[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine the convenience of the quality of life and utility evaluation survey technology (QUEST) questionnaire and the frequency scale for the symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (FSSG) questionnaire as self-assessment diagnostic instrument.
This was a two-way crossover study conducted over 6 weeks from September 2010 to November 2010. The subjects were 60 consecutive patients admitted to the Hiratsuka city hospital with a gastrointestinal condition, regardless of the coexistence of heartburn. They were assigned to fill in both the QUEST and FSSG questionnaires in random order. We analyzed the time taken to complete the questionnaires, whether subjects asked any questions as they filled in the questionnaire, and the questionnaire scores.
Comparison of the QUEST and the FSSG revealed significant differences in the completion time (196.5 vs. 97.5 seconds, respectively; P < 0.0001) and in whether subjects asked any questions (37 vs. 15 subjects, respectively; P < 0.0001). Completion time in QUEST scores of ≥ 4 was lower than < 4 (170.5 vs. 214.0 seconds, respectively; P = 0.022), and the QUEST score was significantly higher without questions than with question (3 vs. 1 points, respectively; P = 0.025).
This study revealed that the FSSG questionnaire may be easier for Japanese subjects to complete than the QUEST questionnaire.
Journal of neurogastroenterology and motility 01/2013; 19(1):54-60.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Oral sumatriptan administration has been reported to delay gastric emptying after liquid meals. The aim of this study was to determine whether delayed gastric emptying is caused by enhanced gastric accommodation, impaired antral contractions, or both using ultrasonography. Methods Ten healthy volunteers were enrolled in this randomized two-way crossover study. After overnight fasting, the subjects received the liquid meal 60 min after ingesting a 50 mg sumatriptan tablet with 50 mL of water or 50 mL of water alone (control). The cross-sectional area of the proximal stomach was measured in a supine position after every 100 mL. The frequency and amplitude of the antral contractions were measured in a slightly backward sitting position. The intragastric distribution of the liquid meal was assessed by calculating the proximal stomach/distal stomach ratio (prox/distal ratio). Key Results The cross-sectional area after drinking 100, 200, and 300 mL of the liquid meal (oral sumatriptan vs control) was 34.49 vs 15.11 cm(2) (P = 0.0051), 48.00 vs 30.61 cm(2) (P = 0.0166), and 58.67 vs 47.19 cm(2) (P = 0.0125), respectively. There was no significant difference in the amplitude of contractions, contraction cycle, motility index, and prox/distal ratio (97.15 vs 97.93%, P = 0.0745; 19.42 vs 19.5 s, P = 0.8590; and 887.58 vs 889.22, P = 0.5751; 9.75 vs 8.41, P = 0.8785; respectively). Conclusions & Inferences Oral sumatriptan administration enhanced gastric accommodation after the ingestion of liquid nutrients, but had no significant effect on antral contractions or intragastric distribution in healthy subjects.
Neurogastroenterology and Motility 08/2012; · 2.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the effect of oral sumatriptan on gastric emptying using a continuous ¹³C breath test (BreathID system).
Ten healthy male volunteers participated in this randomized, 2-way crossover study. The subjects fasted overnight and were randomly assigned to receive a test meal (200 kcal/200 mL) 30 min after pre-medication with sumatriptan 50 mg (sumatriptan condition), or the test meal alone (control condition). Gastric emptying was monitored for 4 h after administration of the test meal by the ¹³C-acetic acid breath test performed continually using the BreathID system. Then, using Oridion Research Software (β version), the time taken for emptying of 50% of the labeled meal (T(1/2)) similar to the scintigraphy lag time for 10% emptying of the labeled meal (T(lag)), the gastric emptying coefficient (GEC), and the regression-estimated constants (β and κ) were calculated. The statistical significance of any differences in the parameters were analyzed using Wilcoxon's signed-rank test.
In the sumatriptan condition, significant differences compared with the control condition were found in T(1/2) [median 131.84 min (range, 103.13-168.70) vs 120.27 min (89.61-138.25); P = 0.0016], T(lag) [median 80.085 min (59.23-125.89) vs 61.11 min (39.86-87.05); P = 0.0125], and β [median 2.3374 (1.6407-3.8209) vs 2.0847 (1.4755-2.9269); P = 0.0284]. There were no significant differences in the GEC or κ between the 2 conditions.
