Robert L Gladding

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), Maryland, United States

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Publications (34)157 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE This study examined the long-term effects of fluoxetine administered to juvenile rhesus monkeys who, as young adults, were imaged with positron emission tomography for two serotonergic markers: serotonin transporter (SERT) and serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) receptor. An equal number of monkeys separated from their mothers at birth-an animal model of human childhood stress-were also studied. METHOD At birth, 32 male rhesus monkeys were randomly assigned to either maternal separation or normal rearing conditions. At age 2, half (N=8) of each group was randomly assigned to fluoxetine (3 mg/kg) or placebo for 1 year. To eliminate the confounding effects of residual drug in the brain, monkeys were scanned at least 1.5 years after drug discontinuation. Social interactions were assessed both during and after drug administration. RESULTS Fluoxetine persistently upregulated SERT, but not 5-HT1A receptors, in both the neocortex and the hippocampus. Whole-brain voxel-wise analysis revealed that fluoxetine had a significant effect in the lateral temporal and cingulate cortices. In contrast, neither maternal separation by itself nor the rearing-by-drug interaction was significant for either marker. Fluoxetine had no significant effect on the behavioral measures. CONCLUSIONS Fluoxetine administered to juvenile monkeys upregulates SERT into young adulthood. Implications regarding the efficacy or potential adverse effects of SSRIs in patients cannot be directly drawn from this study. Its purpose was to investigate effects of SSRIs on brain development in nonhuman primates using an experimental approach that randomly assigned long-term SSRI treatment or placebo.
    American Journal of Psychiatry 01/2014; · 14.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The PET radioligand (11)C-CUMI-101 was previously suggested as a putative agonist radioligand for the serotonin 1A (5-hydroxytryptamine 1A [5-HT1A]) receptor in recombinant cells expressing human 5-HT1A receptor. However, a recent study showed that CUMI-101 behaved as a potent 5-HT1A receptor antagonist in rat brain. CUMI-101 also has moderate affinity (Ki = 6.75 nM) for α1 adrenoceptors measured in vitro. The current study examined the functional properties and selectivity of CUMI-101, both in vitro and in vivo. The functional assay was performed using (35)S-GTPγS (GTP is guanosine triphosphate) in primate brains. The cross-reactivity of CUMI-101 with α1 adrenoceptors was performed using in vitro radioligand binding studies in rat, monkey, and human brains as well as in vivo PET imaging in mouse, rat, and monkey brains. CUMI-101 did not stimulate (35)S-GTPγS binding in primate brain, in contrast to 8-OH-DPAT, a potent 5-HT1A receptor agonist. Instead, CUMI-101 behaved as a potent 5-HT1A receptor antagonist by dose-dependently inhibiting 8-OH-DPAT-stimulated (35)S-GTPγS binding. Both in vitro and in vivo studies showed that CUMI-101 had significant α1 adrenoceptor cross-reactivity. On average, across all 3 species examined, cross-reactivity was highest in the thalamus (>45%) and lowest in the neocortex and cerebellum (<10%). PET imaging further confirmed that only preblocking with WAY-100635 plus prazosin decreased (11)C-CUMI-101 brain uptake to that of self-block. CUMI-101 behaves as a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist in primate brain, with significant, regional-dependent α1 adrenoceptor cross-reactivity, limiting its potential use as a PET radioligand in humans.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine 01/2014; 55(1):141-6. · 5.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We sought to develop a PET radioligand that would be useful for imaging human brain metabotropic subtype 1 receptors (mGluR1) in neuropsychiatric disorders and in drug development. 