Michael F Green

VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, California, United States

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Publications (206)1194.79 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a are auditory event-related potential (ERP) components that show robust deficits in schizophrenia (SZ) patients and exhibit qualities of endophenotypes, including substantial heritability, test–retest reliability, and trait-like stability. These measures also fulfill criteria for use as cognition and function-linked biomarkers in outcome studies, but have not yet been validated for use in large-scale multi-site clinical studies. This study tested the feasibility of adding MMN and P3a to the ongoing Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS) study. The extent to which demographic, clinical, cognitive, and functional characteristics contribute to variability in MMN and P3a amplitudes was also examined. Participants (HCS n = 824, SZ n = 966) underwent testing at 5 geographically distributed COGS laboratories. Valid ERP recordings were obtained from 91% of HCS and 91% of SZ patients. Highly significant MMN (d = 0.96) and P3a (d = 0.93) amplitude reductions were observed in SZ patients, comparable in magnitude to those observed in single-lab studies with no appreciable differences across laboratories. Demographic characteristics accounted for 26% and 18% of the variance in MMN and P3a amplitudes, respectively. Significant relationships were observed among demographically-adjusted MMN and P3a measures and medication status as well as several clinical, cognitive, and functional characteristics of the SZ patients. This study demonstrates that MMN and P3a ERP biomarkers can be feasibly used in multi-site clinical studies. As with many clinical tests of brain function, demographic factors contribute to MMN and P3a amplitudes and should be carefully considered in future biomarker-informed clinical studies.
    Schizophrenia Research 10/2014; · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Individuals with schizophrenia face significant challenges in daily functioning, and although social cognition predicts how well patients respond to these challenges, associated physiological mechanisms remain unspecified. The present study draws from polyvagal theory and tested the hypothesis that respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), an established indicator of the capacity to self-regulate and adapt to environmental demands, combines with social cognition to predict functional outcome. Using data from 41 schizophrenia patients and 36 healthy comparison subjects, we replicated group differences in RSA and social cognition and also demonstrated that RSA and social cognition interact to predict how effectively patients manage work and independent living activities. Specifically, RSA did not enhance functional outcomes when social cognition was already strong, but higher levels of RSA enabled effective role functioning when social-cognitive performance was impaired. Jointly, RSA and social cognition accounted for 40% of the variance in outcome success, compared with 21% when evaluating social cognition alone. As polyvagal theory suggests, physiological flexibility and self-regulatory capacity may compensate for poorer social-cognitive skills among schizophrenia patients. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
    Journal of abnormal psychology. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Reduced auditory P300 amplitude is a robust schizophrenia deficit exhibiting the qualities of a viable genetic endophenotype. These include heritability, test-retest reliability, and trait-like stability. Recent evidence suggests that P300 may also serve as a predictive biomarker for transition to psychosis during the schizophrenia prodrome. Historically, the utility of the P300 has been limited by its clinical nonspecificity, cross-site measurement variability, and required EEG expertise. The Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS-2) study provided an opportunity to examine the consistency of the measure across multiple sites with varying degrees of EEG experience, and to identify important modulating factors that contribute to measurement variability. Auditory P300 was acquired from 649 controls and 587 patients at 5 sites. An overall patient deficit was observed with effect size 0.62. Each site independently observed a significant patient deficit, but site differences also existed. In patients, site differences reflected clinical differences in positive symptomatology and functional capacity. In controls, site differences reflected differences in racial stratification, smoking and substance use history. These factors differentially suppressed the P300 response, but only in control subjects. This led to an attenuated patient-control difference among smokers and among African Americans with history of substance use. These findings indicate that the P300 can be adequately assessed quantitatively, across sites, without substantial EEG expertise. Measurements are suitable for both genetic endophenotype analyses and studies of psychosis risk and conversion. However, careful attention must be given to selection of appropriate comparison samples to avoid misleading false negative results.