This study showed that oral sumatriptan significantly delayed gastric emptying of a liquid meal.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 07/2012; 18(26):3415-9. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is an intractable disease in which clinical symptoms of intestinal obstruction appear without mechanical cause. No clear diagnostic criteria have been established; therefore, we proposed diagnostic criteria to facilitate the diagnosis of this rare disease and aim to evaluate their usefulness and validity.
A questionnaire was sent to 378 institutions belonging to the Japanese Society of Gastroenterology between December 2009 and February 2010. We summarized the returned data and performed a statistical analysis.
A total of 160 cases were included, and 141 cases (88.1%) fulfilled the criterion of disease duration of >6 months, 157 cases (98.1%) the criterion of the clinical symptoms of abdominal pain and/or bloating and 154 cases (96.2%) fulfilled the criterion of imaging findings. Eventually, 138 cases (86.3%) fulfilled all criteria.
The proposed diagnostic criteria were useful, with a high sensitivity of 86.3% for Japanese patients. Improved recognition of CIPO and practical use of the criteria are desired. The criteria should be appropriately modified by additional researchers to make them more practical and internationally applicable.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: Effectiveness of gastric emptying after pylorus-preserving gastrectomy (PPG) remains unclear and a method for continuous assessment is needed. We assessed post-PPG gastric emptying with a continuous real-time 13C breath test (BreathID system, Oridion, Israel). Methodology: Gastric emptying function was assessed by 13C breath test in 12 post-PPG patients and 9 post-distal gastrectomy (DG) patients. Continuous 13C-acetic acid breath test was performed using the BreathID system. Endoscopic study was also completed. Results: Diarrhea was significantly less common in PPG than DG patients (p=0.021). No other questionnaire items and endoscopic findings showed a significant difference. In the 13C-acetic acid breath test, the gastric emptying coefficient (GEC) was significantly greater in PPG than DG patients (p=0.025). No other test parameters showed a significant difference. Conclusions: Emptying function in the remnant stomach was assessed successfully by the continuous 13C-acetic acid breath test. A greater GEC suggested better gastric emptying in PPG patients.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ideal medication for the treatment of acid-related diseases, e.g., peptic ulcers, stress-related gastric bleeding, functional dyspepsia, and gastroesophageal reflux disease, should have a rapid onset of action to promote hemostasis and relieve the symptoms. The aim of our study was to investigate the inhibitory effects on gastric acid secretion of a single oral administration of a proton pump inhibitor, omeprazole 20 mg, and an H(2)-receptor antagonist, roxatidine 75 mg.
Ten Helicobacter pylori-negative male subjects participated in this randomized, two-way crossover study. Intragastric pH was monitored continuously for 6 h after single oral administration of omeprazole 20 mg and roxatidine 75 mg. Each administration was separated by a 7-d washout period.
During the 6-h study period, the average pH after administration of roxatidine was higher than that after administration of omeprazole (median: 4.45 vs. 2.65; P=0.0367). Also during the 6-h study period, a longer duration of maintenance at pH above 2, 5, and 6 was observed after administration of roxatidine 75 mg than after administration of omeprazole 20 mg (median: 90.6% vs. 55.2%, P=0.0284; 43.7% vs. 10.6%, P=0.0125; 40.3% vs. 3.3%, P=0.0125; respectively).
In Helicobacter pylori-negative healthy male subjects, oral administration of roxatidine 75 mg increased the intragastric pH more rapidly than that of omeprazole 20 mg.
Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B 01/2012; 13(1):29-34. · 1.11 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The administration of liquid nutrients to patients is often accompanied by complications such as gastroesophageal reflux. To prevent gastroesophageal reflux, high-viscosity liquid meals are used widely, however, it still remains controversial whether high-viscosity liquid meals have any effect on the rate of gastric emptying. The present study was conducted with the aim of determining whether high-viscosity liquid meals had any effect on the rate of gastric emptying and mosapride might accelerate the rate of gastric emptying of high-viscosity liquid meals.
Six healthy male volunteers underwent 3 tests at intervals of > 1 week. After fasting for > 8 hours, each subject received one of three test meals (liquid meal only, high-viscosity liquid meal [liquid meal plus pectin] only, or high-viscosity liquid meal 30 minutes after intake of mosapride). A (13)C-acetic acid breath test was performed, which monitored the rate of gastric emptying for 4 hours. Using the Oridion Research Software (β version), breath test parameters were calculated. The study parameters were examined for all the 3 test conditions and compared using the Freidman test.