4 Fluoro-N-methyl-N-(4-(6-(methylamino)pyrimidin-4-yl)thiazol-2-yl)benzamide (FIMX, 11) was identified as having favorable properties for development as a PET radioligand. We developed a method for preparing [(18)F]11 in useful radiochemical yield and in high specific activity from [(18)F]fluoride ion and an N-Boc-protected (phenyl)aryliodonium salt precursor (15). In baseline experiments in rhesus monkey, [(18)F]11 gave high brain radioactivity uptake reflecting the expected distribution of mGluR1 with notably high uptake in cerebellum which became 47% lower by 120 min after radioligand injection. Pharmacological challenges demonstrated a very high proportion of the radioactivity in monkey brain to be bound specifically and reversibly to mGluR1. [(18)F]11 is concluded to be an effective PET radioligand for imaging mGluR1 in monkey brain and therefore merits further evaluation in human subjects.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 10/2013; · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We recently developed a novel cannabinoid subtype-1 (CB1) receptor radioligand (11)C-SD5024 for brain imaging. This study aimed to evaluate (11)C-SD5024 both in vitro and in vivo and compare it with the other CB1 receptor ligands previously used in humans, i.e., (11)C-MePPEP, (11)C-OMAR, (18)F-MK-9470, and (18)F-FMPEP-d2. In vitro experiments were performed to measure dissociation constant (Ki) in human brain and to measure the lipophilicity of five CB1 receptor ligands listed above. In vivo specific binding in monkeys was measured by comparing total distribution volume (VT) at baseline and after full receptor blockade. The kinetics of (11)C-SD5024 in humans were evaluated in seven healthy subjects with compartmental modeling. SD5024 showed Ki=0.47 nM, which was at an intermediate level among the five CB1 receptor ligands. Lipophilicity (LogD7.4) was 3.79, which is appropriate for brain imaging. Monkey scans showed high proportion of specific binding: ~80% of VT. In humans, (11)C-SD5024 showed peak brain uptake of 1.5-3 standardized uptake value, which was slightly higher than those of (11)C-OMAR and (18)F-MK-9470. One-compartment model showed good fitting, consistent with the vast majority of brain uptake being specific binding found in the monkey. Regional VT values were consistent with known distribution of CB1 receptors. VT calculated from 80 and 120min of scan data were strongly correlated (R(2)=0.97), indicating that 80min provided adequate information for quantitation and that the influence of radiometabolites was low. Intersubject variability for VT of (11)C-SD5024 was 22%, which was low among the five radioligands and indicated precise measurement. In conclusion, (11)C-SD5024 has appropriate affinity and lipophilicity, high specific binding, moderate brain uptake, and provides good precision to measure the binding. The results suggest that (11)C-SD5024 is slightly better than or equivalent to (11)C-OMAR and that both are suitable for clinical studies, especially those that involve two scans in one day.
    NeuroImage 09/2013; · 6.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: A recent study from our laboratory demonstrated that 11C-LY2428703, a new positron emission tomographic radioligand for metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1), has promising in vitro properties and excellent in vivo performance for imaging rat brain. The present study evaluated 11C-LY2428703 for imaging mGluR1 in monkey and human brains. METHODS: Rhesus monkeys were imaged at baseline and after administration of an mGluR1 blocking agent to calculate nonspecific binding, as well as after the administration of permeability glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) blockers to assess whether 11C-LY2428703 is a substrate for efflux transporters at the blood--brain barrier. Human imaging was performed at baseline in three healthy volunteers, and arterial input function was measured. RESULTS: Overall brain uptake was low in monkeys, though slightly higher in the cerebellum, where mGluR1s are concentrated. However, the uptake was not clearly displaceable in the scans after mGluR1 blockade. Brain penetration of the ligand did not increase after P-gp and BCRP blockade. Brain uptake was similarly low in all human subjects (mean VT with a two-tissue compartment model, 0.093 +/- 0.012 mL/cm3) and for all regions, including the cerebellum. CONCLUSIONS: Despite promising in vitro and in vivo results in rodents, 11C-LY2428703 was unsuitable for imaging mGluR1s in monkey or human brain because of low brain uptake, which was likely caused by high binding to plasma proteins.
    EJNMMI research. 06/2013; 3(1):47.