    Schizophrenia Research 10/2014; · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Working memory impairment has been extensively studied in schizophrenia, but less is known about moderators of the impairment. Using the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia case-control study (COGS-2), we examined smoking status, types of antipsychotic medication, and history of substance as moderators for working memory impairment in schizophrenia.
    Schizophrenia Research 09/2014; · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Individuals with schizophrenia often show substantial deficits in social cognitive abilities, which are strongly associated with social functioning. To advance our understanding of the genetic variation that is associated with social cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, we genotyped 74 schizophrenia outpatients who completed social cognitive performance measures assessing mentalizing, social perception, and emotional intelligence, as well as clinical symptoms. We assessed seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) previously found to show replicable associations with socio-emotional processes. For one of the seven SNPs, rs2268493, the 'T' allele was significantly associated with poorer performance on a composite social cognition index, as well as specific tests of mentalizing and social perception. None of the SNPs were associated with clinical symptoms. Though the sample size is small, these findings provide initial support for the involvement of genetic variants of the OXTR in social cognitive impairments in schizophrenia.
    Schizophrenia Research 09/2014; · 4.59 Impact Factor
  • Amanda McCleery, William P Horan, Michael F Green
    09/2014: pages 49-67; , ISBN: 978-0-12-405172-0
  • L. Felice Reddy, William P. Horan, Michael F. Green
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    ABSTRACT: The DSM-5 changes to the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia reflect modest incremental changes. The two most substantial changes, the elimination of subtypes and de-emphasis of Schneiderian First-Rank Symptoms, are a significant departure from long-standing approaches to conceptualizing and defining schizophrenia, but are unlikely to have an appreciable impact on caseness or clinical management. Several minor modifications to the diagnosis are generally useful additions that will likely enhance diagnostic precision. The two most controversial changes that were considered, the addition of dimensional ratings and attenuated psychosis syndrome, were ultimately placed in the third section of DSM-5 for further research and consideration. In sum, the changes demonstrate increased precision of diagnosis, with minimal changes in caseness.
    Clinical Psychology Science and Practice 09/2014; 21(3). · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Twin and multiplex family studies have established significant heritability for schizophrenia (SZ), often summarized as 81%. The Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS-1) family study was designed to deconstruct the genetic architecture of SZ using neurocognitive and neurophysiological endophenotypes, for which heritability estimates ranged from 18% to 50% (mean = 30%). This study assessed the heritability of SZ in these families to determine whether there is a "heritability gap" between the diagnosis and related endophenotypes.
    Schizophrenia bulletin. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders are characterized by deficits in neurocognition. Deficits in domains such as attention, memory, executive functions, and speed of processing, as well as early perceptual processes, typically appear early in the course of the disorder and remain stable over time. Cognitive deficits can cause serious impairments in community functioning (i.e., work, independent living, and social relationships). For this reason, cognitive remediation (CR) is increasingly utilized to improve neurocognition. The empirical support for CR for adults with chronic schizophrenia is encouraging and growing. CR approaches are suitable for widespread dissemination and have been the focus of the majority of recent empirical research in psychoses. There are two broad categories of computerized CR approaches: those that target higher-level cognitive processes, and those that target neuroplasticity using basic auditory and visual processing. Research currently supports the efficacy of both higher-level and neuroplasticity-based CR for improving targeted cognitive domains; however, there is more consistent support for higher-level approaches in terms of generalization to untrained cognitive domains and functional outcomes. To achieve functional outcomes, CR combined with skills training or other psychosocial rehabilitation approaches is likely the most effective approach. The majority of CR interventions allow difficulty to be individually adjusted, which is an important therapeutic feature, and some provide an array of modules to allow personalized interventions. Several CR interventions appear to have durable treatment benefits, but more research is needed to clarify whether booster sessions, pharmacological augmentation, or other treatments should routinely be incorporated into treatment plans.
    Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry. 06/2014; 1(2).
