnostic group x video interaction in anterior cingulate cortex/ventromedial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activating predominantly to cocaine videos in CD participants, and a more dorsal mPFC region that was most strongly activated for cocaine videos in CD participants, gambling videos in PG participants, and sad videos in control participants. Gender x diagnosis x video interactions identified dorsal mPFC and a region in posterior insula/caudate in which female but not male PG participants showed increased responses to gambling videos. Findings illustrate both similarities and differences in the neural correlates of drug cravings and gambling urges in CD and PG. Future studies should investigate diagnostic- and gender-specific therapies targeting the neural systems implicated in craving/urge states in addictions.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 29 June 2015. doi:10.1038/npp.2015.193.
Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 06/2015; DOI:10.1038/npp.2015.193 · 7.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Compulsive sexual behavior: Individual, neurobiological, and psychological considerations
Chair: Shane W. Kraus
VISN 1 MIRECC, VA CT Healthcare System
Yale University School of Medicine
The current symposium will review data from four studies discussing the role of individual, neurobiological, and psychological factors in the assessment and treatment of compulsive sexual behavior.
Abstract (2500 characters)
Compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) is characterized by inappropriate or excessive sexual fantasies or behaviors that lead to subjective distress or impairment in one’s daily functioning across several important life domains. Currently, there is no widely accepted framework on how to best conceptualize and/or treat individuals with CSB, and it is debated as to whether to view CSB as an impulse-control disorder, a feature of hypersexual disorder, or a behavioral addiction. Recent data suggest that “behavioral addictions” (e.g., gambling, shopping, sex) may share clinical, genetic, neurobiological, and phenomenological (e.g., escalation of behavior over time, craving, attentional bias) parallels with substance addictions, raising questions about how best to classify, prevent and treat CSB.
The symposium will describe data on individual, neurobiological, and psychological factors in CSB. Dr. Voon will present data on cue reactivity, cue conditioning, and attentional bias in CSB, with findings providing support for incentive motivation theories underlying CSB. Dr. Gola will present data on brain reward pathways in individuals with CSB. Individuals with CSB as compared to those without had increased activation of the ventral striatum for erotic but not monetary incentives. Mr. Grubbs will present data from two samples examining the relationship between pornography users’ behaviors and their perceptions of what constitutes “pornography addiction.” Individual difference variables such as religious and spiritual struggles and conservative sexual values were associated with perceived addiction to pornography. Dr. Kraus will present data from a sample of US Veterans and describe the psychometric properties of a newly developed questionnaire designed to identify behaviors, thoughts, and experiences associated with compulsive use of pornography. Item loadings from a principal component analysis, a high internal consistency reliability coefficient, and a moderate mean inter-item correlation supported interpreting the screening instrument as a single scale that demonstrated construct, convergent and discriminant validity. Finally, Dr. Potenza will serve as discussant and explore the findings in the settings of DSM-5 and ICD-11, and describe the implications for classification, assessment, prevention, treatment, and policy.
Subject Area: Clinical
Neuroimaging studies in compulsive sexual behaviours
Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge
Increased erotic incentives sensitivity but not diminished reactivity for other rewards underlies compulsive sexual behaviors.
Institute of Psychology, Polish Academy of Science and Institute for Neural Computations, University of California San Diego
Małgorzata Wordecha, Laboratory of Brain Imaging, Neurobiology Center, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Polish Academy of Science, Warsaw University
Guillaume Sescousse, Radboud University, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour
Bartosz Kossowski, Laboratory of Brain Imaging, Neurobiology Center, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Polish Academy of Science and Institute of Radioelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology
Artur Marchewka, Laboratory of Brain Imaging, Neurobiology Center, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Polish Academy of Science
Predicting perceived addiction to internet pornography over time: The role of personality and religious beliefs
Joshua B. Grubbs
Case Western Reserve University
Joshua Wilt, Case Western Reserve University
Julie J. Exline, Case Western Reserve University
Kenneth I. Pargament, Bowling Green State University
Pornography Use Screener: Psychometric properties
Shane W. Kraus, VISN 1 MIRECC, VA CT Healthcare System and Yale University School of Medicine
Steve Martino, VISN 1 MIRECC, VA CT Healthcare System and Yale University School of Medicine
Rani A. Hoff, VISN 1 MIRECC, VA CT Healthcare System and Yale University School of Medicine
Elizabeth Dombrowski, VA CT Healthcare System
Marc N. Potenza, Yale University School of Medicine
Marc N. Potenza
Yale University School of Medicine
Association of Psychological Science, New York City; 05/2015
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article highlights the research presentations at the satellite symposium on "Brain Pathways to Recovery from Alcohol Dependence" held at the 2013 Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting. The purpose of this symposium was to provide an up to date overview of research efforts focusing on understanding brain mechanisms that contribute to recovery from alcohol dependence. A panel of scientists from the alcohol and addiction research field presented their insights and perspectives on brain mechanisms that may underlie both recovery and lack of recovery from alcohol dependence. The four sessions of the symposium encompassed multilevel studies exploring mechanisms underlying relapse and craving associated with sustained alcohol abstinence, cognitive function deficit and recovery, and translational studies on preventing relapse and promoting recovery. Gaps in our knowledge and research opportunities were also discussed.
Published by Elsevier Inc.