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: [(18)F]SP203 (3-fluoro-5-(2-(2-([(18)F]fluoromethyl)-thiazol-4-yl)ethynyl)benzonitrile) is an effective high-affinity and selective radioligand for imaging metabotropic 5 receptors (mGluR5) in human brain with PET. To provide a radioligand that may be used for more than one scanning session in the same subject in a single day, we set out to label SP203 with shorter-lived (11)C (t (1/2) = 20.4 min) and to characterize its behavior as a radioligand with PET in the monkey. METHODS: Iodo and bromo precursors were obtained by cross-coupling 2-fluoromethyl-4-((trimethylsilyl)ethynyl)-1,3-thiazole with 3,5-diiodofluorobenzene and 3,5-dibromofluorobenzene, respectively. Treatment of either precursor with [(11)C]cyanide ion rapidly gave [(11)C]SP203, which was purified with high-performance liquid chromatography. PET was used to measure the uptake of radioactivity in brain regions after injecting [(11)C]SP203 intravenously into rhesus monkeys at baseline and under conditions in which mGluR5 were blocked with 3-[(2-methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)ethynyl]pyridine (MTEP). The emergence of radiometabolites in monkey blood in vitro and in vivo was assessed with radio-HPLC. The stability of [(11)C]SP203 in human blood in vitro was also measured. RESULTS: The iodo precursor gave [(11)C]SP203 in higher radiochemical yield (>98 %) than the bromo precursor (20-52 %). After intravenous administration of [(11)C]SP203 into three rhesus monkeys, radioactivity peaked early in brain (average 12.5 min) with a regional distribution in rank order of expected mGluR5 density. Peak uptake was followed by a steady decline. No radioactivity accumulated in the skull. In monkeys pretreated with MTEP before [(11)C]SP203 administration, radioactivity uptake in brain was again high but then declined more rapidly than in the baseline scan to a common low level. [(11)C]SP203 was unstable in monkey blood in vitro and in vivo, and gave predominantly less lipophilic radiometabolites. By contrast, [(11)C]SP203 was stable in human blood in vitro. CONCLUSION: [(11)C]SP203 emulates [(18)F]SP203 with regard to providing a sizeable mGluR5-specific signal in monkey brain, and advantageously avoids troublesome accumulation of radioactivity in bone. Although [(11)C]SP203 is unsuitable for mGluR5 quantification in monkey brain, its evaluation as a PET radioligand for studying human brain mGluR5 is nevertheless warranted.
    European Journal of Nuclear Medicine 08/2012; · 4.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A known chemotype of H(3) receptor ligand was explored for development of a radioligand for imaging brain histamine subtype 3 (H(3)) receptors in vivo with positron emission tomography (PET), namely nonimidazole 2-aminoethylbenzofurans, represented by the compound (R)-(2-(2-(2-methylpyrrolidin-1-yl)ethyl)benzofuran-5-yl)(4-fluorophenyl)methanone (9). Compound 9 was labeled with fluorine-18 (t(1/2) = 109.7 min) in high specific activity by treating the prepared nitro analogue (12) with cyclotron-produced [(18)F]fluoride ion. [(18)F]9 was studied with PET in mouse and in monkey after intravenous injection. [(18)F]9 showed favorable properties as a candidate PET radioligand, including moderately high brain uptake with a high proportion of H(3) receptor-specific signal in the absence of radiodefluorination. The nitro compound 12 was found to have even higher H(3) receptor affinity, indicating the potential of this chemotype for the development of further promising PET radioligands.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 03/2012; 55(5):2406-15. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our laboratory developed (S)-3-(2'-fluoro-6',7'-dihydrospiro[piperidine-4,4'-thieno[3,2-c]pyran]-1-yl)-2-(2-fluorobenzyl)-N-methylpropanamide ((11)C-NOP-1A), a new radioligand for the nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (NOP) receptor, with high affinity (K(i), 0.15 nM) and appropriate lipophilicity (measured logD, 3.4) for PET brain imaging. Here, we assessed the utility of (11)C-NOP-1A for quantifying NOP receptors in the monkey brain and estimated the radiation safety profile of this radioligand based on its biodistribution in monkeys. Baseline and blocking PET scans were acquired from head to thigh for 3 rhesus monkeys for approximately 120 min after (11)C-NOP-1A injection. These 6 PET scans were used to quantify NOP receptors in the brain and to estimate radiation exposure to organs of the body. In the blocked scans, a selective nonradioactive NOP receptor antagonist (SB-612111; 1 mg/kg intravenously) was administered before (11)C-NOP-1A. In all scans, arterial blood was sampled to measure the parent radioligand (11)C-NOP-1A. Distribution volume (V(T); a measure of receptor density) was calculated with a compartment model using brain and arterial plasma data. Radiation-absorbed doses were calculated using the MIRD Committee scheme. After (11)C-NOP-1A injection, peak uptake of radioactivity in the brain had a high concentration (∼5 standardized uptake value), occurred early (∼12 min), and thereafter washed out quickly. V(T) (mL · cm(-3)) was highest in the neocortex (∼20) and lowest in hypothalamus and cerebellum (∼13). SB-612111 blocked approximately 50%-70% of uptake and reduced V(T) in all brain regions to approximately 7 mL · cm(-3). Distribution was well identified within 60 min of injection and stable for the remaining 60 min, consistent with only parent radioligand and not radiometabolites entering the brain. Whole-body scans confirmed that the brain had specific (i.e., displaceable) binding but could not detect specific binding in peripheral organs. The effective dose for humans estimated from the baseline scans in monkeys was 5.0 μSv/MBq. (11)C-NOP-1A is a useful radioligand for quantifying NOP receptors in the monkey brain, and its radiation dose is similar to that of other (11)C-labeled ligands for neuroreceptors. (11)C-NOP-1A appears to be a promising candidate for measuring NOP receptors in the human brain.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine 08/2011; 52(10):1638-45. · 5.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: [(11)C](R)-rolipram provides a measure of the density of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) in brain, an enzyme that metabolizes cAMP. The aims of this study were to perform kinetic modeling of [(11)C](R)-rolipram in healthy humans using an arterial input function and to replace this arterial input in humans with an image-derived input function. Twelve humans had two injections of [(11)C](R)-rolipram. An image-derived input function was obtained from the carotid arteries and four blood samples. The samples were used for partial volume correction and for estimating the parent concentration using HPLC analysis. An unconstrained two-compartment model and Logan analysis measured distribution volume V(T), with good identifiability but with moderately high retest variability (15%). Similar results were obtained using the image input (ratio image/arterial V(T)=1.00±0.06). Binding of [(11)C](R)-rolipram to PDE4 can be quantified in human brain using kinetic modeling and an arterial input function. Image input function from carotid arteries provides an equally accurate and reproducible method to quantify PDE4.
    NeuroImage 10/2010; 54(3):1903-9. · 6.25 Impact Factor
  • NeuroImage 01/2010; 52. · 6.25 Impact Factor
  • Current Radiopharmaceuticals 01/2010; 2(2):129-136.