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the discrepancy of endophenotypic performance between probands with schizophrenia and unaffected siblings by paternal age at proband birth, a possible marker for de novo mutations. Pairs of schizophrenia probands and unaffected siblings (N=220 pairs) were evaluated on 11 neuropsychological or neurophysiological endophenotypes previously identified as heritable. For each endophenotype, the sibling-minus-proband differences were transformed to standardized scores. Then for each pair, the average discrepancy was calculated from its standardized scores. We tested the hypothesis that the discrepancy is associated with paternal age, controlling for the number of endophenotypes shared between proband and his or her sibling, and proband age, which were both associated with paternal age. The non-significant association between the discrepancy and paternal age was in the opposite direction from the hypothesis. Of the 11 endophenotypes only sensori-motor dexterity was significant, but in the opposite direction. Eight other endophenotypes were also in the opposite direction, but not significant. The results did not support the hypothesized association of increased differences between sibling/proband pairs with greater paternal age. A possible explanation is that the identification of heritable endophenotypes was based on samples for which schizophrenia was attributable to inherited rather than de novo/non-inherited causes.
    Psychiatry research. 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Schizophrenia is associated with impaired face and face affect processing. N170 and N250 are two event related potentials that have been studied in relation to face processing in schizophrenia, but the studies have mixed results. The aim of this paper was to conduct a meta-analysis of N170 and N250 in schizophrenia to evaluate trends and resolve the inconsistencies. Methods: Twenty-one studies of N170 (n=438 schizophrenia patients, n=418 controls) and six studies of N250 (n=149 schizophrenia patients, n=151 controls) were included in the meta-analysis. Hedges’ g was calculated for each study, and the overall weighted mean effect size was calculated for N170 and N250. Homogeneity of the effect size distributions, potential publication bias, and impact of potential moderators were also assessed. Results: The amplitude of both N170 and N250 to face stimuli was smaller in patients than controls (N170 effect size=0.64; N250 effect size=0.49; p’s<0.001). The distributions of the effect sizes were homogeneous (p’s>0.90), and there was no indication of a publication bias. We found no significant effect of task requirements regarding judgments of the face stimuli (i.e. emotional vs. nonemotional judgment). Moreover, we found no significant difference between the effect size for N170 and N250. Conclusions: Though findings of individual studies in this area have been mixed, the results of the meta-analysis strongly support disruption of N170 and N250 in schizophrenia. The comparable effect sizes across the two waveforms suggest that the well-established behavioral deficit in face emotion processing is mirrored in an underlying neural impairment for processing faces.
    Biological Psychiatry 05/2014; · 9.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Impairments in social cognition are common in schizophrenia and predict poor functional outcome. Thepurpose of this proof-of-concept randomized, parallel group clinical trial was to assess whether intranasal oxytocin (OT), given prior to social cognitive training, enhances learning of social cognitive skills. 27 male outpatients with schizophrenia participated in a 6-week (12-session) training on social cognitive skills. Training focused on three domains: facial affect recognition, social perception, and empathy. Subjects were randomly assigned (double blind) to receive either intranasal OTor placebo 30 min prior to each session. Participants did not receive OTbetween sessions or on the day of assessments. We evaluated scores on social cognition measures, as well as clinical symptoms and neurocognition, at baseline, one week following the final training session, and one month later. Our pre-specified primary outcome measure was a social cognition composite score comprised of 5 individual measures. There were main effects of time (indicating improvement across the combined treatment groups) on the social cognition composite score at both one week and one month following completion of training. Subjects receiving OTdemonstrated significantly greater improvements in empathic accuracy than those receiving placebo at both post-treatment and one month follow-up. There were no OT-related effects for the other social cognitive tests, clinical symptoms, or neurocognition. This study provides initial support for the idea that OT enhances the effectiveness of training when administered shortly before social cognitive training sessions. The effects were most pronounced on empathic accuracy, a high-level social cognitive process that is not easily improved in current social cognitive remediation programs.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 18 March 2014; doi:10.1038/npp.2014.68.
    Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 03/2014; · 8.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Pervasive social cognition deficits are evident early in the course of schizophrenia and are directly linked to functional outcome, making them an important target for intervention. Here, we tested the feasibility of use, and initiated the evaluation of efficacy, of a novel, neuroplasticity-based online training program (SocialVille) in young adults with schizophrenia. Methods Schizophrenia patients (n = 17) completed 24 hours of online SocialVille game play either from home or at a clinic, over a 6–10 week period. We examined training feasibility, gains on the SocialVille exercises relative to matched healthy controls (n = 17), and changes on measures of social cognition, social functioning, global functioning and motivation. Results Subjects adhered to training requirements, and rated SocialVille in the medium to high range in satisfaction, enjoyment, and ease of use. Subjects demonstrated significant, large improvements on the speeded SocialVille tasks, and small to moderate improvements on the working memory tasks. Post-training performance on the SocialVille tasks were similar to initial performance of the healthy controls. Subjects also showed improvements on standard measures of social cognition, social functioning, and motivation. No improvements were recorded for emotion recognition indices of the MSCEIT, or on quality of life scales. Conclusion This study provides an initial proof of concept for online social cognition training in schizophrenia. This form of training demonstrated feasibility and resulted in within-subject gains in social functioning and motivation. This pilot study represents a first step towards validating this training approach; randomized controlled trials, now underway, are designed to confirm and extend these findings.
    Schizophrenia Research: Cognition. 03/2014; 1(1):e11–e19.
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    ABSTRACT: Despite a well-known behavioral finding of visual backward masking impairment in schizophrenia, its underlying neural mechanism remains obscure. This study examined neural correlates of a distinct type of visual backward masking, object substitution masking (OSM), in schizophrenia. Twenty schizophrenia patients and 26 healthy controls completed a 4-Dot OSM task and three functional localizer tasks for the lateral occipital (LO), human motion-sensitive (hMT+), and retinotopic areas in the scanner. In 4-dot masking, subjects detected a target that was followed by a mask consisting of 4 dots that surrounded a target. Stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA) between target and mask was varied to examine the modulation of masking: (1) within three visual processing areas regions of interest (ROI) (i.e., ROI analysis) and (2) in brain regions outside the three visual processing areas (i.e., whole brain analysis). In the ROI analyses, LO and retinotopic areas showed increased peak amplitude when SOA become longer in both patients and controls. There was also an effect of ROI in that both groups showed higher activation in LO and hMT+ compared with the retinotopic areas. The whole brain analyses revealed a significantly activated area for longer SOAs vs. a short SOA in the occipital cortex in controls only, but the group contrast was not significant. Overall, this study did not find strong evidence for neural abnormalities of OSM in schizophrenia, suggesting that neural substrates of OSM in schizophrenia are not as compromised as those involved in the more common masking methods that rely on disruption of object formation. Hum Brain Mapp, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Human Brain Mapping 03/2014; · 6.88 Impact Factor
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    Michael F. Green, Philip D. Harvey
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    ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia Research: Cognition will serve an important function – a place where interests converge and investigators can learn about the recent developments in this area. This new journal will provide rapid dissemination of information to people who will make good use of it. In this initial article, we comment globally on the study of cognition in schizophrenia: how we got here, where we are, and where we are going. The goal of this first article is to place the study of cognition in schizophrenia within a historical and scientific context. In a field as richly textured as ours it is impossible to hit all the important areas, and we hope the reader will forgive our omissions. Phrased in cognitive terms, our limited presentation of the past is a matter of selective memory, the present is a matter of selective attention, and the future is a matter of selective prospection. This broad introduction emphasizes that cognition in schizophrenia provides clues to pathophysiology, treatment, and outcome. In fact, the study of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia has become wholly intertwined with the study of schizophrenia itself.
    Schizophrenia Research: Cognition. 03/2014; 1(1):e1–e9.