Gastric emptying was significantly delayed following intake of a high-viscosity liquid meal alone as compared with a liquid meal alone; however, intake of mosapride prior to a high-viscosity liquid meal was associated with a significantly accelerated rate of gastric emptying as compared with a high-viscosity liquid meal alone.
This study showed that high-viscosity liquid meals delayed gastric emptying: however, mosapride recovered the delayed rate of gastric emptying by high-viscosity liquid meals.
Journal of neurogastroenterology and motility 10/2011; 17(4):395-401.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: Before the introduction of capsule endoscopy and double-balloon endoscopy, there were no effective modalities for reliable evaluation of the small bowel. Recently, the SmartPill, a wireless pH/ pressure recording capsule, has been utilized to measure the whole gut transit time. However, there are few studies on the small bowel pH. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between small bowel disease and the small bowel pH, we designed a new modality, the 'pH capsule', to non-invasively record sequential images and the pH. Methodology: Ten healthy male volunteers swallowed the 'pH capsule' with 50mL of water. The 'pH capsule' transmitted the acquired images and the pH to the recorder unit located outside the body for about ten hours while the subject was fasting. Results: All subjects completed this study. The intragastric pH was low and the pH in the whole small intestine was 7.61, 7.55: 7.2-8.1 (mean, median: range). The pH value increased from the duodenum to the terminal ileum (p<0.0001). Conclusions: We could non-invasively monitor sequential images and the pH of the small intestine with this new modality. The 'pH capsule' is expected to become a valuable tool for clinical assessment of the small bowel.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of Histamine-2 receptor antagonists and proton pump inhibitors on the gastrointestinal motility have not yet been sufficiently investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of intravenous bolus administration of famotidine and omeprazole on the rate of gastric emptying using the continuous (13)C breath test (BreathID system, Exalenz Bioscience Ltd, Israel).
Twelve healthy male volunteers participated in this randomized, 3-way crossover study. After fasting overnight, the subjects were randomly assigned to receive 20 mg of famotidine, 20 mg of omeprazole or 20 mL of saline alone by intravenous bolus injection before a test meal (200 kcal per 200 mL, containing 100 mg of (13)C-acetate). Gastric emptying was monitored for 4 hours after the ingestion of test meal by the (13)C-acetic acid breath test performed using the BreathID system.
No significant differences in the calculated parameters, namely, the T(1/2), T(lag), GEC, β and κ, were observed among the 3 test conditions.
The study revealed that intravenous administration of gastric acid suppressant drugs had no significant influence on the rate of gastric emptying in comparison with that of saline alone as a placebo. Our results indicating the absence of any effect of either famotidine or omeprazole on accelerating the rate of gastric emptying suggest that both medications can be administered safely to patients suffering from hemorrhagic peptic ulcers who need to be kept nil by mouth from the viewpoint of possible acceleration of gastrointestinal motility in the clinical setting.
Journal of neurogastroenterology and motility 07/2011; 17(3):287-93.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A hamartomatous polyp without associated mucocutaneous pigmentation or a family history of Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome is diagnosed as a solitary Peutz-Jeghers type hamartomatous polyp. As compared with Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome, Peutz-Jeghers type hamartomatous polyps are diagnosed with a lower risk of cancer and are regarded as a different disorder.
In case one, we describe an 84-year-old Japanese man with a 14 mm duodenal polyp. Endoscopic mucosal resection was performed and histological examination showed findings suggestive of a hamartomatous polyp with a focus of well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. In case two, we describe a 76-year-old Japanese man who had been treated for prostate, rectal and lung cancer. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a duodenal polyp measuring 15 mm in diameter. Endoscopic mucosal resection was performed, and histological examination showed findings suggestive of a hamartomatous polyp. Liver and thyroid cancers were found after the endoscopic treatment.
Although duodenal solitary hamartomatous polyps are associated with a lower risk of cancer, four patients, including our cases, have been diagnosed with cancerous polyps. Patients with duodenal solitary hamartomatous polyps should be treated by endoscopic or surgical resection and need whole-body screening.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Few studies have investigated measures to prevent small bowel injuries induced by aspirin. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of probiotic treatment on the small bowel injuries induced by chronic low-dose aspirin use.
Thirty-five patients who took low-dose enteric-coated aspirin 100 mg daily (for more than 3 months) plus omeprazole 20 mg daily and were diagnosed as having unexplained iron deficiency anemia participated in this prospective randomized controlled trial. We assigned the patients to receive probiotic treatment with Lactobacillus casei for 3 months (L. casei group) or not receive the probiotic (control group). Patients underwent capsule endoscopy (CE) before and after treatment.