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    ABSTRACT: We recently demonstrated that (11)C-MePPEP, a PET ligand for CB(1) receptors, has such high uptake in the human brain that it can be imaged for 210 min and that receptor density can be quantified as distribution volume (V(T)) using the gold standard of compartmental modeling. However, (11)C-MePPEP had relatively poor retest and intersubject variabilities, which were likely caused by errors in the measurements of radioligand in plasma at low concentrations by 120 min. We sought to find an analog of (11)C-MePPEP that would provide more accurate plasma measurements. We evaluated several promising analogs in the monkey brain and chose the (18)F-di-deutero fluoromethoxy analog ((18)F-FMPEP-d(2)) to evaluate further in the human brain. (11)C-FMePPEP, (18)F-FEPEP, (18)F-FMPEP, and (18)F-FMPEP-d(2) were studied in 5 monkeys with 10 PET scans. We calculated V(T) using compartmental modeling with serial measurements of unchanged parent radioligand in arterial plasma and radioactivity in the brain. Nonspecific binding was determined by administering a receptor-saturating dose of rimonabant, an inverse agonist at the CB(1) receptor. Nine healthy human subjects participated in 17 PET scans using (18)F-FMPEP-d(2), with 8 subjects having 2 PET scans to assess retest variability. To identify sources of error, we compared intersubject and retest variability of brain uptake, arterial plasma measurements, and V(T). (18)F-FMPEP-d(2) had high uptake in the monkey brain, with greater than 80% specific binding, and yielded less radioactivity uptake in bone than did (18)F-FMPEP. High brain uptake with (18)F-FMPEP-d(2) was also observed in humans, in whom V(T) was well identified within approximately 60 min. Retest variability of plasma measurements was good (16%); consequently, V(T) had a good retest variability (14%), intersubject variability (26%), and intraclass correlation coefficient (0.89). V(T) increased after 120 min, suggesting an accumulation of radiometabolites in the brain. Radioactivity accumulated in the skull throughout the entire scan but was thought to be an insignificant source of data contamination. Studies in monkeys facilitated our development and selection of (18)F-FMPEP-d(2), compared with (18)F-FMPEP, as a radioligand demonstrating high brain uptake, high percentage of specific binding, and reduced uptake in bone. Retest analysis in human subjects showed that (18)F-FMPEP-d(2) has greater precision and accuracy than (11)C-MePPEP, allowing smaller sample sizes to detect a significant difference between groups.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine 12/2009; 51(1):112-20. · 5.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ten percent of humans lack specific binding of [(11)C]PBR28 to 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO), a biomarker for inflammation. "Non-binders" have not been reported using another TSPO radioligand, [(11)C]-(R)-PK 11195, despite its use for more than two decades. This study asked two questions: (1) What is the cause of non-binding to PBR28? and (2) Why has this phenomenon not been reported using [(11)C]-(R)-PK 11195? Methods: Five binders and five non-binders received whole-body imaging with both [(11)C]-(R)-PK 11195 and [(11)C]PBR28. In vitro binding was performed using leukocyte membranes from binders and non-binders and the tritiated versions of the ligand. Rhesus monkeys were imaged with [(11)C]-(R)-PK 11195 at baseline and after blockade of TSPOs. Results: Using [(11)C]PBR28, uptake in all five organs with high densities of TSPO (lung, heart, brain, kidney, and spleen) was 50% to 75% lower in non-binders than in binders. In contrast, [(11)C]-(R)-PK 11195 distinguished binders and non-binders in only heart and lung. For the in vitro assay, [(3)H]PBR28 had more than 10-fold lower affinity to TSPO in non-binders than in binders. The in vivo specific binding of [(11)C]-(R)-PK 11195 in monkey brain was approximately 80-fold lower than that reported for [(11)C]PBR28. Conclusions: Based on binding of [(3)H]PK 11195 to leukocyte membranes, both binders and non-binders express TSPO. Non-binding to PBR28 is caused by its low affinity for TSPO in non-binders. Non-binding may be differentially expressed in organs of the body. The relatively low in vivo specific binding of [(11)C]-(R)-PK 11195 may have obscured its detection of non-binding in peripheral organs.