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    ABSTRACT: Although schizophrenia is associated with impairments in social cognition, the scope and neural correlates of these disturbances are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated whether schizophrenia patients show impaired functioning of the mirror neuron system (MNS), as indexed by electroencephalographic (EEG) mu (8-13 Hz) suppression, a hypothesized biomarker of MNS activity that is sensitive to the degree of social interaction depicted in visual stimuli. A total of 32 outpatients and 26 healthy controls completed an EEG paradigm that included six action observation or execution conditions that differed in their degrees of social interaction. Participants also completed a validated empathy questionnaire. Across both groups, we found a significant linear increase in mu suppression across the conditions involving greater levels of social engagement and interaction, but no significant group or interaction effects. Patients self-reported diminished empathic concern and perspective taking, which showed some moderate relations to mu suppression levels. Thus, the schizophrenia group showed generally intact modulation of MNS functioning at the electrophysiological level, despite self-reporting empathic disturbances. The disturbances commonly seen on self-report, performance, and neuroimaging measures of mentalizing in schizophrenia may largely reflect difficulties with higher-level inferential processes about others' emotions, rather than a basic incapacity to share in these experiences.
    Cognitive Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience 01/2014; · 3.87 Impact Factor
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    Jonathan K Wynn, Carol Jahshan, Michael F Green
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Successful processing of multisensory stimuli increases the likelihood of detection or identification of salient, biologically significant events faster and more efficiently than unisensory inputs. Schizophrenia (SZ) patients show deficits in unisensory processing, but it is unclear whether impairments are seen to multisensory stimuli, a process known as multisensory integration (MSI). We used behavioural and event-related potential (ERP) measures to examine MSI in SZ and healthy controls (HC). Methods. Thirty-three SZ and 30 HC completed a target detection task with unisensory and multisensory stimuli. Reaction times (RT) were measured while their electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. Two auditory (N100 and P200) and visual (P100 and N160) ERPs were examined. MSI was analysed in terms of violations of RT to the race model and by comparing ERPs in the MSI condition to the sum of the unisensory ERPs. Results Both groups showed faster RT in MSI compared to unisensory conditions. SZ had non-significantly fewer violations of the race model compared to HC. SZ had significantly smaller amplitudes to unisensory visual N160 and auditory P100 relative to HC; there were no significant group differences on any ERP measure of MSI. Conclusions SZ showed relatively intact MSI with subtle (non-significant) differences at the neural and behavioural levels compared to HC. Our results suggest that neural processes associated with MSI are not an additional source of impairment in SZ.
    Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 01/2014; · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Startle inhibition by weak prepulses (PPI) is studied to understand the biology of information processing in schizophrenia patients and healthy comparison subjects (HCS). The Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS) identified associations between PPI and single nucleotide polymorphisms in schizophrenia probands and unaffected relatives, and linkage analyses extended evidence for the genetics of PPI deficits in schizophrenia in the COGS-1 family study. These findings are being extended in a 5-site "COGS-2" study of 1800 patients and 1200 unrelated HCS to facilitate genetic analyses. We describe a planned interim analysis of COGS-2 PPI data. Eyeblink startle was measured in carefully screened HCS and schizophrenia patients (n=1402). Planned analyses of PPI (60ms intervals) assessed effects of diagnosis, sex and test site, PPI-modifying effects of medications and smoking, and relationships between PPI and neurocognitive measures. 884 subjects met strict inclusion criteria. ANOVA of PPI revealed significant effects of diagnosis (p=0.0005) and sex (p<0.002), and a significant diagnosis×test site interaction. HCS>schizophrenia PPI differences were greatest among patients not taking 2nd generation antipsychotics, and were independent of smoking status. Modest but significant relationships were detected between PPI and performance in specific neurocognitive measures. The COGS-2 multi-site study detects schizophrenia-related PPI deficits reported in single-site studies, including patterns related to diagnosis, prepulse interval, sex, medication and other neurocognitive measures. Site differences were detected and explored. The target COGS-2 schizophrenia "endophenotype" of reduced PPI should prove valuable for identifying and confirming schizophrenia risk genes in future analyses.