Twenty-five patients, including 13 in the L. casei group and 12 in the control group, underwent the full analysis. Significant decreases in the number of mucosal breaks and the CE score were observed at the 3-month evaluation in the L. casei group as compared with the results in the control group (P = 0.039). The change from the baseline in the median number of mucosal breaks in the L. casei group was -2, as compared with 0.5 in the control group. The change from the baseline in the median CE score in the L. casei group was -228 compared with -4 in the control group (P = 0.026).
Co-administration of L. casei is effective for the treatment of aspirin-associated small bowel injury.
Journal of Gastroenterology 05/2011; 46(7):894-905. · 3.79 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pretreatment with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) reportedly decreases the efficacy of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication, however, the effect of pretreatment with an H2 receptor antagonist (H2RA) on H. pylori eradication has not yet been studied. We compared the efficacy of eradication regimen (lansoprazole/amoxicillin/clarithromycin) in patients with H. pylori infection with or without H2RA pretreatment.
In this retrospective study conducted at three centers, 310 patients with H. pylori infection were treated. The diagnosis of H. pylori infection was made using the rapid urease test, bacterial cultures and histological examination of endoscopic biopsy specimens. The patients were assigned to receive an eradication regimen first or following pretreatment with H2RA. Eradication was assessed using the 13C-urea breath test more than 4 weeks after the completion of therapy.
Overall, H. pylori was eradicated in 79.7% of the cases: the eradication rate was 81.6% in the pretreatment group, and 77.6% in the eradication first group (p=0.3799, chi-square test). No significant difference in the eradication rate was observed between the two groups.
Pretreatment with H2RA had no significant influence on the efficacy of H. pylori eradication therapy.
Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research 05/2011; 17(5):CR235-40. · 1.36 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Capsule endoscopy is limited by the poor image quality of the distal bowel and incomplete small bowel transit. The aim of this study was to establish an optimal medication protocol for capsule endoscopy performed using a real-time viewer.
A total of 80 patients were prospectively recruited. The patients were randomized into two groups: the 'conventional group' (without any preparation) and the 'real-time group' (in which a real-time viewer was attached). At 60 min after swallowing the capsule, if the capsule had reached the small bowel, 500 ml of polyethylene glycol was administered; if the capsule was still located in the stomach, 10 mg of metoclopramide was given intramuscularly, followed by 500 ml of polyethylene glycol solution.
The completion rate was significantly higher in the real-time group as compared with that in the conventional group (72.5 vs. 90.0%). Our protocol yielded a significantly improved image quality of the distal small bowel [image quality score = 1.6 vs. 3.0 (max 4.0)]. The detection rate of lesions in the distal small bowel was higher in the real-time group than in the conventional group.
The present study clearly showed that our protocol yielded an improved completion rate and also improved image quality.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are few reports on the correlation between chewing gum and the gastrointestinal functions. But previous report showed use of chewing gum to be an effective method for controlling gastrointestinal symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between chewing gum and gastric emptying using the continuous real time (13)C breath test (BreathID system).
Ten healthy male volunteers participated in this randomized, 2-way crossover study. The subjects fasted overnight and were randomly assigned to chewing gum (Xylish, 2-3/1 tablet) for an hour following intake of a test meal (200 kcal/200 mL) or intake of the test meal alone. Gastric emptying was monitored for 4 hours after administration of the test meal by the (13)C-acetic acid breath test performed continually using the BreathID system.
No significant differences in the calculated parameters, namely, T(1/2) (median, 111.82 vs 109.26 minutes; P = 0.575), T(lag) (median, 53.28 vs 56.53 minutes; P = 0.333), gastric emptying coefficient (median, 3.58 vs 3.65; P = 0.285), regression-estimated constant β (median, 1.85 vs 1.80; P = 0.575) and regression-estimated constant κ (median, 0.61 vs 0.62; P = 0.959) were observed between the test meal alone group and the test meal and chewing gum group.
This study showed that chewing gum had no effect on the rate of gastric emptying. Therefore, since chewing gum did not enhance the speed of gastric emptying, it may ameliorate gastrointestinal symptoms through other mechanisms, such as saliva and autonomic nervous system.
Journal of neurogastroenterology and motility 04/2011; 17(2):174-9.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the correlation between domperidone and gastric emptying using the continuous real time 13C breath-test (BreathID system), a novel non-invasive technique for measuring gastric emptying.