    NeuroImage 11/2009; 49(4):2924-32. · 6.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a membrane-bound efflux pump that limits the distribution of drugs to several organs of the body. At the blood-brain barrier, P-gp blocks the entry of both loperamide and its metabolite, N-desmethyl-loperamide (N-dLop), and thereby prevents central opiate effects. Animal studies have shown that (11)C-dLop, compared with (11)C-loperamide, is an especially promising radiotracer because it generates negligible radiometabolites that enter the brain. The purposes of this study were to determine whether (11)C-dLop is a substrate for P-gp at the blood-brain barrier in humans and to measure the distribution of radioactivity in the entire body to estimate radiation exposure. Brain PET scans were acquired in 4 healthy subjects for 90 min and included concurrent measurements of the plasma concentration of unchanged radiotracer. Time-activity data from the whole brain were quantified using a 1-tissue-compartment model to estimate the rate of entry (K(1)) of radiotracer into the brain. Whole-body PET scans were acquired in 8 healthy subjects for 120 min. For brain imaging, after the injection of (11)C-dLop the concentration of radioactivity in the brain was low (standardized uptake value, approximately 15%) and stable after approximately 20 min. In contrast, uptake of radioactivity in the pituitary was about 50-fold higher than that in the brain. The plasma concentration of (11)C-dLop declined rapidly, but the percentage composition of plasma was unusually stable, with the parent radiotracer constituting 85% of total radioactivity after approximately 5 min. The rate of brain entry was low (K(1) = 0.009 +/- 0.002 mL.cm(-3).min(-1); n = 4). For whole-body imaging, as a measure of radiation exposure to the entire body the effective dose of (11)C-dLop was 7.8 +/- 0.6 muSv/MBq (n = 8). The low brain uptake of radioactivity is consistent with (11)C-dLop being a substrate for P-gp in humans and confirms that this radiotracer generates negligible quantities of brain-penetrant radiometabolites. In addition, the low rate of K(1) is consistent with P-gp rapidly effluxing substrates while they transit through the lipid bilayer. The radiation exposure of (11)C-dLop is similar to that of many other (11)C-radiotracers. Thus, (11)C-dLop is a promising radiotracer to study the function of P-gp at the blood-brain barrier, at which impaired function would allow increased uptake into the brain.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine 05/2009; 50(5):807-13. · 5.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 11C-Loperamide is an avid substrate for P-glycoprotein (P-gp), but it is rapidly metabolized to 11C-N-desmethyl-loperamide (11C-dLop), which is also a substrate for P-gp and thereby contaminates the radioactive signal in the brain. Should further demethylation of 11C-dLop occur, radiometabolites with low entry into the brain are generated. Therefore, we evaluated the ability of 11C-dLop to quantify the function of P-gp at the blood-brain barrier in monkeys. Six monkeys underwent 12 PET scans of the brain, 5 at baseline and 7 after pharmacologic blockade of P-gp. A subset of monkeys also underwent PET scans with 15O-water to measure cerebral blood flow. To determine whether P-gp blockade affected peripheral distribution of 11C-dLop, we measured whole-body biodistribution in 4 monkeys at baseline and after P-gp blockade. The concentration of 11C-dLop in the brain was low under baseline conditions and increased 5-fold after P-gp blockade. This increase was primarily caused by an increased rate of entry into the brain rather than a decreased rate of removal from the brain. With P-gp blockade, uptake of radioactivity among brain regions correlated linearly with blood flow, suggesting a high single-pass extraction. After correction for cerebral blood flow, the uptake of 11C-dLop was fairly uniform among brain regions, suggesting that the function of P-gp is fairly uniformly distributed in the brain. On whole-body imaging, P-gp blockade significantly affected distribution of radioactivity only to the brain and not to other visually identified source organs. The effective dose estimated for humans was approximately 9 microSv/MBq. PET with 11C-dLop can quantify P-gp function at the blood-brain barrier in monkeys. The single-pass extraction of 11C-dLop is high and requires correction for blood flow to accurately measure the function of this efflux transporter. The low uptake at baseline and markedly increased uptake after P-gp blockade suggest that 11C-dLop will be useful to measure a wide range of P-gp functions at the blood-brain barrier in humans.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine 01/2009; 50(1):108-15. · 5.77 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

331 Citations
157.00 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2013
    • National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
      • Molecular Imaging Branch
      Maryland, United States
  • 2009
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Center for Clinical Research
      Bethesda, MD, United States
  • 2008
    • Molecular Imaging Inc
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States