    Schizophrenia Research 01/2014; · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with Schizophrenia (SZ) show deficits across various stages of visual information processing. Whether patients with Bipolar Disorder (BD) exhibit these deficits is unclear. In this study, we conducted a detailed comparison of specific stages of early visual perception in BD and SZ. Forty-three BD patients, 43 SZ patients, and 51 matched healthy control subjects (HC) were administered three visual processing paradigms emphasizing: 1) an early stage of object formation (location backward masking), 2) a middle stage of object substitution (four-dot backward masking), and 3) a later stage at the perception-attention interface (rapid serial visual processing (RSVP) task eliciting the attentional blink). SZ performed significantly worse than BD and HC on location and four-dot masking. BD did not significantly differ from HC on either masking task. Both patient groups performed significantly worse than HC on the RSVP task; unlike SZ, BD did not show a significant attentional blink effect compared to HC. Our results indicate that BD patients were intact at the early and middle stages of visual processing (object formation and substitution) but intermediate between the SZ and HC groups at a later processing stage involving perceptual and attentional processes (RSVP task). These findings suggest that SZ is characterized by a diffuse pathophysiology affecting all stages of visual processing whereas in BD disruption is only at the latest stage involving higher order attentional functions.
    Journal of Psychiatric Research 01/2014; · 4.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Clinicians often need to evaluate the treatment response of an individual person and to know that observed change is true improvement or worsening beyond usual week-to-week changes. This paper gives clinicians tools to evaluate individual changes on the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). We compare three different approaches: a descriptive analysis of MCCB test–retest performance with no intervention, a reliable change index (RCI) approach controlling for average practice effects, and a regression approach. Method Data were gathered as part of the MATRICS PASS study (Nuechterlein et al., 2008). A total of 159 people with schizophrenia completed the MCCB at baseline and 4 weeks later. Data were analyzed using an RCI and a regression formula establishing confidence intervals. Results The RCI and regression approaches agree within one point when baseline values are close to the sample mean. However, the regression approach offers more accurate limits for expected change at the tails of the distribution of baseline scores. Conclusions Although both approaches have their merits, the regression approach provides the most accurate measure of significant change across the full range of scores. As the RCI does not account for regression to the mean and has confidence limits that remain constant across baseline scores, the RCI approach effectively gives narrower confidence limits around an inaccurately predicted average change value. Further, despite the high test–retest reliability of the MCCB, a change in an individual's score must be relatively large to be confident that it is beyond normal month-to-month variation.
    Schizophrenia Research 01/2014; · 4.59 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

8k Citations
1,194.79 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006–2014
    • VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System
      Los Angeles, California, United States
  • 2004–2014
    • CSU Mentor
      Long Beach, California, United States
    • Universität Osnabrück
      Osnabrück, Lower Saxony, Germany
    • Dartmouth–Hitchcock Medical Center
      Lebanon, New Hampshire, United States
  • 2002–2014
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • • Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior
      • • Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioural Sciences
      Los Angeles, California, United States
    • University of Southern California
      • • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
      • • School of Social Work
      • • Department of Psychology
      Los Angeles, California, United States
    • Harvard Medical School
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2013
    • University of Houston
      • Department of Psychology
      Houston, TX, United States
    • Cairo University
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Cairo, Muhafazat al Qahirah, Egypt
    • Fordham University
      • Department of Psychology
      United States
  • 2012
    • Jianan Mental Hospital
      臺南市, Taiwan, Taiwan
    • Douglas Mental Health University Institute
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2011
    • Nathan Kline Institute
      Orangeburg, New York, United States
    • University of Maryland, Baltimore
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Baltimore, MD, United States
    • University of California, San Diego
      • Department of Psychiatry
      San Diego, CA, United States
  • 2009
    • Oslo University Hospital
      Kristiania (historical), Oslo County, Norway
  • 2003–2009
    • California State University, Northridge
      • Department of Psychology
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
  • 2007–2008
    • Pacific Neuropsychiatric Institute
      Seattle, Washington, United States
    • San Francisco State University
      • Department of Psychology
      San Francisco, CA, United States
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
  • 2006–2008
    • California State University, Channel Islands
      Camarillo, California, United States