Six healthy male volunteers participated in this randomized, two-way crossover study. Subjects fasted overnight and were randomly assigned to receive a test meal (400kcal per 400mL) 30 minutes after intake of domperidone (10mg) with 50 mL of water or intake of 50 mL of water alone. Gastric emptying was monitored for 4h after administration of the test meal by 13C-acetic acid breath test continually performed using the BreathID system. The time taken for emptying of 50% of the labeled meals (T1/2), the analog to the scintigraphy lag time for 10% emptying of the labeled meal (T lag), the gastric emptying coefficient (GEC), and the regression-estimated constants (beta and kappa) were calculated. Differences in the parameters measured at two time-points were analyzed using the Wilcoxon's signed-rank test.
No significant differences in calculated parameters (T lag, T1/2, GEC, beta or kappa) were observed between the treated and non-treated groups.
This study showed that domperidone had no effect on gastric emptying. The drug ameliorates nausea and vomiting via its antagonic activity against dopamine receptor. Therefore, domperidone probably ameliorates nausea through other mechanisms.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the majority of patients with Mallory-Weiss syndrome (MWS) have a benign course, in some patients MWS results in a fatal outcome. Therefore, this study was carried out to analyze the risk factors for mortality in patients with MWS.
The medical records of patients with MWS seen between March 1994 and July 2007 were reviewed retrospectively. The demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory parameters, and endoscopic findings of the patients were analyzed and the risk factors for mortality were evaluated.
A total of ninety-three patients (13 female and 80 male patients; median age, 53 years) were treated. The mortality rate was 9.7% (9/93). The patients with a fatal outcome were of advanced age and had a higher frequency of shock on arrival, lower hemoglobin level, more prolonged prothrombin time, higher AST and ALT levels, higher frequency of detection of exposed vessels on endoscopy, higher frequency of rebleeding, longer hospital stay, and required a larger volume of blood transfusion than those who did not have a fatal outcome. According to the results of a multivariate analysis, the significant risk factors for mortality in the MWS patients were advanced age (OR 1.222, 95% CI 1.015-1.028), very low hemoglobin level (OR 2.137, 95% CI 1.063-4.295), elevated AST level (OR 1.007, 95% CI 1.001-1.013), and presence of the clinical symptom of tarry stool (OR 45.45, 95% CI 1.080-1000).
Intensive care with close monitoring is required for patients of advanced age with a low hemoglobin level, an elevated AST level, and the clinical symptom of tarry stool, since these are of prognostic importance in terms of the mortality in MWS patients.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the changes in the clinical parameters during intragastric balloon therapy for Japanese obese patients.
Between March 2009 and September 2010, 8 patients underwent intragastric balloon therapy at our hospital. The visceral fat area, liver volume and the liver-spleen ratio were measured by computed tomography. Blood examination and computerized tomography were performed before the balloon placement, and at 1, 3 and 6 months after the balloon placement in all of the patients.
Eight patients (5 males and 3 females, median age, 39 years; median BMI, 44.0 kg/m(2)) underwent intragastric balloon therapy without severe complications. The median weight loss was 8.6 kg, mean BMI loss was 2.8 kg/m(2), and the percent excess weight loss was 14.8% at 6 months after the balloon placement. The body weight and liver volume decreased significantly during the first month, and the results were maintained at the same levels until after the second month. The liver-spleen ratio also improved significantly during the first month, but worsened again during the last 3 months. The visceral fat area showed no significant differences during the treatment as well as no differences in liver enzymes, glucose and lipid metabolism.
Intragastric balloon therapy achieved a moderate effect in weight and liver volume reduction during the early months of the treatment. Intragastric balloon therapy may have a role as a minimally invasive method for pretreatment before laparoscopic surgery.
Internal Medicine 01/2011; 50(21):2449-55. · 0.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 19-year-old Japanese male with a BMI of 55.4 kg/m(2) who also had liver dysfunction, dyslipidemia and hyperuricemia underwent repeated intragastric balloon therapy. The percent excess weight loss was 22.5% at the first balloon removal and 28.6% at the second balloon removal. The hepatic dysfunction resolved after the second balloon therapy, however, the dyslipidemia and hyperuricemia did not improve. The Japanese population is regarded as a high-risk race for obesity-related diseases at lower BMI values, and morbidly obese Japanese patients may need more serious weight reduction protocols to improve the comorbidities than similarly obese Americans or Europeans.
Internal Medicine 01/2011; 50(2):109-12. · 0.97 Impact Factor